Termite is a common name for numerous species of social insects that can damage wooden structures such as furniture or houses. Of about 2000 known species, most are distributed in tropical countries and some inhabit the temperate regions of North and South America; two have become established in southern Europe. Termites are known also as white ants, a misnomer based on superficial similarities in the appearance and habits of these two insect groups. True ants belong to a more advanced insect order that includes also the bees and the wasps.
Termites are relatively primitive; they have thick waists and soft bodies and undergo incomplete metamorphosis (see Insect: Metamorphosis). Nevertheless, they have developed remarkable patterns of social behavior that are almost as elaborate as those of the ants. To prevent damage by termites, building foundations should be built of materials other than wood. Because cracks may develop in such foundations and provide passageways to the wooden parts of the structure, the soil should be treated first with an insecticide to discourage termitic incursions.
Control is obtained also by using wood treated with creosote or some other poisonous chemical. Because most worker termites cannot live without moisture, the termitaries should be exposed to dry air. Meanwhile, Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus (coco-grass, purple nut sedge, red nut sedge) is a species of sedge (Cyperaceae) native to Africa, southern and central Europe (north to France and Austria), and southern Asia. Also, found throughout the Philippines; a common weed in gardens, lawns and wastelands. Cyperus rotundus is a perennial plant, that may reach a height of up to 40 cm.
The names “nut grass” and “nut sedge” (shared with the related species Cyperus esculentus) are derived from its tubers, that somewhat resemble nuts, although botanically they have nothing to do with nuts. The root system of a young plant initially forms white, fleshy rhizomes. Some rhizomes grow upward in the soil, then form a bulb-like structure from which new shoots and roots grow, and from the new roots, new rhizomes grow. Other rhizomes grow horizontally or downward, and form dark reddish-brown tubers or chains of tubers. Plants like Nut Grass excrete essential oils and have been identified as significant organic insect repellents.Experts call such plants are Terpetenoids. On the other hand. Bignay (Antidesma bunius) is a species of fruit tree in the Phyllanthaceae. It is native to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Its common Philippine name and other names include bignay, bugnay or bignai, Chinese-laurel, Herbert River-cherry, Queensland-cherry, salamander-tree, wild cherry, and currant tree.  This is a variable plant which may be short and shrubby or tall and erect, approaching 30 meters in height. It has large oval shaped leathery evergreen leaves up to about 20 centimeters long and seven wide.They are attached to the twigs of the tree with short petioles, creating a dense canopy. The species is dioecious, with male and female flowers growing on separate trees. The flowers have a strong, somewhat unpleasant scent. The staminate flowers are arranged in small bunches and the pistillate flowers grow on long racemes which will become the long strands of fruit. The fruits are spherical and just under a centimeter wide, hanging singly or paired in long, heavy bunches. They are white when immature and gradually turn red, then black. Each bunch of fruits ripens unevenly, so the fruits in a bunch are all different colors.The skin of the fruit has red juice, while the white pulp has colorless juice. The fruit contains a light-colored stone. The fruit has a sour taste similar to that of the cranberry when immature, and a tart but sweet taste when ripe. This tree is cultivated across its native range and the fruits are most often used for making jam. It is often grown as a backyard fruit tree in Java. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antidesma_bunius) The bark is poisonous, containing a toxic alkaloid. Contains phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html)Insecticides are agents of chemical or biological origin that control insects. Control may result from killing the insect or otherwise preventing it from engaging in behaviors deemed destructive. Insecticides may be natural or manmade and are applied to target pests in a myriad of formulations and delivery systems (sprays, baits, slow-release diffusion, etc. ). The science of biotechnology has, in recent years, even incorporated bacterial genes coding for insecticidal proteins into various crop plants that deal death to unsuspecting pests that feed on them. (http://ipmworld. umn. edu/chapters/ware. tm) The insecticidal properties of the two plants as well as their abundance in Aklan particularly in the municipalities of Albasan and Ibajay have motivated the researches to conduct this investigatory project especially nowadays when termites are nuisance to schools, offices and households. B. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the level of effectiveness of using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark extracts as a Termite Killer? 2. Is there a significant difference in the effectiveness of Nut Grass extract and Bignay bark extract in terms of termites killed?C. Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in the effectiveness of the two samples (Nut Grass Extract and Bignay Bark Extract) in terms of termites killed. D. Significance of the Study The results of the study will be of value to the community and manufacturers to come up with an alternative that can be used for many applications as a cost-efficient material component and environment-friendly in terminating the termites. If the researchers are lead by the study, the outcomes will be implemented for the best of all. E.Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was limited on the determination of the effectiveness of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus) extract and Bignai (Antidesma Bunius Lenn. Spreng) Bark extract as a termite killer. It was studied and conducted at Kalibo Pilot Elementary School last July – August 2012. F. Definition of Terms For better understanding of the study, some relevant terms are given their definition. ALKALOIDS – Alkaline compound found in plants; a group of nitrogen – containing compounds that are physiologically active as poison or drugs. Microsoft Encarta Dictionary) CAROTENOIDS are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria, and some types of fungus. Carotenoids can be synthesized fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. Carotenoids generally cannot be manufactured by species in the animal kingdom (although one species of aphid is known to have acquired the genes for synthesis of the carotenoid torulene from fungi by horizontal gene transfer).Animals obtain carotenoids in their diets, and may employ them in various ways in metabolism. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Carotenoid) EXTRACT – to withdraw (as juice) by physical or chemical process. Purified substance; a concentrated or purified substance obtained by first using a solvent to dissolve the substance when present in a mixture and then evaporating the solvent. An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form. (Microsoft Encarta Dictionary) FLAVONOIDS – phenolic compounds naturally occurring compounds belonging to a large group that includes many plants pigments; have many beneficial effects in human diet as anti-oxidants, neutralizing free radicals which damage body tissue and lead to heart disease, strokes and cancer. (Microsoft Encarta Dictionary). ANTHOCYANINS (also anthocyans) – are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH.They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthoxanthins are their clear, white to yellow counterparts occurring in plants. Anthocyanins are derivatives of anthocyanidins, which include pendant sugar (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Anthocyanin) PESTICIDE is any substance or mixture of substances specifically intended to prevent, repel, destroy or lessen the effect of a pest.The term pesticides is technically a catch-all phrase that specifically means one of the following: insecticide, herbicide, fungicide or any other chemical substances used to control pests. Pests that pesticides fight or kill may include insects and insect-like organisms, unwanted plants, weeds, fungi, viruses or bacteria that cause plant diseases, mice and other vertebrate animals or any other pest that may attack plants, soil, trees, structures or people. (http://organic. about. com/od/organicdefinitionsop/g/Pesticide-Definition-Of-Pesticide. tm) PESTICIDE – are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.  A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacterium), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes that destroy property, spread disease or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. (Grolier’s Encyclopedia) Chapter II | REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Pharmacological activities of Nut GrassNutgrass is used to treat poor appetite, diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, parasites, gastritis, indigestion, and sluggish liver. It is said to tone the liver, spleen, and pancreas, and to treat malabsorption. Nutgrass can also be used to treat high blood pressure, bloody stool and urine, and vomiting blood, breast tumors, candida, colds, flu, and colic. It helps treat convulsions, moodiness and depression, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and the pain and cramps associated with PMS, menopause, and heart palpitations. In India they use Nutgrass in hair and skin products as it stimulates sebaceous glands near the hair roots.The oil extracted from this plant is used in perfumery. A decoction of the roots and tubers is used as an antidote to any kind of poison. The 5% nutgrass flatsedge extract can inhibit the isolated uteri of experimental animals by reducing their contractility and tension. Its volatile oil has a mild estrogen-like action. Its water decoction can reduce the tonicity of the intestinal canal and counter acetylcholine. The water solutions of its total alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds have Cardiotonic and hypotensive effects.Alterative, Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antimicrobial, Anti-pyretic, Astringent, Carminative, Demulcent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogueue, Emollient, Febrifuge, Hypoglycemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Nervine, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic, Vermifuge,Pungent, slightly