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Key Enm4 Essay

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ENM411 Market leader –Upper-Intermediate 1 UNIT 1-7 Listening |SPRING2010 |SUM2011 |FALL2011 |SPRING2012 | | | Midterm: Builder Higher Test 2, Part 1, Part 2 Cambridge BEC Higher 1- Test 1, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 1, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 1- Test 2, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 4, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 4, Test 3, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 4, Test 3, Part 3 Final Exam Cam Higher 3-Test 3, Part 1 Builder Higher Test 2, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 1, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, test 2, Part 3

Cambridge BEC Higher 1- Test 3, Part 1 Vantage Builder, Test 2, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 3, Part 1 Cambridge Pass Vantage Self-study, Test 1, Part 3 Resit Pass Vantage self study- Test 2, Part 1, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 2, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 3, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 1- Test 4, Part 1 Pass Vantage self-study, Test 1, Part 3 Cambridge Builder Higher, Test 1, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 4, Test 4, Part 3 WRTITING Midterm: Your Managing Director is considering how to improve the company’s internal communications, Write a proposal for the Managing Director:

Final: Midterm: An international fund is offering grants to small businesses to improve their facilities. Write a letter FE: Your company is considering appointing someone as your assistant,Write a report for your manager, describing: Resit: The graph below shows the profit and loss made on three new products (A, B and C) in the year following their introduction to the market. Using the information from the graph, write a short report READING Midterm Pass Cambridge BEC Higher Selfstudy p. 33 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 3 Part 2, p. 60 Cambridge BEC Higher 1, Test 1 Part 3, p. 22

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Cambridge BEC Vantage 3, Test 1 Part 4 Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 1 Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 2 Part 3, Cambridge BEC Vantage 4, Test 1 Part 4 Cambridge BEC Higher 1, Test 2, Part 1 Vantage Self study, Test 2, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 1, Test 3, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 1, test 2, part 4 Final BEC Vantage Masterclass Unit 4, Workbook p. 10 Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 1, part 2, p. 20 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 4 Part 3, p. 82 Cambridge BEC Vantage 4, Test 4 Part 4 Cambridge BEC Higher 1, Test 1 Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 1 Part 3, Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, Test 2, Part 4

Cambridge BEC Higher 2, Test 3, Part 1 Pass BEC Vantage Self-study, Test 2, Part 3 Cambridge BEC Higher 4, Test 3, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 4, Test 2, Part 4 Resit Cambridge BEC Vantage Self-study, Test 1, Part 4, P. 24 Cambridge BEC Vantage 2, test 1 part 2, p. 20 Cambridge BEC higher 2, test 2, part 3 p. 30 Cambridge BEC Vantage Self Study, Test 4 Part 4 Cambridge BEC Higher 4, Test 4, Part 1 Cambridge BEC Vantage 3, Test 1 Part 3 Cambridge BEC Vantage Self study, Test 3, Part 4 Cambridge BEC Higher 4, Test 3, Part 1 Vantage Self study, Test 3, Part 3 (used) Builder Higher , Test 1, part 1

Pass BEC Vantage Self study, Test 2, part 4 Grammar and Vocabulary Progress Test 1 + Midterm block 1 + Final Exam + Resit MC Unit 1 This invention reduced production time by a…… of months, and Freudenberg consequently became one of the biggest tanneries in Europe. issue problem trouble matter Installing an automated system means data is now…… only once but can be access by anyone in the company. penetrated entered put placed I have received numerous complaints that Meetup is…… people with unwanted emails. bombarding falling pouring flowing When …… , effective communicators are good at giving information. peak speaking spoken to speak The manager recommends …… email only three times a day, allocating a set period of time to deal with it. checking to check check checked If you say something under your ……, you whisper or say it very quietly. mouth ears tongue breath It is easy to …… the difference between the banknotes used in the country. say speak tell talk Good communicators do not ramble and lose …… of the main message. meaning light sense sight A …… person always keeps his or her attention fixed on what he or she wants to achieve. uninhibited focused eloquent succinct

