“Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress” (pp. 1-11) 1. According to Zinn, what is his main purpose for writing A People’s History of the United States? To tell history from the viewpoint of the victims and not overlooking what the country has done to become what they are today. It includes the cruelty and hardships the people had to go through. 2. What is Zinn’s thesis for pages 1-11? He will be as blunt as he can to show what history has hidden from people.
To tell history from the victim’s point of view, thus the title, a people’s history. . According to Zinn, how is Columbus portrayed in traditional history books? He is portrayed as a hero for discovering the United States. They barely mention in detail what happened to the Indians and what they had to go through,. All that matters is that he discovered the land that is called America now. They justify what was done. 4. Why does Zinn dispute Henry’s Kissinger’s statement: “History is the memory of states? ” Kissinger’s statement came from a the leaders’ point of view.
The people who won. Zinn wants to show history through the minds of the nations and communities that lost.If history is seen through the state’s point of view, it is neglecting the viewpoint of the victims. 5. What is Zinn’s basic criticism of historian Samuel Eliot Morison’s book, Christopher Columbus, Mariner? Columbus used Christ as an excuse to continue his cruelty towards the Natives.
The only thing that was pure about him was his seamanship. 6. What major issues does Bartolome de las Casas bring up regarding Spanish expeditions in the Caribbean? He describes what the Spanish expeditions are doing to the Native Americans who live in the area. He also wrote about how the Natives used to live before the Spanish came.He describes their cruelty and how inhumane it is. 7. Identify one early and one subsequent motive that drove Columbus to oppress indigenous peoples. He wanted slaves and gold to keep his promise to the King and Queen of Spain because they promised him 10% of their profits, govern the land he found, and gain the title “Admiral of the Ocean Sea. ” 8. What was the ultimate fate of the Arawak Indians? They were taken prisoner, slaved, killed, or raped. They tried to resist by fighting, but they couldn’t stand up to the Spanish military, so they started mass suicides by eating cassava poison.It led to severe depopulation because the mothers would kill their child to save them from the Spaniards. Their overall population went from the thousands, to mere hundreds. Chapter 1: “Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress” (pp. 2-22) 1. Compare the strategies and motives underlying the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortez and the conquest of the Incas by Pizzaro. Cortez tricked the Aztecs into believing he was their long lost God, Quetzalcoatl, into giving him mountains of gold and silver. Pizzaro did something similar, and for the same reasons, for gold, silver, and slaves to finance their country. . What were the major causes of war between the Powhatans and the English settlers? One of the causes was when the settlers killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned down their houses, stole their food, and killed the tribe queen and her kids. Their only reason was because the Indians took in starving settlers who stayed with the Indians by choice. They finally declared war when the Indians decided to wipe out the growing English settlers, killing 347 of them. 3. Discuss the significance of Powhatan’s statement, “Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Powhatan’s statement meant that he didn’t want this war, he wanted a quiet and peaceful life with his family. He is willing to give the settlers what they want, and provide them food, in exchange for a peaceful life. 4. Explain Governor John Winthrop’s legal and biblical justification for seizing Indian land. The Indians only had a natural right to their land, and not a civil right. Also, as long as it was God’s will, then those who resisted will be killed. 5. According to Roger Williams, how did the English usually justify their attacks on the Indians? They usually come up with an excuse that said that they were defending themselves. . What ultimately happened to the estimated 10 million Indians living in North America at the time of Columbus’ arrival? It was reduced to less than a million. 7. Evaluate the statement: “If there are sacrifices to be made for human progress, it is not essential to hold to the principle that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? ” The people who are being sacrificed for human progress should be the ones to make the decisions themselves. How would they feel about it? Is it okay for them to die for something that they don’t think is necessary?Do they think it is necessary? If I ask a random stranger or a child to die for human progress, they would outright refuse. However cruel it is, these hardships are justified because it was for human progress. 