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Filtration Filtration is a mechanical or physical process to separate solid particulates from fluids Filtration is a technique used to separate a solid from a liquid. The solid is separated from the liquid phase by passing the mixture over a filtering media. Filtering media is characterized by being chemically inert to the mixture, and having small pathways for the liquid to pass through, but these pathways should be smaller than the solid particle size.Filtering media can be prepared using paper, fritted-glass, or any porous material. The mixture can be forced through the filter by either gravity or reduced pressure on one side of the filter (by creating a vacuum). It is possible to separate a solid from a liquid by either technique; however there are advantages to each technique. Crystallization Crystallization is a significant development, which reduces the energy consumption in the polyester manufacturing process.It allows energy that is retained in the polyester melt to be utilized for the crystallization step. The direct crystallization process starts at the extrusion die, where the melt is formed into several strands of uniform thickness. Depending on the specific pelleting process applied, the strands will be maintained over a short distance and are partially cooled with water before being cut into pellets. The cooling water is maintained at a temperature of 60 to 95 °C.It is preferably separated from the pellets by a centrifugal dryer, with the pellets then being transferred to a crystallizer. In the crystallizer, he pellets are agitated by a fluidizing gas stream in order to prevent agglomeration. For a higher throughput rate, several pelleting systems may converge in a single crystallizer. Simple distillation Simple Distillation is the process of boiling a liquid mixture/solution and condensing the vapor to obtain a pure liquid. This means, separating liquids from the solution] In distillation, the more volatile component of the mixture—that is, the part that is more easily vaporized—is separated from the less volatile portion. With regard to the illustration used above, of separating water from salt, clearly the water is the more volatile portion: its boiling point is much, much lower than that of salt, and the heat required to vaporize the salt is so great that the water would be long since vaporized by the time the salt was affected.Sublimation Sublimation change of a solid substance directly to a vapor without first passing through the liquid state. The term is also used to describe the reverse process of the gas changing directly to the solid again upon cooling. An example of sublimation is seen when iodine, on being heated, changes from a dark solid to a purplish vapor that condenses directly to a crystalline solid upon striking a cool surface. In this way pure crystals of iodine are prepared.Some other substances, e. g. , mercuric chloride, can be prepared by sublimation. Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice, sublimes at – 78. 5°C ( – 109. 3°F). Sublimation also occurs when air saturated with water vapor is suddenly cooled below the freezing point of water. Frost and snowflakes are thus formed by water changing directly from the gaseous to the solid state. Fractional distillation A process by which a chemical compound is separated into components by distillation.In fractional distillation the compound is heated and, as each of its constituent components comes to a boil, its vapors are separated and cooled, so it can be removed in its pure form. Fractional distillation is used to refine petroleum. Fractional distillation is the separation of mixtures into their component fractions or parts, for instance in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation that makes use of common laboratory glassware and apparatuses.

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