The nutrient and energy standards known as the RDA are currently being revised. The new recommendations are called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). The following chart provides the most updated goals for nutrient intake available for males and females between 31 – 50. For information about other ages, or special populations such as pregnancy or lactation, please go to www. nal. usda. gov.Nutrient FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin A Retinol, beta-carotene and various other carotenoids RDA or DRI RDA Males: 1000 ug RE Females: 800 UG RE Functions in the Body/Benefits Helps maintain good vision (necessary for night vision), resistance to infections, and supports growth and repair of body tissues. Also maintains integrity of white and red blood cells, assists in immune reactions, helps maintain the stability of cell membranes. Member of a large and cooperative bone-making and bone maintenance team. Regulates absorption of calcium and phosphorus for bone health.Fat-soluble antioxidant. Helps maintain cell membranes, red blood cell integrity, protects vitamin A and fatty acids from oxidation. Helps make factors that promote blood clotting. Dietary Sources Milk, eggs, meat, fish liver oils. Beta-carotene and other carotenoids are found in: Green leafy vegetables – kale, spinach, broccoli, collard greens, parsley, turnip greens, escarole. Yellow vegetables carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, pumpkin. Yellow and orange fruits – mango, cantaloupe, papaya, and apricots. Formed in skin when exposed to sunlight.Also found in dairy products, egg yolk, fish liver oils, tuna, mackerel, herring, sardines, oysters, yeast. Found primarily in plant oils, green, leafy vegetables, wheat germ, whole grains, egg yolk, nuts, seeds, and liver. Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract. Diet generally supplies remaining need. Green, leafy vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables and milk. Vitamin D Cholecal-ciferol, ergocalciferol Vitamin E Tocopherol, Tocotrienols Vitamin K DRI Males: 5. 0 ug Females: 5. 0 ug RDA Males: 10 mg ? -TE Females: 8 mg ? -TE RDA Males: 80 ug Females: 65 ug WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin B1 ThiamineDRI Males: 1. 2 mg Females: 1. 1 mg Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Vitamin B3 Niacin, nicotinic acid, niacinamide Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, other forms Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Biotin DRI Males: 1. 3 mg Females: 1. 1 mg DRI Males: 16 mg NE Females: 14 mg NE DRI Males: 5. 0 mg Females: 5. 0 mg DRI Males: 1. 3 mg Females: 1. 3 mg DRI Males: 2. 4 ug Females: 2. 4 ug DRI Males: 30 ug Females: 30 ug Helps metabolize carbohydrates, maintain appetite and normal digestion. Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism. Supports normal appetite and nervous system function.Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism, supports normal vision and skin health. Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism, supports health of skin, nervous system and digestive system. High (pharmacological) doses may help manage cholesterol. Part of Coenzyme A, which is used in energy metabolism Part of a coenzyme that helps the body synthesize nonessential amino acids. Significant role in protein metabolism. Part of coenzymes used in new cell synthesis; helps to maintain nerve cells. Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis.Found in many foods: whole grain cereals, legumes, beans, nuts, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, pork, ham, and liver. Milk, yogurt, other dairy, meat, leafy greens, whole grains. Tuna, dairy, meat, whole grains, nuts and all protein containing foods. Widespread in foods. Green leafy vegetables, meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, legumes, fruits, whole grains. Animal products (meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, cheese, milk). Widespread in foods. © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive ; Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Vitamins, Minerals and their Functions Table, Cont.Nutrient Folic acid Folate, folacin Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) RDA or DRI DRI Males: 400 ug Females: 400 ug RDA Males: 60 mg