When somebody is dismissed from the job, we can say that they have…… got the boot got the shoe got the sandal got the slipper He was unable to express his disagreement although he is generally ……. amicable assertive accessible agreeable Identifying the subgroups within an organization and making sure each group feels valued and respected can do …… more to encourage the sharing of information. further far many lot Good communicators make their …… clearly and avoid technical terms, abbreviation or jargons. points means thought perceptions Not all politicians are eloquent. Some of them even use an…… autocue notepad sticker auto note

Installing an automated system means data is now …… only once but can be accessed by anyone in the company, wherever they are. paced registered admitted entered 1. Good communicators maintain eye contact and have a relaxed body language when speaking; they really take in what people say. in on at up 2. The speakers went on and on and did not get to the point. I had no idea of what they were rambling about. Rambling digressing interrupting engaging 3. Good communicators sometimes digress and leave the main point to add information and details. However, they will not ramble and lose sight of the main message. Confuse digress explain larify 4. It’s useful to allocate a set period of time to process your inbox, rather than checking it sporadically throughout the day. Allocate indicate deliver distribute 5. The company’s advertising emphasizes that it provides a personal health service tailored to the individual needs. Met tailored satisfied fixed 6. A brave new world is a world in which society has been transformed by technology and science. Brave progressive modern courageous 7. It is easy to tell the difference between the banknotes in the US and the UK. Say tell speak ask 8. He would like to know whether he stands a chance of getting promoted or not.

Hang on a second. I am afraid that we are duplicating work because I also asked my department to do this. Copying duplicating wasting imitating 9. Breakdown in communication can bring the world to a halt today. Stop halt cancel interruption 10. If something is in the air, you feel that it is happening or about to happen. air sky hand atmosphere 11. The…….. articulate people express thoughts and feelings easily and clearly so that almost everyone can understand. Responsive eloquent persuasive articulate 12. He seems so uninhibited here. He behaves and speaks freely and does not care what other people may think. Incoherent rticulate uninhibited inarticulate 13. By creating a relaxed atmosphere, good presenters can easily establish rapport for the audience. And a good rapport, as many presenters will tell you, is half the battle. Set up form establish find 14. The collapse of the company will have repercussions for the whole industry Percussions discussion recession repercussions Extra Disruptive technology is a new technology, such as computers and Internet, which has rapid and major effect on technologies that existed before. The tariff for something is a list of prices, especially ones which vary according to the time or day of use.

When somebody is dismissed from the job, we can say that they have Got the boot Got the shoe Got the sandal Got the slipper A lazy employee who only pretends to work is said to be Swinging the lead Fillblank 1. If something is in the a(ir/air), you feel that it is happening or about to happen. 2. Information o(verload/overload) means that decisions about what to read amongst thousands of potential books and articles is a highly problematic task. 3. I can’t make head or t(ail/tail) of that badly written report. 4. If you give somebody a low-d(own/down) you tell them all the information they need to know. . If you a(ir/air) your views, you express your opinions about something in public. 6. Despite his great s(ense/sense) of humor, he often find it difficult to respond to his audience. 7. “R(edundancy/redundancy)” is the situation when someone loses their job because their employer does not need them. 8. Good presenters establish good r(apport/rapport) with the audience. 9. A(rticulation/articulation) is the formation of clear and distinct sounds in speech. 10. An open p(lan/plan) office is the one which has few or no walls inside, so it is not divided into smaller rooms. 11.

A l(ine/line) manager is a person with direct managerial responsibility for a particular employee. 12. Internal communication can be one of the hardest nuts to c(rack/crack) in business. I am not sure whether or not I s(tand/stand) a chance of being promoted soon. As he couldn’t attend the meeting, she is giving a summary of the main point to put him in the p(icture/picture). If you are at a l(oss/loss) for words, you are unable to say anything because something surprising or totally unexpected has happened. If someone drops a h(int/hint), he or she makes a suggestion in an indirect way. Unit 2

In the short term, firms may experience increased risk and decreasing profits when….. going international. Going Traveling Cruising Arriving The main target of the anti-globalization movement is corporate power, not capitalism, but these perspectives do not necessarily exclude one another. progress Movement Arrival Motion Because of the budget…. , this year’s focus has been to add value to increase sales without impacting gross profit margin. lack emptiness constraints complications We …… out promotional activities for various companies in the internet through classified websites. bring take make carry

