Psychological Testing November 12, 2010 A. List of Tests for infants, young children, handicapped and Special populations SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL ABILITY TESTS Braselton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS) The scale enables parents, health care professionals, and researchers to understand a newborn’s language, as well as individual strengths and needs in depth. The BNAS assesses various behaviors of infants until two months of age and takes about thirty minutes to administer.
This assessment evaluates four main areas, including the infants’ ability to monitor their own breathing, temperature, and other bodily systems; control their motor movements; maintain an appropriate level of consciousness, which ranges from quiet sleep to a full cry; and interact socially with parents and other caregivers.
The purpose of the BNAS is to help professionals assess the infant’s pattern of response to the environment and then assist parents with strategies to build a positive relationship with their infant. Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS)
Evaluates the physical, emotional, and behavioral development of infants and young children.
The Development Schedules are a set of four timetables devised by Arnold Gesell (1880-1961) at Yale University to evaluate the physical, emotional, and behavioral development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. They describe typical behavior at specified ages in the following areas: ability to adapt; motor functioning; use of language; and social interaction. The Development Schedules are useful to pediatricians, child psychologists, and other professionals who work with children.
They also serve as the basis for evaluating a child’s performance on the Gesell tests. The Preschool Test, which is administered individually to children between the ages of 2? and 6, consists of a variety of tasks and activities.
Oral sections measure language skills, attention span, and accuracy of personal knowledge. Besides talking about themselves and their families, children are asked to name animals and discuss their favorite activities. A paper-and-pencil section assesses dominance, neuromuscular development, fine motor skills, and task-appropriate behavior.
Children are asked to write their names, copy geometric figures, write numbers, and complete a drawing. A building-block section, which involves building increasingly complex structures with a set of cubes, measures fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination, and attention span. Other tasks included in the Preschool Test are repeating numbers, recognizing shapes, and discriminating among prepositions. The Gesell School Readiness Test, used for screening older children (ages 4? o 9) for placement in kindergarten through third grade, consists of the Preschool Test plus additional tasks including visual exercises, matching and drawing tests, and a labeling and naming exercise to assess right and left orientation. A child’s performance on the Gesell tests is evaluated based on the Development Schedules, and he or she is assigned an overall “development age” (DA). Although the Gesell test and schedules are widely used, critics claim that children with undiagnosed visual or other perceptual problems can be assigned disproportionately low DAs and be penalized in terms of school placement.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development – Second Edition (BSID II) Long the standard of excellence for evaluating the development of young children, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development®—Second Edition (BSID–II) offers a standardized assessment of cognitive and motor development for children ages 1 month through 42 months. BSID–II incorporates technical soundness, expanded content coverage, enhanced clinical validity, and brighter stimulus materials. It reflects current norms and allows diagnostic assessment at an earlier age to help lead to needed intervention. Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale (CIIS)
The Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale is one of the oldest infant intelligence tests, originally designed in 1950. The Cattell scale measures mental development from 3-30 months, evaluating motor control and verbalizations. Items at each level cover the preceding period of development. Motor control is assessed by a series of tasks that involve manipulating various objects, such as cubes, pencils, and pegboards. Sample items from the test (with age norms on the Cattell scale) are: lifting a cup (6 months), ringing a bell (9 months), putting a cube in a cup (11 months), and marking with a crayon (12 months).
The examiner also takes notes on the infant’s attempts to communicate. The test is untimed but usually takes 20-30 minutes. Results are reported in terms of mental age and IQ score. The Cattell scale—which has been modified based on research with the Gesell, Minnesota Preschool, and Merrill-Palmer scales—is considered an extension of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test for younger children. Together, the two tests provide a continuous developmental scale from three months to maturity. McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA)
The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) is a measurement device used to assess the abilities of preschool children. The results of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities produce six scale scores of verbal, perceptual-performance, quantitative, composite (general cognitive), memory, and motor. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability appropriate for children aged 3 to 18.
Administrative flexibility lets you assess mental ability in ways best suited to the child’s linguistic and cultural background. It takes about 35 to 70 minutes to finish the test. Individually administered tasks that can either incorporate or exclude verbal ability GENERAL INDIVIDUAL ABILITY TESTS FOR HANDICAPPED AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS Columbia Mental Maturity Scale – Third Edition (CMMS) The Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) is an individually administered instrument designed to assess the general reasoning ability of children between the ages of 3 years and 6 months to 9 years and 11 months.