bitter and slightly sweet in flavor, mild in nature, it is related to the liver, spleen and sanjiao (Three Warmers) channels. Stimulant, tonic, demulent, diuretic, anthelmintic, stomache, carminative, diaphoretic, astringent, emmenagogue and vermifuge. (http://www. mdidea. com/products/proper/proper057paper. tml) Chemical Composition of Nut Grass Nut Grass leaves and roots contains: flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and fatty oils (glycerides). (http://www. tropilab. com/nutgrass. html) This herb contains a volatile oil with b-pinene, cyperene, a-cyperone b-cyperone and a-cyperol as its main ingredients. It also contains alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids. (http://www. mdidea. com/products/proper/proper057paper. html) Pharmacological activities of Bignay The tree may be shrubby, 10 to 26 ft (3-8 m) high, or may reach up to 50 or even 100 ft (15-30 m). It has wide-spreading branches forming a dense crown.The evergreen, alternate leaves are oblong, pointed, 4 to 9 in (10-22. 5 cm) long, 2 to 3 in (5-7. 5 cm) wide, dark-green, glossy, leathery, with very short petioles. The tiny, odorous, reddish male and female flowers are produced on separate trees, the male in axillary or terminal spikes, the female in terminal racemes 3 to 8 in (7. 5-20 cm) long. The round or ovoid fruits, up to 1/3 in (8 mm) across, are borne in grapelike, pendent clusters (often paired) which are extremely showy because the berries ripen unevenly, the pale yellowish-green, white, bright-red and nearly black stages present at the same time.The skin is thin and tough but yields an abundance of bright-red juice which leaves a purple stain on fabrics, while the pulp, only 1/8 in (3 mm) thick is white with colorless juice. Whole fruits are very acid, much like cranberries, when unripe; are subacid, slightly sweet, when fully ripe. Some tasters detect a bitter principle or “unpleasant aftertaste” which is unnoticeable to others. There is a single, straw-colored stone, an irregular, flattened oval, ridged or fluted, very hard, 3/8 in (1 cm) long, 1/4 in (6 mm) wide. P. J.Wester mentions a “very distinct and superior variety” as reliably reported from the Mountain Province, Philippines. Origin and Distribution The bignay is native and common in the wild from the lower Himalayas in India, Ceylon, and southeast Asia (but not Malaya) to the Philippines and northern Australia. It is an abundant and invasive species in the Philippines; occasionally cultivated in Malaya; grown in every village in Indonesia where the fruits are marketed in clusters. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from the Philippines in 1905 twice in 1913), and again in 1918).Quite a few trees have been planted in southern Florida in the past and the fruits were formerly appreciated as a source of juice for jelly, commercialized in a limited way, but are rarely so used today. There are specimens in experimental stations in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Honduras and Hawaii. Climate The tree is not strictly tropical for it has proved to be hardy up to central Florida. It thrives in Java from sea-level to 4,000 ft (1,200 m). It grows well and flowers but does not set fruit in Israel. Propagation Many seeds are non-viable in Florida, perhaps because of inadequate pollination.Since seedlings may turn out to be male, and female seedlings may not bear for a number of years, vegetative propagation is preferred. The tree is readily multiplied by cuttings, grafting or air-layering. The air-layers have borne fruit in 3 years after transplanting to the field. Ochse recommends grafting in the wet season because scions will remain dormant in dry weather. Most female trees will bear some fruit without the presence of a male because many of the flowers are perfect. Culture The trees should be spaced 40 to 45 ft (12-14 m) apart, each way.And one male tree should be planted for every 10 to 12 females to provide cross-pollination. Wind-protection is desirable when the trees are small. Otherwise they require very little cultural attention. Yield Yield varies greatly from tree to tree if they are grown from seed. A mature tree in Florida has produced 15 bushels of fruit in a season. One very old tree at the home of Dr. David Fairchild produced 22 bushels yielding 72 gals (273 liters) of juice. Season In Indonesia, the trees flower in September and October and the fruits mature in February and March.The fruiting season is July to September in North Vietnam. In Florida it extends from late summer through fall and winter because some trees bloom much later than others. Pests and Diseases The tree is attacked by termites in Southeast Asia. In Florida, the leaves may be heavily attacked by mealybugs and by scale insects and sooty mold develops on their excretions. Here, also, the foliage is subject to green scurf and algal leaf spot caused by Cephaleuros tirescens. Food Uses In Malaya, the fruits are eaten mostly by children. Indonesians cook the fruits with fish.Elsewhere the fruits (unripe and ripe together) are made into jam and jelly though the juice is difficult to jell and pectin must be added. Some cooks add lemon juice as well. If the extracted bignay juice is kept under refrigeration for a day or so, there will be a settling of somewhat astringent sediment which can be discarded, thus improving the flavor. For several years, the richly-colored jelly was produced on a small commercial scale in southern Florida. The juice makes an excellent sirup and has been successfully fermented into wine and brandy.In Indonesia and the Philippines, the leaves are eaten raw or stewed with rice. They are often combined with other vegetables as flavoring. _____________________________________________________________________________Morton, J. 1987. Bignay. p. 210–212. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, M Toxicity The bark contains a toxic alkaloid. The heavy fragrance of the flowers, especially the male, is very obnoxious to some individuals. Other Uses Bark: The bark yields a strong fiber for rope and cordage. Wood: The timber is reddish and hard.If soaked in water, it becomes heavy and, according to Drury, “black as iron”. It has been experimentally pulped for making cardboard. Medicinal Uses: The leaves are sudorific and employed in treating snakebite, in Asia. | | Chemical Composition of Bignai (Antidesma Bunius) Phytochemicals / Flavonoids: Analysis on Flavanoids Contents in Mao Luang Fruits of Fifteen Cultivars (Antidesma bunius), Grown in Northeast Thailand: Study showed 15 cultivars to possess different amounts of flavonoids of catechin, proyanidins B1 and B2.Cytotoxicity: (1) Biological Activity of Bignay [Antidesma bunius (L. ) Spreng] Crude Extract in Artemia salina: Study suggests that bignay possibly contains compounds with potential cytotoxic activity. The bark is poisonous, containing an toxic alkaloid. Contains phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html) Pesticide application Pesticide application refers to the practical way in which pesticides, (including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, or nematode control agents) are delivered to their biological targets (e. . pest organism, crop or other plant). Public concern about the use of pesticides has high-lighted the need to make this process as efficient as possible, in order to minimize their release into the environment and human exposure (including operators, bystanders and consumers of produce). (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pesticide_application). Application methods for household insecticides Pest management in the home begins with restricting the availability to insects of three vital commodities: shelter, water and food.If insects become a problem despite such measures, it may become necessary to control them using chemical methods, targeting the active ingredient to the particular pest.  Insecticide used for killing pests—most often insects, and arachnids—primarily comes in an aerosol can, and is sprayed directly on the insect or its nest as a means of killing it. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pesticide_application) Chapter III Methodology This chapter includes the following topics: materials used in the experimentation, and the processes involved in making the treatments, ethods of research, collection of data used and statistical treatment Materials Nut grass leaves, Bignay bark, water, mortar and pestle, blender, coffee grinder, strainer, measuring spoon, warm water, beaker, graduated cylinder, plastic sprays, containers, scissors, basin Procedures A. Gathering of Materials The nut grass leaves were taken from the hometown of one of the researchers, while the bignay bark was taken from the KPES school campus. Materials as well as the apparatuses were taken from the science laboratory, gathered and prepared by the researchers for the study. B. Preparation of TreatmentsA. 100 ml. bignay bark extract and 0 ml. nut grass extract B. 50 ml. bignay bark extract and 50 ml. nut grass extract C. 0 ml. bignay bark extract and 100 ml. nut grass extract C. Application of Treatments The experiment was conducted at the Kalibo Pilot Elementary School, Kalibo, Aklan. The researchers gathered the needed materials for the experiment. There were three replications for each treatment. It was applied and tested from July 2012 to August 2012 and recorded by the researchers and were subjected to statistical treatment. Flowchart Gathering of Materials| Preparation of TreatmentsApplication of Treatments Evaluation of Treatments D. Evaluation of Treatments The researchers evaluated the samples in every replication using the Scaling System Mean of Samples Died| | | Description| | | | | 7. 00 – 10. 00| | Very effective| 4. 00 – 6. 59| | Effective| 1. 00 – 3. 59| | Not effective | E . Research Design The research design used in the study was completely randomized design. This is for studying the effects of one primary factor without the need to take other nuisance variables into account. There were three samples replicated three times applied at random on the sample.Completely Randomized Design was appropriate for the study because it has three homogenous sample. F. Data Collection Technique Pure observation method was used as a data collecting tools. The researchers took charge of the application and observation of the termite killing during school days between July 2012 to August 2012 for the purpose of data gathering. The data gathered were subjected to statistical treatment. G. Statistical Tool Used The mean (or average) of a set of data values is the sum of all of the data values divided by the number of data values.The mean is useful for predicting future results when there are no extreme values in the data set. Standard deviation shows how much variation or “dispersion” exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values. The data were interpreted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software. (SPSS). Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Table 1-ALevel of Effectiveness of Using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract as a Termite Killer Treatment A Treatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean | SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | | A| 10| 10| 10| 6| 6| 5| 17| 5. 66| 3. 01| Effective | Table 1-A shows the number of termites killed by using 100 ml. nut grass extract. Results show that treatment A with a mean result of 5. 66 signifies that it is an effective termite killer. Table 1-B Level of Effectiveness of Using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark Extracts as a Termite Killer Treatment BTreatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean | SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | | B| 10| 10| 10| 5| 6| 7| 18| 6| 3. 05| Effective| Table 1-B shows the number of termites killed by 50 ml nut grass extract and 50 ml bignay bark extract. Results show that treatment B with a mean result of 6 is Effective as a termite killer. Table 1-C Level of Effectiveness of Using Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark Extracts as a Termite Killer Treatment C Treatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean| SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | |C| 10| 10| 10| 10| 8| 9| 27| 9| 1. 67| Very Effective| In Table 1 – C, a mean result of 5 shows the number of termites killed by treatment C. Results show that treatment C with 100 ml Bignay bark Extract is effective as a termite killer. Table 2 Difference in the Effectiveness of Nut Grass Extract and Bignay Bark Extract in Terms of Termites Killed Treatment| Mortality Rate| Mean Mortality| Verbal Description| | R1| R2| R3| | | A| 6| 6| 5| 6a| Effective| B| 5| 6| 7| 6a| Effective| C| 10| 8| 9| 9b| Very effective| *significant at 5% alpha level Table 2 shows the mortality rate of termites in each treatment.Treatment A with a mean mortality of 6a is effective as a termite killer. While, treatment B with a mean mortality rate of 6a is effective as a termite killer. On the other hand, treatment C with a mean mortality rate of 9b very effective as termite killer. Chapter V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations This chapter presents the findings, summary of this investigatory project, the conclusions drawn based from the actual result and findings obtained, and some recommendations implied for further improvement of the study and researches done. SummaryThe study determined the insecticidal effect of cyperus rotundus extract and bignay (antidesma bunius) bark extracts as Termite Killer. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions; 1. What is the level of effectiveness of using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark extracts as a Termite Killer? 2. Is there a significant difference in the effectiveness of the two samples ( Nut Grass extract and Bignay bark extract) in terms of termites killed? The study was conducted between the months of July 2012 to August 2012.In the collection of data, the treatments were rated based on the scales provided as grouped according to the levels of nut grass extract and bignay bark extract. Findings: The following significance were noted: 1. The mean mortality of treatment A was 6a or Effective, while the mean mortality of treatment B was 6a or Effective on the other hand, the mean mortality of treatment C was 9b or Very Effective. 2. The mean result of all the treatments shows that all the treatments have the insecticidal effect. 3. Results show that treatments A, B, and C can be effectively used as termite killer Conclusions: It was concluded that: . The mean mortality of treatment A was 6a or Effective, while the mean mortality of treatment B was 6a or Effective on the other hand, the mean mortality of treatment C was 9b or Very Effective. 2. Nut Grass Extract and Bignay bark Extract can be effectively used as termite killer. 3. Nutgrass extract and bignay bark extract posses the insecticidal effect for termites. Recommendations: Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations are made: 1. Treatment A, B and C are all effective and can be used as a termite killer. 2. Future researchers should discover other ways of utilizing nut grass and bignay. 3.Information dissemination should be done to promote awareness of the new product. Bibliography / Interactive Materials: New World Encyclopedia. com Microsoft Encarta http://www. ciwmb. ca. gov/publications/plastics/43207003. pdf International Starch Institute http://www. foodreference. com/html/art-sweet-potato-yam. html http://www. freepatentsonline. com/5861461. html) http://www. experiment-resources. com/experimental research. html#ixzz2cIx66pVF (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antidesma_bunius) (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html) (http://ipmworld. umn. edu/chapters/ware. htm (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Anthocyanin)