People in Chile prefer instant coffee …… freshly brewed. to with for about Even the most …… differences in consumer profile of a Columbian and a Venezuelan will not have been lost in Starbucks. illusive catchy gentle subtle In order to …… competitive advantage, companies will try to make their products and services stand out from their competitors’. insure secure sure certain Marketers need to be aware of the buying behavior of ……and potential customers. present existing conventional current US-style coffee houses have been …… up in the upmarket districts of the country. appearing springing coming oing Anyone who knows the Starbucks story can already visualize potential outlets in the most fashionable …… of the region’s capital cities. neighborhoods neighbors fields factors The …… aim of advertising is to persuade consumers to choose a specific product or service. efficient extreme ultimate decisive Brand also presents some intangible aspects of a product since it is how the product or often even the whole company’s …… by its customers. perceived received believed relieved Brand is the …… of ideas, feelings, and perceptions about lifestyle and status, image and quality. versus nexus lexis focus

Numerous shopping malls offer customer free parking, and all the major retail brands can be purchased under one ……. roof house tower citadel Coca Cola has …… its soft drinks to every market. economized altered customized separated Consumer tastes vary enormously from one country to ……. another the other ohers other Their mailing list contains plenty of information and data so that they won’t have any difficulty …… the most appropriate recipients for the mailshots. to identify identify identifying identified The most important decisions for international marketing are probably……product standardization and variety reduction. hat of what which of those of In international marketing, it is necessary to meet individual national requirements, particularly where ……goods are concerned. consumer consumption consuming consumed 15. The 2008 market is a declining market with businesses closing down, employees losing their jobs and a challenging stock market. Reducing declining falling failing 16. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of crops, but some modifications may be necessary to accommodate the… peculiarities of each type. Forms specialties peculiarities specifications 17.

Irony… is a situation in which something which was intended to have a particular result has the opposite or a very different result. Subtleness irony peculiarity homogeneity 18. Some analysts say Starbucks was forced to globalize because it had saturated its home market. Balanced equaled saturated justified 19. The extremely …volatile exchange rate has contributed to considerable uncertainty in ? nancial markets. Impressive volatile confidential expanding 20. Expanding …. operations overseas poses challenges, including finding business partners, protecting intellectual property and complying with different local laws. Businesses Operations ork enterprises 21. For long-term sustainability of the industry, it is important to diversify the product …range and move towards products that are less resource intensive and fulfil market requirements. Types range forms mediums 22. Mission …statement is a short written description of the aims of a business, charity, government department or public organization. purpose mission target aim 23. If you want to compete you must play to your own strengths. play work base contribute 24. In many countries today, global brand owners command the super-premium… end of the market in any given product category, while local brands command the rest.

Side end type sort 25. Global brand owners poured into the newly opened markets and, facing little competition in countries unaccustomed to consumer culture, they thought they would clean up. With about to for 26. As people become better off, they want more choices, not fewer. On with about off In order FillBlank 1. R(ed/red) t(ape/tape) and other examples of government bureaucracy hinder a company’s entry into a market. 2. Consumers’ buying habits can be described as their p(urchasing/purchasing) behavior. 3. A w(holesaler/wholesaler) sells goods to the retailers, usually in large quantities. 4.

If goods in a shop are on s(pecial/special) offer, they are being sold at a lower price than usual. 5. If a market s(aturates/saturates), it provides too much of a product so that there is more of this product available than there are people who want to buy it. 6. N(ovelty/novelty) is something which has not been experienced before and so is interesting. 7. If a culture is h(omogeneous/homogeneous), it consists people which are similar to each other or are of the same type. 8. A m(ission/mission) s(tatement/statement) is a formal summary of the aims and values of a company, organization, or individual. 9.

