The cell is absolutely a very sophisticated part of an organism. One instance that exemplifies this argument is that cells can produce protein. It isn‘t as simple as just making protein, and it involves decoding and transcribing DNA codes. Another illustration of this statement is that cells have the rare ability to duplicate themselves. Many types of cells, including human cells, use a process called mitosis, to generate clones. In this abridging essay, I will condense the complicated data we learned about these specific subjects. The first topic I will discuss is the replication procedure called mitosis.
Mitosis is a cell division method that requires a certain sequence to be completed successfully. In mitosis, two new cells are created which have the same numbers and kinds of chromosomes as the original , or parent cell. The first step is called interphase. Interphase is the time period when the cell prepares for cell division, which means the cell makes copies of the chromosomes, and acquire nutrients. This is also considered the time when a cell carries out typical cell functions, such as protein synthesis and growth. The step subsequent to interphase is called prophase.
In prophase, the chromotids(pairs of chromosomes) are fully viewable if observed through a microscope. The nucleus and nuclear membrane begin disintegrating and disappearing, while the centrioles shift to opposite sides of the cell. After prophase, the cell begins to divide. The steps following prophase are when the cell initiates the duplication process. Metaphase is the phase directly after prophase, in which the chromotids line up at the center of the cell and attach to the spindle fibers. After this step, anaphase commences. The anaphase is when the chromosomes separate from each other because of the spindle fibers pulling back.
Consequently, telophase starts. Telophase is the final step in mitosis, in which a new nucleus is formed and the cytoplasm starts separating. At the end of mitosis, the two new cells divide and pop, like jell-o. Another sophisticated process that happens in cells is protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is just a different way of saying how protein is produced. DNA is also called deoxyribonucleic acid, and contains encrypted information about how to produce proteins. The nitrogen bases in DNA are like puzzle pieces since they only fit to certain other bases(A-T,G-C). Proteins are long chains of amino acids.
The types of proteins being made are what make your brown hair brown, or your blue eyes blue. RNA, is also called ribonucleic acid. There are 3 different types of RNA made from the DNA in a cell. mRNA is what transfers the DNA code from the nucleus to the ribosome. rRNA is what the ribosome is made of. tRNA is what brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome. mRNA is different from DNA since Thymine is replaced by Uralic(A-U) in the mRNA code. At the ribosome, tRNA momentarily matches with the mRNA code. As the tRNA molecules decode the mRNA code, the amino acids attached to them connect and form the beginning of a protein.
Those tRNA molecules then leave to retrieve more amino acids from the cytoplasm while the ribosome moves along so that new tRNA molecules can repeat the process and add to the protein molecule, which, again, is a long chain of amino acids. In short, that is the long coded protein forming process. Cell Division and Protein Synthesis are complex and elaborate parts of our biological structure. These functions are critical to the distinctive health of the human body. This was a fun topic to learn, and I hope to return to this subject of learning at any time. Thank you for taking time to read my longer than expected essay, and good-bye.