Females: 60 mg Functions in the Body/Benefits Part of coenzymes used in new cell synthesis. Essential for blood cell formation, protein metabolism, and prevention of neural tube defects. Essential element in collagen formation (strengthens blood vessels, forms scar tissue, is a matrix for bone growth); an antioxidant; strengthens resistance to infections; and improves absorption of iron. Bone health, prevention of osteoporosis.The principal mineral of bones and teeth, also involved in normal muscle contraction (including heart muscle). An electrolyte that maintains normal fluid balance and proper acid-base balance, part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach. Associated with insulin and required for the release of energy from glucose. Supports healthy bones, muscles, and blood vessels. Assists in iron absorption. Functions in the Body/Benefits Involved in the formation of bones and teeth. Essential component of thyroid hormones that regulate tissue growth and cell activity.Part of the protein hemoglobin which carries O2 in the body. Part of the protein myoglobin in muscle which makes O2 available for muscle contraction. Necessary for the utilization of energy as part of the cells’ metabolic machinery. Involved in bone mineralization, the building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscular contraction, and transmission of nerve impulses Involved in the formation of bone, as well as in enzymes involved in amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism. Important in a variety of enzyme systems.A principal mineral of the bones and teeth; part of every cell; maintains acid-base balance. Dietary Sources Green leafy vegetables, liver, fortified grain products, legumes and seeds. Abundant in most fresh fruits (esp. citrus) and vegetables. SELECTED MINERALS Boron Calcium NO RDA or DRI DRI Males: 1000 mg Females: 1000 mg No RDA or DRI Non-citrus fruits, leafy vegetables. Milk and milk products, small fish with bones, tofu, broccoli, chard and legumes. Salt, soy sauce, moderate quantities in whole, unprocessed foods and large amounts in processed foods.Brewer’s yeast, unrefined whole grain cereals, fats, vegetable oils. Liver, legumes, nuts, seeds, raisins, whole grains, shellfish, shrimp. Dietary Sources Drinking water (if fluoridated) tea, seafood. Iodized salt, seafood, plants. Red meats, liver, poultry, fish, shellfish, beans, peas, dried fruit, eggs. Certain foods contain phytates, which may inhibit iron absorption. Chloride Chromium Copper Nutrient Fluoride Iodine Iron No RDA or DRI No RDA or DRI RDA or DRI DRI Males: 3. 8 mg Females: 3. 1 mg RDA Males: 150 ug Females: 150 ug RDA Males: 10 mg Females: 15 mgMagnesium DRI Males: 420 mg Females: 320 mg No RDA or DRI Nuts, legumes, whole grains, beans, green leafy vegetables, seafood, chocolate. Nuts, whole grain cereals, beans, rice, dried fruits, green leafy vegetables. Legumes, grains, organ meats. Abundant in all animal foods. Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus No RDA or DRI DRI Males: 700 mg Females: 700 mg © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” ERGOGENIC AIDS (from American Family Physician, March 2001)TABLE 3 Ergogenic Aids: A Summary of An Assessment of the Current Literature Research on ergogenic effects No benefits Mixed, some positive Ergogenic aid Alcohol Amphetamines Action Decreases anxiety Improve concentration, decrease fatigue and appetite Side effects Significant Significant, dangerous Legality Banned for shooting events Illegal Anabolic steroids Increase strength, Positive lean muscle mass and motivation Same as steroids Same as steroids Decrease muscle breakdown Limited, refutes Significant, dangerous Unknown Illegal Androstenediol Androstenedione AntioxidantsBanned by IOC Banned by IOC, NCAA Legal Legal Legal Refutes, no benefits Significant Mixed, no clear benefits No benefit Mixed, some positive benefits No benefit Mild at high doses None at doses used Mild at high doses Mild Arginine, ornithine, Stimulate growth lysine hormone release Aspartates Increase free fatty acid use, sparing muscle glycogen Decreases pain with muscle fatigue and muscle breakdown Increases steroid production Increases strength and endurance Decrease anxiety Aspirin Legal Avena sativa Bee pollen Beta blockers Limited, refutes None