M(arketing mix/marketing mix) is a combination of factors that can be controlled by a company to influence consumers to purchase its products. 10. M(ailshot/mailshot) is the posting of advertising or similar material to a lot of people at one time. Marketers sometimes focus on particular segments of a given overall market. This process is known as ‘t(arget/target) marketing’ T(angible/tangible) assets are real, physical assets owned by a firm or individual that can be seen or touched. Unit 3 The excellent relations the company enjoys with the local community are a …… to its highly effective PR Department. credit gift alent genius As a result of the government’s …… of currency controls, its close relations with several major foreign investors have been jeopardized. proposition imposition compensation concession While some of Toyota’s Japanese plants have …… production for certain models, over 16 plants are still closed. assumed consumed undermined resumed Retailers need to …… and build a relationship with the customer across a range of channels including the internet. inquire require acquire secure There’s a lot we can do to keep our customers and learn more about them. But we need to be creative and come …… with good ideas. p on about for I hope you don’t mind me ……. to phone phoning phone phoned I hope that you might be able to advise me …… franchising contracts. for with about on Relations between them are rather ……. They don’t seem to like or trust each other. smooth straightened amiable strained IAG has an unrivalled scale of operations and a …… of political and business connections. property wealth vast sum China is probably the insurance market with the biggest …… potential in the world . untapped unheard unknown untouched Today, turning its pioneering presence into a ……success is AIG’s biggest challenge. ntrepreneurial commercial enterprising economical The report ……two key elements of a successful strategy. pinpoints guides invents orients In China, extravagant entertainment are part of business ……. doing practice action act The ……customer of the 21st century does not have time on his or her hands. relentless disordered preoccupied restless Many major retailers failed to adjust to the …… towards internet buying. orientation move direction walk Unit 3 27. After …. cementing good contacts, he went in and completely.. undermined all our hard work. Breaking/soured maintaining/established romoting/ built cementing/undermined 28. Widespread rumours of a hostile take-over bid are certain to .. strain relations between two leading French software companies. drain strain stress pain 29. The restless customer of the 21 century does not have time on his or her hands and there are million other providers, all ready and eager to sell to that customer. Restful Restless resting rested. 30. If something is transparent, it is very clear and easy to understand. Transferable transparent transmissible transactional 31. If someone is explicit, he or she says things clearly, exactly and openly. xplicit implicit requisite honest 32. An intermediary is someone who carries messages between people who are unwilling or unable to meet. Immediacy intermediary intermediatory intermediation 33. I think we’ll have to terminate his contract because he doesn’t fit in with the other people in the office. Extend renew terminate sign 34. If a bank or other organization underwrites an activity, it gives it financial support and takes responsibility for paying any costs if it fails. Underwrites makes certain guarantees secures 35. Capitalization is the total value of a company’s shares on a stock exchange.

Market price capital capitalization market share 36. China was considered to be the insurance market with the biggest untapped potential in the world Untouched untapped unused undone 37. To lobby means to attempt to convince public officials to favor a certain cause or take a certain action. Persuade tempt induce lobby 38. In terms of investing in emerging markets, AIG has an edge over other insurers. edge advance experience activeness 39. With roots dating back more than half a century, AIG has an unrivalled scale of operations and a .. wealth of political and business connections. richness ealth vast various 40. Her outstanding performances set a new… benchmark for singers throughout the world. record remark benchmark line Gapfilling 1. To a(ffiliate/affiliate) means to cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another, usually larger, group or organization. 2. Our agent let us down, we though we could c(ount/count) on him to boost sales but he had no commitment, no motivation. 3. They may be our competitor, but we want to stay on good t(erms/terms) with them. 4. They didn’t h(it/hit) it off at first, but little by little the came to be friends. . You should be able not only to relate to your employees, but also to h(old/hold) on to them. 6. We are definitely going to create a new post, so I suggest we should s(ound/sound) out a few people about it. 7. We continue to be one of the world’s leading business-to-business supplier of office products and services, and our m(otto/motto) continues to be “Our job is to make your job easier”. 8. We’d like to d(raw/draw) your attention to our special offers for regular customers like you. Customers will tolerate a little delay, but they are unlikely to p(ut/put) up with rudeness.