8. How does Zinn attempt to prove that the Indians were not inferior? Provide examples. He didn’t want call them Indians, since it was the name that the conquerors has given them, namely Columbus. But then he states how amazing it was for them to migrate thousands of miles from Asia to America, creating hundreds of different cultures, and two thousand languages.Then he stated how they perfected the art of agriculture, cultivating corn, and develop variety of vegetables, fruits, and create peanuts, chocolate, tobacco, and rubber. They were also able to create canals, dams, ceramics, baskets, forts, and clothes. He greatly mentioned how smart they were as well, staying in groups, dividing labor, creating houses and villages. When compared to the English, they were much kinder, and very courteous. Women were also treated respectfully. Chapter 2: “Drawing the Color Line” 1. According to Zinn, what is the root of racism in America?When the first black people settled into Virginia, they were considered servants, an inferior status. When slavery became more popular, racial feelings began from “hatred, or contempt, or pity, or patronization. ” 2. Why were Africans considered “better” slaves than Indians in Virginia? The Indians were at their home country, they can easily run away and find shelter and food if they did. They were strong, resourceful, and defiant towards being enslaved. 3. How did 16th century Africa compare to 16th century Europe politically, economically, and militarily? Their military were far too vulnerable against the European guns and ships.Their culture was thought to be easily destroyed. But the actual civilization was advanced in its own way. They were skilled farmers, weavers, ceramicists, and artists. Some kingdoms were stable and organized. 4. How did slavery in Africa differ from slavery in Europe and the Americas? African slaves in Africa are treated like serfs in Europe and America. The slaves were treated harshly, but slaves in Africa weren’t treated as harshly as slaves in Europe. But they could not draw blood. When Africans came to Europe became slaves, they had no rights or hope for any kind of future. 5.Describe the conditions that slaves on ships coming to America (“Middle Passage”) The Africans were packed into slave ships, at the very bottom of the ship. They were chained together and had to smell their own wastes. The space was so tight, some couldn’t even move, and they could barely breathe. Some are driven to the point of killing others so that they could breathe, some would drown themselves to end their suffering. Even though many died on the trip, the slave traders’ profit was high, and didn’t care. 6. What was the position of the Catholic Church in Portugal vis-a-vis slavery?Slavery was legal by church doctrine. 7. In terms of morality, what was the cost of slavery? Compassion of human nature. 8. What was the relationship between slavery and the plantation system? Slavery grew when the plantation system grew. 9. What evidence exists that America’s slaves did not accept their fate easily? From the very beginning, they resisted being taken away from their home. Even through two centuries of being hunted, enslaved, mutilated, humiliated, etc, they continued to resist. Usually, they run away, other times they refuse, or show some sign of resistance to keep their dignity as human beings.They even taught the Indians disobedience. When enslaved, they would pretend to be sick, “destroyed crops, stores, tools, and sometimes attacked or killed overseers. ” They had a black market of things they had stolen, those who ran away became fugitives, some would return, some would try leaving the country, and some would band together and create a small villages or hide-outs in the wilderness. 10. Why did slave owners fear poor whites? They feared that the discontent poor whites would actually join the black slaves. The poor whites and slaves both wanted reconstruction of the legal system.Chapter 3: “Persons of Mean and Vile Condition” 1. What is Zinn’s thesis in this chapter? The internal conflicts of the new state had many phases, the one explained in this chapter were of the slaves, servants, and discontent people who wanted changes. 2. What was the underlying cause of Bacon’s Rebellion? Bacon’s discontent towards the government, and it’s need for redress. He wanted as much followers as he could, and convinced many people to join his cause. To get it, he even put some brandy to lighten the mood for them to sign a paper. 3. What was the “double motive” of the Virginia government vis-a-vis Bacon’s Rebellion?One was to redress the Virginia government, and also, to go to war against the Indians. The Indians were making them work much harder to provide for the war. 4. What groups of people took part in Bacon’s Rebellion? A mixture of slaves, servants, free men, and some Englishmen. 5. Explain indentured servitude (also known as the “head right system”). Those who went to America, either by force or by their own decision, needed a type of sponsor, a master, to pay for the trip. In return, that person had to go to America and serve that master for a set amount of years and create a profit for them in the new lands. 6.How did the voyage of indentured servants to America compare with the “Middle Passage. ” They were also packed into small spaces, stuck there for weeks. Sometimes, they would run out of food, and sometimes they would die of diseases. 7. What generally happened to indentured servants after they became free? They had to constantly prove that they were free. Some became important and successful and become landowners. Others would become artisans or overseers. But most aren’t that fortunate, they would end up living on the streets as poor people or die. 8. To what extent did a class structure emerge in America by 1700?The rich has all the land, money, and council seat. The poor barely had anything. In the 1700s, the distinction between the rich and the poor were obvious. They created a poor house, work house, and house of correction. The gap between the rich and the poor continued to grow. 9. Explain the statement: “The country therefore was not “born free” but born slave and free, servant and master, tenant and landlord, poor and rich. ” The country was not free due to America being under control of England, serving as a master-servant type, with England being master.The country was born through the rich and poor coming together during the Revolution. 