The CMMS consists of 92 pictorial and figural classification items arranged in a series of eight overlapping levels. Each of the eight levels contains between 51 and 65 items that are appropriate for a specific chronological age. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition (PPVT –III) The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition (PPVT-III) updates the PPVT of 1959 and the PPVT-R of 1981, and like them is an individually administered, un-timed, norm-referenced, wide-range test with two parallel forms. The 204 items on each form are grouped into 17 sets of 12 items of 4 black and white illustrations forming a picture plate.
The original PPVT used 300 stimulus words, 150 on each form of the test. In the development of the PPVT-III item pool, national tryouts were used to eliminate stimulus words that were biased by gender, region, race or ethnicity. The test has two parallel forms, requires no oral or written responses and no reading by the examinee. Leiter International Performance Scale –Revised (LIPS-R) Leiter-R is completely nonverbal. It does not require a spoken or written word from the examiner or the child. The easy game-like administration holds the child’s interest and is easily administered; quickly and objectively scored.
For over 50 years, the original Leiter provided a nonverbal measure of intellectual ability. The new Leiter-R consists of two nationally standardized batteries: 1) A revision of the original Visualization and Reasoning (VR) domains for measuring IQ, 2) The new Attention and Memory (AM) domains. The Leiter-R is comprised of two nationally standardized tests. The first is a revision of the original Visualization and Reasoning (VR) domains for measuring IQ. The second is the new Attention and Memory (AM) domains. Four social-emotional scales are also included.
These scales include scales for the examiner, parent, teacher and self, and provide crucial information about the child’s level of activity, attention impulse control, and other emotional characteristics. Such factors may have bearing on the child’s performance at both home and school. Administration takes between 25 and 40 minutes. Porteus Maze Test The Porteus Maze Test is a nonverbal test of performance intelligence. The Porteus Maze Test is a graded set of paper forms on which the subject traces the way from a starting point to an exit; the subject must avoid blind alleys along the way.
There are no time limits. The mazes vary in complexity from simple diamond shape for the average three-year-old to intricate labyrinths for adults. There are three sets of mazes: the original (the Vineland series), and two supplements, the Extension and the Supplement. TESTING LEARNING DISABILITEIS Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) The ITPA-3 is an effective measure of children’s spoken and written language. All of the subtests measure some aspect of language, including oral language, writing, reading, and spelling.
The content in this edition is consistent with Charles Osgood’s original communication model and also with the adaptations of that model made by Samuel Kirk, James McCarthy, and Winifred Kirk. Chief among the assumptions underlying this model are: language is an important part of a child’s development, the essential components of language are measurable, these language components can be improved through instruction, and instruction in language is relevant to success in basic school subjects, particularly reading and writing. Woodcock-Johnson III
The Woodcock-Johnson III is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing both cognitive abilities and achievement in children and adolescents. Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies is the only reference to provide valuable guidelines for preparing useful recommendations and writing effective, descriptive psychological and educational reports based on WJ III scores, tasks analysis, and error patterns. Featuring the most up-to-date information available on the WJ III, this essential resource offers an overview of the WJ III scores and interpretive information, along with a review of the clusters, and tests.
Numerous examples of diagnostic reports that depict a variety of common student learning problems are included, illustrating applications of the WJ III in both educational and clinical settings. VISIOGRAPHIC TESTS Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . It can also be used to help identify possible learning disabilities. The child is shown 10 designs, one at a time, and asked to reproduce each one as exactly as possible on plain paper from memory.
The test is untimed, and the results are professionally scored by form, shape, pattern, and arrangement on the paper. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) The Bender Gestalt Test, or the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, is a psychological assessment instrument used to evaluate visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills in both children and adults. Scores on the test are used to identify possible organic brain damage and the degree maturation of the nervous system. The Bender Gestalt was developed by psychiatrist Lauretta Bender in the late nineteenth century.
The Bender Gestalt Test is used to evaluate visual maturity, visual motor integration skills, style of responding, reaction to frustration, ability to correct mistakes, planning and organizational skills, and motivation. Copying figures requires fine motor skills, the ability to discriminate between visual stimuli, the capacity to integrate visual skills with motor skills, and the ability to shift attention from the original design to what is being drawn. Memory-for-Designs (MFD) Test
A 10-minute test of 15 designs, presented singly, was given to 70 brain-damaged patients and 70 institutional controls (mainly psychoneurotics). Impairment scores above a critical value were indicative of brain damage, but half of the brain-damaged cases were below the critical score, perhaps because the test minimizes the role of intelligence. Although not clearly detecting brain damage, the test may be useful in a battery, since it is independent of schooling and vocabulary. It measures the perceptual-motor coordination requiring only 10 minute administration.