They get on really well with each other, so it came as a surprise when they f(ell/fell) out over such a trivial incident. He’s going to be t(ied/tied) up in the meeting till noon, so please come and see him in the afternoon. Unit 4 1. The company will …… shares to indicate who owns the company, and in what proportion. print issue publish release 2. Billionaire financier George Soros stands to make ….. profits with his newly launched investment fund. beautiful handsome pretty hunky 3. If you …… something, you to control it, usually in order to use its power. tackle harness integrate

Their hard work and investment is beginning to…… fruit. manufacture produce bear bring Several staff underperformed last year and didn’t ……their targets. see meet talk please Whether or not to deregulate health care is a ….. issue. separate divisive gapping splitting When some key employees disappeared, the boss said that they’d left to …… other opportunities. gain pursue purchase ensure We are looking for ways of …… our rivals. No one will be cheaper than us. underselling below selling above selling overselling In the late 1990s, many countries …… a sharp economic downturn. looked viewed witnessed glanced

Staff who never get any praise for their achievements may …… up underrating their own abilities. finish terminate complete end What we are looking for …… a candidate who can get results and work well under pressure. are is being be 6. Of course I can see now that Brian is an …… to our company, and I’m sorry I so badly misjudged him when he started working for us. asset access assessment acceptance 7. We’ll cut our expenses and downsize our …… in order to become more competitive on the market. practices actions operations work 8. After some teething troubles, they now have a …… business with a huge turnover. declining thriving riving diving It’s been a lot of hard work, but she seems to be really making a …… of her business. walk go step come The new product ……filled the gap of the market and ……took off as soon as it was launched. filled/took filled/set covered/took covered/set If an industry, company, activity etc is in the ……, it is not doing well or developing. depress deadness doldrums docks The Mobil logo is an instantly …… logo across the planet. recognized aware conscious sensed While it’s difficult for the average investor to buy shares in Facebook right now, there are rumors that the company will go …… in 2012. stock general widespread ublic 41. The advent of LCD watch technology in 1970s created a vast opportunity for the company. Arriving Adventure advent going 42. Gimmick is something which is not serious or of real value that is used to attract people’s attention or interest temporarily, especially to make them buy something. Slogan gimmick mimic gadget 43. We have also seen the downfall of some companies which over-expanded during the last boom. Downmove downwards downfall falldown 44. As the retail market became saturated, they had to think up a short-term strategy and develop some long-term planning. Out up on of 45. Today’s consumers are very price.. onscious, but aggressive price promotions undermine the perceived value of our brand Aware knowing informed conscious Gapfilling 1. “N(epotism/nepotism)” means using your power or influence to get good jobs or unfair advantages for members of your own family. 2. If someone is r(uthless/ruthless), they have or show no pity or compassion for others. 3. P(rototype/prototype) is the first example of something, such as a machine or other industrial product, from which all later forms are developed. ’ 4. A t(riumph/triumph) is a very great success, achievement or victory or a feeling of great satisfaction or pleasure caused by this. . The company has loyal customer b(ase/base) because it meets the expectation of customer by always delivering the goods at lower prices. 6. The company made a profit for the first time since going p(ublic/public). 10. A “g(immick/gimmick)” is something which is not serious or of real value that is used to attract people’s attention or interest temporarily, especially to make them buy something. 11. We don’t want our customers to think we were r(ipping/ripping) them off if we charged them a higher price. Nobody thought we’d clinch the deal, but we came up t(rumps/trumps) in the end.

A “high f(lier/flyer/flier/lyer” is someone who has a lot of ability and a strong desire to be successful and is therefore expected to achieve a lot. 7. Since the emergence of high-speed Internet, the music industry has complained that it is being brought to its knees by the p(irates/pirate/pirates/irate) of downloading. 8. A “f(law/flaw)” is a fault, mistake or weakness, especially one that happens while something is being planned or made, or which causes something not to be perfect. 9. If someone is f(ussy/fussy), they not easily satisfied and have very high standards about particular things.