LegalRefutes, no benefits Allergic reaction Legal Positive effect on Significant fine motor control, negative effect on aerobic capacity Mixed, no benefit from inhaled formulations Supports Mild Banned by IOC Beta2 agonists Increase lean muscle mass Increases aerobic capacity Banned by IOC, legal when prescribed Illegal Blood doping Significant, dangerous © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Boron Branched chain amino acids Caffeine Increases endogenous Refutes, no benefit Mild at high steroid production doses Decrease mental fatigue Increases muscle contractility and aerobic ndurance, enhances fat metabolism Increases muscle contractility, enhances glycogen metabolism Increase endurance, decrease fatigue Increases fat metabolism Increases endurance Increases lean mass Mixed, negative Supports Mild at high doses Mild Legal Legal Legal to urine level of 12 to 15 µg per mL Calcium Refutes, no benefit Mild at high doses Legal Carbohydrates Carnitine Choline Chromium Supports Refutes Mixed, inconclusive Mild at high doses None None Legal Legal Legal Refutes, no benefit Safe to 400 µg Legal unless prior daily, potentially deficiency dangerous above this level None LegalChrysin Inhibits aromatase, Limited, refutes increases endogenous steroids Stimulates CNS, delays fatigue Mixed Cocaine Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) Coenzyme Q12 Significant, dangerous Illegal Legal Legal Delays fatigue, acts as Refutes, no benefit None antioxidant Increases aerobic capacity, speeds muscle repair Increases muscle energy, endurance, strength and lean muscle mass Refutes, no benefit None Creatine Supports, Mild insufficient data on long-term use Potentially dangerous Potentially dangerous Potentially dangerous Legal DHEAIncreases endogenous No benefit in steroid production healthy athletes Decrease body mass Limited benefit Banned by IOC, some other organizations Banned by IOC Illegal Diuretics Ephedrine, other sympathomimetics Stimulate CNS, No benefit increase energy, delay fatigue, stimulate weight loss Increases energy, Supports stimulates weight loss Increases aerobic capacity Supports (2004) Ephedrine plus caffeine Erythropoietin Potentially Banned by IOC, dangerous, fatal some other at high doses organizations Significant, dangerous Illegal © Biscontini findLawrence. om ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Fat supplements Fluids Folic acid GHB Increase endurance Increase endurance Increases aerobic capacity Refutes Supports Refutes Mild Mild None Significant, dose-related; abuse potential Legal Legal Legal Illegal Stimulates growth Limited, refutes hormone release and muscle growth Ginseng Increases endurance, Limited, refutes, no Mild, abuse enhances muscle benefit syndrome recovery reported Serves as NSAID Limited, may have alternative, enhances limited NSAID recovery abilities NoneLegal Glucosamine Legal Glutamine Boosts immunity and May boost None growth hormone immunity, no other levels benefits Improves hydration and endurance Same as caffeine Decreases muscle Limited, some breakdown, enhances strength benefits recovery Anabolic effect on muscle growth, increases fat metabolism Refutes, limited ergogenic benefits None Limited, supports Mild Legal Glycerol Guarana (herbal caffeine) HMB Legal (oral) Legal Human growth hormone Significant, dangerous Illegal InosineEnhances energy Refutes, no benefit Mild production, improves aerobic capacity Increases aerobic capacity No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Mild, toxic at high doses None Legal Iron Legal Leucine Decreases muscle Limited, no breakdown and spare ergogenic effect muscle glycogen stores Same as ephedrine Enhances muscle growth Decreases anxiety Increases energy, endurance and aerobic capacity, enhances recovery Increase endurance by suppressing pain, decrease anxiety No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Refutes, negative effect No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Mixed, negativeLegal Ma huang (herbal ephedrine) Magnesium Mild at high doses Significant, dangerous None at RDA, some toxicities at high doses Significant, dangerous Legal Marijuana Multivitamins Illegal Legal Narcotics Illegal © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Niacin Increases energy and No benefit unless a Mild at high