The test can be given to individuals 8 to 60 year of age. In this test the subjects attempt to draw a briefly presented design from memory. CREATIVITY: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) The highly reliable Torrance® Tests of Creative Thinking are the most widely used tests of their kind since testing only requires the examinee to reflect upon their life experiences. These tests invite examinees to draw and give a title to their drawings (pictures) or to write questions, reasons, consequences and different uses for objects (words).
These instruments have been used for identification of the creatively gifted and as a part of gifted matrices in states and districts in the USA, especially in multicultural settings, and for special populations around the world. Published in two equivalent forms, Forms A and B, the Figural and Verbal TTCT can be used for pre- and post testing. The Figural TTCT: Thinking Creatively with Pictures is appropriate at all levels, kindergarten through adult. It uses three picture-based exercises to assess five mental characteristics: fluency, resistance to premature closure, elaboration, abstractness of titles, and originality.
INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT TESTS: Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WART -3) Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd ed. or WRAT-3 is a screening test that can be administered to determine if a more comprehensive achievement test is needed. Achievement tests refer to skills that individuals learn through direct instruction or intervention. The WRAT-3 measures basic skills in reading, arithmetic, and spelling. The test covers ages from five to 75 years old and takes approximately 30 minutes to administer. B. List of Tests in Education from Kindergarten, through 12th grade, entrance tests for college, graduate & post graduate.
Group Tests of Mental Abilities (Intelligence) Kuhlmann-Anderson Tests (KA) Kuhlmann-Anderson tests measure academic potential by assessing cognitive skills related to the learning process. They have proven to be valid measures of school learning ability since 1927. The KA was written by Dr. Frederick Kuhlmann and Dr. Rose G. Anderson for use in grades K-12. Administration time is 50 to 75 minutes. In order to assess a broad range of cognitive skills, eight separate subtests are administered at each of the seven KA Test levels.
Four of the subtests use items that are primarily nonverbal in nature such as problem solving, picture and number patterns, proportions and symmetry, figuring out math functions, sequences, and/or category errors. These items measure an individual’s understanding of numbers and figures. Vocabulary and reading items such as scrambled words, scrambled sentences, ordering, visual clues, antonyms, and/or classifying, are measures of verbal skills and comprise the remaining subtests at each level. The subtests vary from level to level. Henmon-Nelson Test (H-NT)
Assess key components of executive functions within verbal and spatial modalities. Comprehensively assess with nine new tests, the key components of executive functions believed to be mediated primarily by the frontal lobe. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System'” (D-KEFS) is the first nationally standardized set of tests to evaluate higher-level cognitive functions in both children and adults. The tests assess vital executive functions such as flexibility of thinking, inhibition, problem solving, planning, impulse control, concept formation, abstract thinking, and creativity in both verbal and spatial modalities.
D-KEFS’ nine stand-alone tests evaluate the following executive-function domains: Cognitive Abilities Test (COGAT) The CogAT is a test of reasoning skills. It’s not like a spelling or a math test where if you know the words or the facts you can get 100%. There is no defined curriculum for the CogAT. It is a norm-referenced test and the national average is 50th percentile. To identify students for SAGE and MERLIN programs, Issaquah School District administers advanced versions of the CogAT to all students in grade 2 and to selected students in grades 3-5.
There are three parts to the CogAT: Verbal Battery, Quantitative Battery, and Non-Verbal Battery. Verbal Battery The Verbal Battery tests a student’s vocabulary, as well as his/her comprehension of ideas, efficiency and verbal memory, and ability to discover word relationships. Statistics show a high correlation between high verbal ability and success in a variety of school subjects. Three sub-tests are administered in the verbal section. Each test has approximately 20 questions and the student is given ten minutes to complete each sub-test.
These three sub-tests comprise the verbal score. Quantitative Battery The Quantitative Battery tests the student’s quantitative reasoning and problem solving ability and provides an appraisal of the student’s general level of abstract reasoning. Non-Verbal Battery The Nonverbal Battery presents the most novel problems to students. The items on these tests use only geometric shapes and figures that have had little direct relationship to formal school instruction. The tests require no reading.
