Dialogue T. We’ll consider the principal structural units of the airplane. Look at the picture (Fig. 1. 1). This is an airplane. [pic] Figure 1. 1 T. Do you know the meaning of the word ‘airplane’ ? S. Yes, I do. It is ‘літак’. T. You are right. There are some words in the English language which have the same meaning. They are aircraft, airliner and aeroplane, plane, for short. S. What does the airplane consist of? T. The airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage, the wing, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant.
The wing means ‘kphjio’. It is the main plane of the aircraft. The word ‘plane’ has two meanings ‘літак’ тa ‘площина’. S. What is the function of the wing? T. The function of the wing is to support an airplane in the air and to create lift. S. What is the function of the fuselage? T. The function of the fuselage is to carry passengers, crew, cargo, equipment and to support the wing, tail unit and engines in some designs. It also carries the landing gear. S. What is the meaning of the word ‘crew’. T. It is ‘екіпаж’. ‘Cargo’ means ‘вантаж’.
The Ukrainian for ‘tail unit’ is ‘хвостова частина’. There are some synonyms to it. They are: the tail assembly, tail, empennage, fin assembly. The word ‘engine’ means ‘двигун’. The ‘landing gear’ is ‘шасі’. S. What is the function of the tail unit? T. The function of the tail unit is to provide directional stability and control of the airplane in flight. S. What is the function of the power plant? T. The power plant is a source of power. S. What is the function of the landing gear? T. The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground and its function is also to absorb shocks of landing.
I am sure you know the meaning of the word ‘land’ and ‘landing’ means ‘посадка’. Exercise 1. Read and translate text 1. Text 1. Principal Structural Units of the Airplane The airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage, the wing, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant. The fuselage extends from the nose to the tail of the airplane. It houses passengers, crew, cargo and equipment. It supports the wing, tail unit and sometimes engines. The fuselage also carries the landing gear.
The wings are lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. The function of the wing is to support the airplane in the air and to create lift. The function of the tail unit is to provide directional stability and control of the airplane in flight. The tail unit consists of two surfaces, vertical and horizontal. The function of the power plant is to provide power for flight and to propel the airplane. The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground and its function is to taxi the aircraft on the ground and to absorb the energy of landing. Exercise 2.
Translate word combinations with the term ‘aircraft’: civil aircraft, cargo aircraft, military aircraft, passenger aircraft, ambulance aircraft, commercial aircraft, sea aircraft, cargo-passenger aircraft, long-range aircraft, forest patrol aircraft, mail-carrying aircraft, search and rescue aircraft. Exercise 3. Translate ‘noun + noun’ word-combinations: aircraft engine, air flow, design principles, fuel tank, shock absorber, control unit, air pressure, fuselage skin, oil system, rocket engine, helicopter rotor, airplane speed, engine operation, flight condition.
Exercise 4 Match the synonyms, aircraftspeed wingsource of power tail unitundercarriage landing gearmain plane power plantempennage fuselageairplane velocitycentral body Exercise 5. Translate verb-combinations. to consist of structural units, to extend from the nose to the tail, to support the wing, to carry cargo, to create lift, to provide directional stability, to control the airplane in flight, to propel the aircraft, to absorb the energy of landing, to taxi on the ground. Exercise 6. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. 1. The fuselage is the central body of the airplane. 2.
We divide the aeroplane into five principal structural units. 3. The power plant provides power for flight. 4. The tail unit consists of two surfaces, vertical and horizontal. 5. The wing extends equally on each side of the fuselage. Exercise 7. Say if the following statements are true or false. If they are wrong, correct them. 1. The airplane consists of two principal structural units. 2. The tail unit supports the wing. 3. The function of the power plant is to create lift. 4. The wings are not lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. 5. The fuselage controls the airplane in flight. Exercise 8.