10. How did the rich manage to keep Indians “at a distance? ” They slowly inch their property towards their land, little by little, forcing the Indians to move. But the actual people who are in danger are the poor who are sent out towards the west, with the protection of the government. Therefore, they can start a small war against the Indians, or start a big one. 11. Explain the statement: “racism was becoming more and more practical. ” Racism soon became a natural thing to do back in those days.Since the court continuously widened the difference between how the white servants and black servants were being treated. Chapter 4: “Tyranny is Tyranny” 1. What is the thesis of this chapter? The creation of the United States was a huge step forward in history, but like any country, they suffered from some kind of internal conflict, one of the major ones being the large gap between the rich and poor. 2. According to Zinn, how did the creation of the United States benefit the upper class? They gained wealth with how much they were importing and exporting. England greatly depended on the United States. . Why were both Loyalists and leaders of the Revolution concerned about the lower classes in Philadelphia? They were concerned that they would start riots. In the mid 1700s, the poor people would attack the houses of the rich and steal their belongings as a way to revolt against the unfair treatment of the government. 4. According to Zinn, who was Paine really represent? He represented the “urban artisans” who wanted a central government. He wanted to unite the people. 5. What groups of Americans were deprived of the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence? Indians, black slaves, women. ” They considered Indians as savaged people who steal and kill the inhabitants of the towns. They considered black slaves as servants, nothing more, they don’t need rights and such. Women just didn’t have respect as they do now. 6. What is the irony Zinn tries to convey concerning John Locke? The philosophy that the Declaration of Independence had that was Locke’s was “to secure their life, liberty” and “property,” although they put “pursuit of happiness” instead of the property part. It’s very ironic because Locke was not poor, he was wealthy.He already have a steady income in life, he was in the higher class who had more rights, and already had plenty of property. 7. Explain the statement: “Tyranny is Tyranny let it come from whom it may. ” The people mean that no matter what you do, they will always be controlled somehow. It is seen all throughout history, those with power will become corrupt. Tyrants are typically wealthy people, and they can always pay to get out of war, which leaves the poor people to do their work. The poor always suffer from they tyranny of the wealthy. Chapter 5: “A Kind of Revolution” – Part I (pp. 76 – 88) 1.What support did the Revolutionary War effort have among the colonial population? Around a third of the population opposed to the Revolution, a third who supported, and the rest was neutral. Even so, at least the fifth of the population were supportive of Britain. 2. What impact did slavery have on the war effort in the South? “Slavery got in the way in the South. ” The constant slave uprisings kept their military busy in the South. 3. What incentives did the Revolutionary War leaders use to attract recruits? The promises of being able to rise the ranks and make money for themselves or have money for after the war.They could also acquire a higher social status. 4. What was the British strategy concerning slavery in the South? The British promised freedom to the slaves in the South if they joined his forces. 5. How is the general perception that the Revolution engendered the separation of church and state challenged by Zinn? The state was not separated from the church at all, some states actually forced everyone to take on Christianity. 6. How did land confiscated from Loyalists reflect the Revolution’s effort on class relations? Class relations did not really change, but it gave land to the farmers. . How does Edmund S. Morgan’s summary of the class nature of the Revolution challenge the popular perception of the Revolution and its ideals? How does Richard Morris’ statement also challenge popular perception? Morgan’s perception of the Revolution was a power struggle, to raise social status between those in the upper class. Morris’s views were inequality, the people who gain something from it are the white people, not the slaves, the poor, Indians, or women. 8. Explain Carl Degler’s assertion that “no new social class came to power throughout the door of the American revolution. The Revolution did not bring about a new social structure, it was still the rich, the poor, and some in between. The people who started the Revolution were still at the head of America, they were still some of the wealthiest people in the State. 9 . What was the impact of America’s victory on the Native Americans? The Native Americans were constantly losing their land. Even though some were allied with the French, they still took their land, therefore, the Native Americans wanted them out, and started conflict. 