The nonverbal battery is particularly suitable for obtaining an accurate estimate of development for students who have difficulty with reading, who have limited competency in English, or who have limited opportunities. The tests in the nonverbal battery are between fifteen and twenty-five questions each and students are given ten minutes for each test. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The WAIS IQ Test is one of the oldest, most reliable tests still used today. Designed and introduced by David Wechsler in 1939, these tests measure your spatial, mathematical, and verbal aptitudes.
In 1981, David Wechsler revised the WAIS IQ scale and in 1997 he standardized his tests to make them available to all Americans and were renamed as WAIS-III. WAIS is an abbreviation of Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and is used to test the IQ of people between the age 17 and 70. WAIS IQ tests are so popular and reliable that there are now versions for countries such as China, Spain and Australia. WAIS IQ tests have a verbal and a performance scale of measurement. The verbal scale measures six verbal capabilities and the performance test measures five performance aptitudes.
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months developed by David Wechsler in 1967. It is a descendent of the earlier Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children tests. It has since been revised twice, in 1989 and 2002. The current revision, WPPSI–III, is published by Harcourt Assessment.
It provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual ability (i. e. , Full Scale IQ). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth edition (WISC-IV) is among the most widely used children’s intellectual ability assessment today. There are 10 required subtests (5 are supplementary) that yield a Full Scale
IQ score and four Composite scores that are; Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed. The Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning Composites are very good indicators of giftedness (apparently Working Memory and Processing Speed are not). The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) SAT is a test given to young high school students with a desire to attend college after receiving their high school diploma. The test is administered by the College Board, a national, nonprofit association ‘dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity’.
The College Board was founded in 1900 and now boasts more than 3,800 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations in their membership. The College Board helps over three million students in 22,000 high schools connect with 3,500 colleges through their services every year. The SAT covers many areas of academic skills including math aptitude, writing and reading skills. Your scores are then tallied and made available to you for submission to the college or university of your choice. Miller Analogies Test The Miller Analogies Test (MAT) published by Harcourt Assessment, Inc. , measures analytic ability.
The candidate must solve problems presented in the form of analogies. Analogies are relationships. The MAT tests the ability to recognize relationships between concepts, English language facility, and general knowledge. A basic knowledge of the natural sciences, social sciences, mathematics, and subjects in the liberal arts is required to write the test successfully. The Miller Analogies Test is composed of 120 questions. One-hundred of these questions count toward the test score, and 20 are experimental questions. These experimental questions are being tested for use on future versions of the test.
The candidate cannot opt out of answering these questions, however. The experimental questions are interspersed with the test questions, and the candidate has no way of knowing which are questions will count towards his or her score. The candidate is not advised to guess at which questions will count. College Entrance Tests SAT Reasoning Test The SAT Reasoning Test, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, is a type of standardized test frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming students.
In the U. S. , the SAT is administered by the private College Board, and is developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Cooperative School and College Ability Tests School and College Ability Test School and College Ability Test (SCAT) which is developed by Educational Testing Service (the company that administers the SAT) as a talent search achievement test for grades 2-6. The test given is two-to-three grades higher than normally given to students this age. The test measures verbal and mathematical reasoning ability.
Many world famous talent search programs like: Johns Hopkins University CTY (Center for Talented Youth); Stanford University EPGY (Education Programs for Gifted Youth); Northwest University Center for Talent Development use SCAT to identify and qualify the talented youth for their programs. The American College Test The ACT is a widely used college admission standardized test. It has four mandatory subject tests: English, Reading, Mathematics, and Science. There is also an optional Writing test which some colleges require. Metropolitan Achievement Tests
Achievement tests that assess general language skills, arithmetic skills, and reading comprehension. The Metropolitan Achievement Tests feature a battery of group-administered achievement tests that assess general language and arithmetic skills, and reading comprehension. Results are often given as grade equivalents (such as Instructional Reading Level, or IRL, which indicates the optimal reading level at which a student can learn). The tests are administered at all grade levels, KI 2, and can last from 1-? hours (kindergarten) to over four hours for grades 6-12.
The complete assessment battery covers five disciplines: reading, mathematics, language (i. e. writing), science, and social studies. The reading test includes a vocabulary component and a comprehension section consisting of passages followed by multiple-choice questions. The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) SAT is a test given to young high school students with a desire to attend college after receiving their high school diploma. The test is administered by the College Board, a national, nonprofit association ‘dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity’.