If a company is going p(laces/places), it is on the way to success. We had been always ahead of our rivals until 2003 when they o(utstripped/outstripped) us for the first time. Unit 5 16. We use …… strategies to reach audiences across all channels, from digital to mobile to word of mouth. integrated consolidated united blended 17. In the interview with Bloomberg Opedal says that Orkla is willing to sell assets to ……the expansion in Asia. supply finance pay off provide 18. Unemployment in the booming economies of Australia and New Zealand is at ……lows. most least record highest 1. The company is …… ways to keep the best salespeople. making oing watching devising 2. A liberal education helps students develop a …… of social responsibility. sense feeling perception sensation Because technology companies face the …… labor markets, they have been the most aggressive in devising ways to keep workers. smallest narrowest tightest tiniest Managers can ……educational and special training leave for staff and encourage them to attend training programmes and conferences. decide avoid add advocate Don’t throw money at the workers who want to leave because pay …… don’t always work. rises raises lifts elevations 6. The company want to hire people that are totally …… with their values. ined dealing accompanied aligned 7. As a boss, you need to make employees feel …… they’re not interested in looking elsewhere, because they’re very happy with their life. as though though if whether 8. Building up employee loyalty is important with unemployment at a …… low. extreme most total record 9. The new CEO …… the bureaucratic corporate culture to profit-minded entrepreneurship. formed transferred transformed translated 10. The growing number of close relationships between staff has very bad effect on both performance and ……. morale moral motive motion He has a ……of accomplishment when a demanding task is carried out successfully. eel sense thinking perception The company should have …… of an individual’s or group’s efforts or contributions. acknowledgement knowledge realization admission 46. If an employee is so overloaded that there is not time to keep organized this can increase the stress that leads to burnout. Over-burn burn-off burnout burn down 47. Generous remuneration packages are often attached to overseas postings. numeration remuneration pay benefit. 48. Wholly foreign owned enterprises enjoy exclusive management control of their own business activities and have …autonomy in their operation and management with less interference from the government.

Appraisal autonomy bureaucracy assessment 49. In a performance …appraisal, an employee discusses with their manager how well they have been doing their job, their progress, aims and needs at work. Bureaucracy commission appraisal incentive 50. Staff retention is one of the key factors required to keep your service quality constantly at high level. Retention maintenance retention intervention 51. Already providing top quality services, the company goes a step further by exceeding customers’ expectations at all times. More forwards upwards further 52. Labor crunch is a situation in which there are not enough workers.

Redundancy restriction crunch intension 53. The company’s parental leave policies are very generous in allowing time off and reentry into employment. Leave off rest vacation 54. We revamped all the management system, but the business is doing no better than it was before. Redid revamped retained regenerated 55. Morale…. is the amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people, especially when in a dangerous or difficult situation. Morale spirit mood status 56. A parent must be careful not to show favoritism towards any one of their children. Favorite favorability favoring favoritism 7. Could I have a quick word with you? saying sentence word talk 58. Actuaries…. are people who calculate insurance risks and premiums according to statistical probabilities. Insurers calculators statisticians actuaries 59. If something is… negligible, it is of very little importance or size and not worth considering. remote negligible slight faint 60. They have to take decisive action to prevent these losses from escalating. Take make create do 61. By focusing on customers and their expectations, he helps companies develop integrated strategies to achieve long-range performance goals.

Integrated connected interrogated interrelated 62. She resumed her career after an interval of six years. Retook resumed redid remade 63. While acts of terrorism receive the most coverage, it’s the more traditional events such as fires, floods, explosions, power failures or natural disasters that have the biggest impact. Cover coverage newspapers social networks 64. Whether the quality of customers’ experiences is poor or excellent, all companies have room for improvement. Place vacancy room emptiness 65. When staff turnover is high, a manager needs to understand why people are leaving and work on correcting it.