10.Explain Jennings’ statement: The Revolution was a “multiplicity of variously oppressed and exploited peoples who preyed upon each other. ” There were multiple things happening during the Revolution. This was mostly due to land disputes. While the Natives fought the colonists, the colonists fought with the British. Eventually the Natives fought with the British as the colonists were losing their land to the Natives. Chapter 5: “A Kind of Revolution” – Part II (pp. 88 – 101) 1. What is Charles Beard’s thesis in An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution vis-a-vis the Founding Fathers and the creation of the Constitution?The rich are the ones that are controlling the government for their own personal gain. The things written in the Constitution is mostly for the advantage of the rich. He basically believes that it was made by the rich for the rich since the people who wrote the constitution all had favorable economic backgrounds. The Constitution did not include the rights of the “slaves, indentured servants, women, men without property. And so the Constitution did not reflect the interests of those groups. ” 2. What was Daniel Shays’ objective? For the Constitution to be fair.He wanted for people to be free of debt by putting in paper money. 3. What was Thomas Jefferson’s view of popular uprisings? Contrast his view with those of the established leadership. Jefferson believes that uprisings are actually healthy for society. He believes that every uprising brings about a change, refreshing the country. 4. Why does Zinn state that democracy’s problem in post-Revolutionary America was not primarily due to Constitutional limitations on voting? He believes that it’s due to the “division of society into rich and poor. The rich already has so many things, voting is just one of the things that the rich has, they already have education, money, newspaper, etc. 5. Why does Zinn assert that despite party differences among Federalist and Democratic-Republicans they were both fundamentally similar? They both wanted to unite to share their prosperity. They both expected to have a agreement with compromises. 6. How does Zinn characterize the Constitution’s compromises? To unite the thirteen states, both the North’s interest in money, and the South’s interest in slaveholding, they compromised so that all the states can prosper. 7.How does the Constitution illustrate the complexity of the American system? The American system shows that the Constitution are helpful to the rich. The Constitution is enough for middle classed people, and small property owners, and some farmers. They do this for unity. 8. How does the Constitution contract clause or tax clause favor rich over poor? The Constitution will protect the actual contractor, which is the rich. Meanwhile the poor is weak under the law, and cannot do anything if they are forced to do what the contract specified. 9. How does Zinn argue the First Amendment is not as stable as one might assume?The Sedition Act of 1798 said that it is illegal to write anything that is “false, scandalous and malicious” which kind of ironic when the First Amendment is freedom of speech. 10. How does Zinn contrast the government’s enforcement of the First Amendment and the power to tax? The First Amendment can be used during court, and the person can freely say whatever he wanted, but afterwards, they can be arrested or legally punish the speaker afterwards, or the writer. So the First Amendment actually has a lot of faults, even though it seems like a favorable rule. 11.How does Zinn refute Bernard Bailyn’s view of the creation of the Constitution. Bailyn wished that the Constitution had balance in power. But the founding fathers actually did not want that, they wanted to keep as much power as they could to themselves. But Bailyn wanted equal balance between everyone, including slaves, Indians, women, and the poor. Chapter 7: “As Long as Grass Grows or Water Runs” 1. What is the major theme (recurring idea) in this chapter. The major theme was the Native Americans trying to survive with the pressure of the Americans moving westward, taking their land, raids, and diseases. 2.What evidence does Zinn cite to illustrate the overall impact of Indian removal? He cited “Michael Rogin’s Fathers and Children. ” It tells statistics on how much the Americans increased in fifty years, and their migration towards the West. There were also statistics on how many Indians were living in the area, and how much the population decreased. 3. Contrast Thomas Jefferson’s views as Secretary of State concerning Indian policy with those during his presidency. Why did his views change? When Jefferson was Secretary of State, he was fine with the Indians having their land since they lived there long before any American.He didn’t want anyone to bother them. But when he became president, with the pressure he was getting from the people, he took their land. 4. How does Andrew Jackson’s early political/military career foreshadow his Indian policies as President? Even before Jackson became president, he already thought of Indians as a nuisance, and wanted to get rid of them. 5. How does Zinn’s view of the War of 1812 contrast with traditional histories? Zinn believes that war wasn’t necessary, it was just to take land. 6. Explain Zinn’s view of Arthur Schlesinger’s The Age of Jackson and Marvin Meyers’ The Jacksonian Persuasion.He believes that the book mostly explains Jackson’s good views, it makes him look like a very good guy. The book doesn’t include what he did to the Indians. It only talks about his economic and political successes. 7. To what extent did the Cherokee nation change its culture in order to survive within the U. S? The Cherokee had to change location, culture, heritage, and even religion to survive. They even started to own slaves and welcomed missionaries and Christianity. Even though they did this, the whites still wouldn’t accept them. 8. To what extent does Zinn juxtapose the Nullification Controversy of 1832 and the enforcement?