The College Board was founded in 1900 and now boasts more than 3,800 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations in their membership. The College Board helps over three million students in 22,000 high schools connect with 3,500 colleges through their services every year. The SAT covers many areas of academic skills including math aptitude, writing and reading skills. Your scores are then tallied and made available to you for submission to the college or university of your choice. GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL ENTRANCE TESTS
Graduate Record Examination Aptitude Test (GRE) The GRE measures a variety of skills that are thought to predict success in graduate school across a wide variety of disciplines. Actually, there are several GRE tests. Most often when an applicant, professor, or admissions director mentions the GRE, he or she is referring to the GRE General Test. Depending upon your discipline, you may be required to take a GRE Subject Test or the GRE Written Test in addition to the GRE General Test. The GRE General Test measures the skills that you’ve acquired over the high school and college years.
It is an aptitude test because it is meant to measure your potential to succeed in graduate school. While the GRE is only one of several criteria that graduate schools use to evaluate your application, it is one of the most important. This is particularly true if your college GPA is not as high as you’d like. Exceptional GRE scores can open up new opportunities for grad school. The GRE General Test contains sections that measure verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing skills. Miller analogies Test A second major graduate-school entrance test is the Miller Analogies Test. ike the Bre; the Miller Analogies Test is designed to measure scholastic aptitudes for graduate studies. How ever, unlike the BRE, the Miller Analogies Test is strictly verbal. In 60 minutes, the student must discern logical relationships for 120 varied analogy problems, including the most difficult items found on any test. How ever, the most important factors appear to be the ability to see relationships and knowledge of the various ways analogies can be formed (by sound, number, similarities, differences, and so forth. The Law School Admission Test The LSAT is designed to measure skills that are considered essential for success in law school: the reading and comprehension of complex texts with accuracy and insight; the organization and management of information and the ability to draw reasonable inferences from it; the ability to think critically; and the analysis and evaluation of the reasoning and arguments of others. The test consists of five 35-minute sections of multiple-choice questions. Four of the five sections contribute to the test taker’s score.
The unscored section, commonly referred to as the variable section, typically is used to pretest new test questions or to preequate new test forms. The placement of this section will vary. A 35-minute writing sample is administered at the end of the test. LSAC does not score the writing sample, but copies of the writing sample are sent to all law schools to which you apply. NONBERBAL GROUP ABILITY TESTS Raven Progressive Matrices Raven’s Progressive Matrices (also Raven Progressive Matrices) are widely used non-verbal intelligence tests.
In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series. Each set of items gets progressively harder, requiring greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze. The test is considered by many intelligence experts to be one of the most g-loaded in existence. They are offered in three different forms for different ability levels, and for age ranges from five through adult: Colored Progressed Matrices (younger children and special groups), Standard Progressive Matrices (average 6 to 80 year olds), and advanced Progressive Matrices (above average adolescents & adults).
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (G-HDT) Assesses intelligence without relying on verbal ability. The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is assumed to assess intelligence without relying on verbal ability. It is administered individually or in groups to children aged 3-15 and consists of Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests and an optional Self-Drawing Test. (The Draw-a-Person Test, which consists of the same tasks, is a separate test with a different scoring system and is available in two different versions, either as a psychological test for emotional disorders (SPED) or a measure of mental ability (QSS).
In contrast, the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is used only as an intelligence test. ) The Goodenough-Harris test is untimed but usually takes about 15 minutes. For all subtests, the child is asked specifically to draw the entire body rather than just the head and shoulders. He or she can erase and start over and, when the test is given individually, talk to the examiner about any of the drawings. The Culture Fair Intelligence Test Culture-fair tests, also called culture-free tests, are designed to assess intelligence (or other attributes) without relying on knowledge specific to any individual cultural group.
The first culture-fair test, called Army Examination Beta, was developed by the United States military during World War II to screen soldiers of average intelligence who were illiterate or for whom English was a second language. Beginning in the postwar period, culture-fair tests, which rely largely on nonverbal questions, have been used in public schools with Hispanic students and other non-native-English speakers whose lack of familiarity with both English language and American culture have made it impossible to assess their intelligence level using standard IQ tests.
The Cattell scales are intended to assess intelligence independent of cultural experience, verbal ability, or educational level. They are used for special education placement and college and vocational counseling. The tests consist mostly of paper-and-pencil questions involving the relationships between figures and shapes. Parts of scale one, used with the youngest age group, utilize various objects instead of paper and pencil. Activities in scales two and three, for children age eight and up, include completing series, classifying, and filling in incomplet