Answer the questions. 1. What units does the airplane consist of? 2. What does the fuselage carry? 3. What supports the tail unit? 4. What provides directional stability of the airplane in flight? 5. What propels the airplane? Exercise 9. Read and translate text 2. Text 2. Airplane Structure The airplane, engine-driven vehicle can fly through the air-supported by the action of the air against its wings. Airplanes are heavier than air. Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration – each usually has a fuselage, wing, tail, power plant, landing gear, and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wing and tail.
The fuselage is the main cabin, or body of the airplane. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end, where the pilot controls the airplane, and a cabin section. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers, cargo, or both. In a military fighter plane, the fuselage may house the engines, fuel, electronics, and some weapons. All airplanes, by definition, have wings. Some are nearly all wings with a very small cockpit. Others have minimal wings or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended, aerodynamic fuselage such as the space shuttle. ‘
Most airplanes, except for flying wings, have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage, consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers, which look like small wings; a rudder, and elevators. The components of the tail assembly are referred to as the empennage. All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. Modern aircraft employ brakes, wheels, and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight. Exercise 10. Give definition to the following terms. aircraft, fuselage, wing, empennage, landing gear, power plant. Exercise 11. Speak on: 1. Aircraft structure. 2. Functions of aircraft structural units.
Exercise 12. Translate text 3 in writing. Text 3. Aircraft Performance The aircraft performance includes dimensional data and the main flying characteristics. Dimensional data are length, wing span, height and width. The main flying characteristics are maximum take-off weight, maximum landing and payload weight, passenger capacity or number of seats, number of crew, cargo capacity, cruising speed, flight range, flight altitude, non-stop flying time, practical ceiling or service ceiling, engine type and thrust of each engine, number of engines, take-off and landing ground run, maximum fuel capacity, etc.
The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer or manufacturer. Here are some of the aircraft designers: Antonov, Ilushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev. Manufacturer’s names are represented by: Boeing, Bristol, Canadair, Convair, Douglas, Lockheed, Vickers and others. Following the name of the designer or manufacturer comes a type code, known in some airlines as a class. For example: Antonov-70 (designer’s name and type code), Douglas DC-6B (manufacturer’s name and type code),etc. The aircraft can be supplied in some versions: Economy-Class Business-Class and First-Class.
Exercise 13. Copy out aviation terms from text 3. Exercise 14. Answer the questions. 1. What dimensional data does the aircraft performance include? 2. What are the main flying characteristics? 3 The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer, doesn’t it? 4. What is the type code? 5. What versions can an aircraft be supplied in? Exercise 15. Speak on “Aircraft performance”. Exercise 16. Remember aircraft performance data. 777-200 First flight: June 12,1994 Model number: 777-200 Classification: Commercial transport
Span: 199 feet 11 inches Length: 209 feet 1 inch Gross weight: 506,000 pounds Cruising speed: 615 mph Range: 4,210 to 8, 270 miles Ceiling: 37, 900 feet Power: Two 74, 500-/77,200-pound-thrust P&W 4074/4077 engines, two 74,500-/76,400-pound-thrust GE 90-75B/76B engines, or two 74,600-/76,900-pound-thrust RR Trent 875/877 engines Accommodation: 305 to 440 passengers AN-124IL- 86 Cargo cabin dimensions:Length: 59,5 m Length: 36mWing span: 48 m No. of engines: 4 Cruising speed: 850-900 km/hr Altitude: 10-11 km Range: 3,000 – 5,000 km No. f seats: 350 Width: 6. 4 m Height: 4. 4 m Maximum take-off weight: 405,000kg Maximum cargo capacity: 150,000kg Engine type and power: D-l 8T 4×230 /4×23,400kg Cruising speed: 800-850 km/hr Flight altitude: 10,000 – 12,000 m Flight range with maximum cargo: 4,500 km Maximum flight range: 16,500 km DarkStar UAV First flight. March 29, 1996 Classification: Experimental unmanned aerial vehicle Span: 69 feet Length: 15 feet Range: 500 nautical miles Ceiling: Greater than 45,000 feet Power: Single turbofan engine Accommodation: Unmanned