endurance preexisting doses deficiency Increases aerobic capacity, enhances recovery Increase ATP production, energy and muscle endurance No benefit if given Mild before or after activity Mixed, negative Mild at high doses Legal OxygenLegal Phosphates Legal Phytosterols Stimulates release of Refutes, no benefit Little data, Legal endogenous steroids allergic reaction and growth hormone possible Optimizes muscular growth and repair Supports, increased None unless need for protein underlying with activity medical condition Supports, dietary None sources offer same benefit Limited research, benefit only in specific cases None Legal Protein Pycnogenol Boosts antioxidant levels, enhances recovery Increases lean body mass Legal Pyruvate Legal D-Ribose Selenium Increases cellular ATP No human and muscle power research None knownLegal Legal Enhances antioxidant Limited, no benefit Mild at high functions doses Supports Sodium bicarbonate Buffers lactic acid production, delays fatigue Strychnine Tribulus terrestris Unknown Mild, dangerous Legal at high doses Significant, dangerous Potentially dangerous at high doses Legal Legal No research on ergogenic benefits Increases endogenous Refutes steroid production Decreases pain Mixed, no benefit perception, increases in trained athletes endurance Increases glycogen synthesis, enhances muscle recovery Tryptophan Mild, potentially Legal dangerous Legal Vanadyl sulfateRefutes, no benefit Mild in healthy individuals None Vitamin B 1 (thiamin) Enhances energy No benefit unless production, increases preexisting aerobic capacity, deficiency improves concentration Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) Increases aerobic endurance Enhances muscle growth, decreases anxiety No benefit unless preexisting deficiency No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Legal None Legal Mild at high doses Legal © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) Vitamin B 15 (dimethylglycine) Vitamin CEnhances muscle growth Increases muscle energy production Acts as antioxidant, increases aerobic capacity and energy production Acts as antioxidant, improves aerobic capacity No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Mixed, negative None Legal None proven, but concerns raised Mild at high doses Legal No benefit unless preexisting deficiency Mixed, some positive Legal Vitamin E Mild Legal Yohimbine Zinc Increases endogenous Refutes, no benefit Mild steroid production Enhances muscle growth, increases aerobic capacity Limited, negative Mild Legal LegalIOC = International Olympic Committee; NCAA = National Collegiate Athletic Association; CNS = central nervous system; DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone; GHB = gamma-hydroxybutyrate; NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; HMB = calcium beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate; RDA = recommended daily allowance; ATP = adenosine triphosphate. © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” If your lifestyle doesn’t control your meal plan, your diet will control your meal plan.. All References taken from American Dietetic Association Body Mass Index = weight (lbs. __( _____) height inches x height inches (____)2=_____ 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 40 + BMI very low risk low risk moderate risk high risk very high risk Nutr itional Ana lysis S heet x 705 = _______BMI Activity Range . 30-. 40- sedentary . 50-. 60-moderately active . 70-. 80-vigorously active . 90-athlete/instructor 1 Base Metabolic Rate = _______ (10 women, 11 men) Activity Calories = x ________ (body weight) = _______calories /day (maintenance basal metabolic rate/ MBMR) [. 30-1. 0] _______ range of activity] x _________ = _________calories (MBMR) (Activity Calories/AC)Daily Energy Expenditure = ________ + _________ = ___________calories (DEE) (MBMR) (AC) (DEE) © Biscontini findLawrence. com ©2007, Biscontini: ”Alive & Well: Millennium Nutrition,” Body weight = ________ Activity Level = CHO (carbohydrate s) DEE =________ Specific & individualized calculations ?Low-Moderate ? Active/Athlete 55-60% 60-75% ( – )g CHO ( – )g CHO ———————- ——————–3g/lb 3-4. 5 g/lb. __x___ lbs = _______ __x___lbs = _______ 10-15% ( – )g PRO ————————-. 4g/lb ( )g PRO 25-30%
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