Turndown turnoff turnover turning 66. In urban areas all the major operators in the last few years have been focusing on corporate clients to boost their revenues. Boot boost shoot host 67. About five years a go, the company began to lose sales and market share, and in the last two years, it has made a loss. made done caused taken 68. Individual business units must own and manage their own risks within the framework of an overall risk management policy. framework structure infrastructure organization 69. I am going to suggest we carry out a study of the market, and take it from there. carrying carry arried to carry 70. If a company is in a precarious situation, it’s in a dangerous state and there’s a risk that it may go out of business. cautious precautious precarious embarrassing Gapfilling 1 I am up to my e(yes/eyes) at the moment. Would you be able to give me a hand with these progress report for tomorrow’s meeting. 2 R(aw/raw) material is the basic material from which a product is made. 3 R(etention/retention) is the continued use, existence or possession of something or someone. 4 P(erk/perk) is an advantage or extra thing, such as money or goods, which you are given because of your job. Common s(ense/sense) is the basic level of practical knowledge and judgment that we all need to help us live in a reasonable and safe way. 10. People talk much about need for work that gives them quality of life, the work-life b(alance/balance) and the avoidance of stress. A judicious system of p(erks/perks), such as housing allowances or extra holidays should be devised. When the staff feel responsible and accountable for their own work, and when they are somehow involved in the decision-making p(rocess/process), their job satisfaction increases. 6 To d(evise/devise) means to invent a plan, system, object, etc. usually cleverly or using imagination. 7 “D(esperation/desperation)” is the feeling that you have when you are in such a bad situation that you are willing to take risks in order to change it. Everyone needs to continue to develop personally and p(rofessionally/professionally) on the job. A “s(tatus quo/status quo)” is the situation as it is now, or as it was before a recent change. 8. A s(hareholder/shareholder) is a person who owns some of the equal parts into which the ownership of a company is divided. 9. Our general manager is in c(harge/charge) of running the company and for making joint strategic decisions with the CEO.

Unit 6 21. The treatment of a risk in one area may significantly increase the …… to risk in another area. contact exposure revelation disclosure 22. Failure to attempt …… the risks that can occur can easily result in a project riddled with potential for failure. managing manage to manage managed 23. While risk management has…… improved in the last decade, the risks have changed. undoubted undoubting undoubtedly undoubtful 24. Recovery plans of companies should include making certain their vendors and suppliers are also prepared for business ……. interferences interruptions nterventions intrusions 1. The SIA offers a unique forum for dealing with health and …… issues that may impact manufacture or sale of semiconductors domestically. safety protection security well-being 2 We need executives who can manage strategic risks properly in addition to being able to …… decisive action whenever necessary. make take do work 3. The company is losing direction and its core products are losing …….. appeal appearance tempt picture 4. There was a marked growth in turnover, …… the group’s rapid expansion over the last decade. reflect reflects reflected eflecting 5. Implementing a systematic …… to workplace safety will require a cultural change in many organizations and within the safety profession. way methodology road approach 6. Company policy and workstation practice must dictate that safety never takes a back …… to other interests. chair sit seat row No one should tolerate a potentially disabling or life-threatening risk in the …… of cost-cutting, productivity or any other priority. name image title behalf It is impossible to …… all risk when entering a new market. legitimate designate imitate eliminate 9.

Research show that one-third of the world’s leading companies have …… for improvement. place location area room 10. Unless businesses accept and review risk regularly, they could eventually find themselves in a state of crisis, struggling to survive …… focused growth. instead than but rather than Gapfilling 1. If a risk is n(egligible/negligible), it is so small that that it is not worth worrying about. 2. “A(ctuary/actuary)” is a person who calculates how likely accidents, such as fire, flood or loss of property, are to happen, and tells insurance companies how much they should charge their customers. . Many business leaders are s(cratching/scratching) their heads when it comes to protecting their business against risks. 4. Businesses that do attempt to manage these risks will boost their b(ottom/bottom) lines. 5. “H(azard/hazard)” is something that is dangerous and likely to cause damage. 6. Absenteeism is the practice of regularly staying away from work or school without good reason. 7. There is a lot companies can do to stop risky events from becoming a disaster in the first p(lace/place). 8. “C(raftsmanship/craftsmanship) is the skill at making things. 9.

Joint v(enture/venture) is a commercial enterprise undertaken jointly by two or more parties which otherwise retain their distinct identities. 10. “S(take/stake)” is a share or a financial involvement in something such as a business. If the risk is n(egligible/negligible), it is so small that it is not worth worrying about. “D(icey/Dicey)” is an informal word which means the same as “risky”. “Economic b(lockade/blockade)” is a situation when a country or place is surrounded by soldiers or ships to stop people or goods from going in or out. Unit 7 26. ……from Facebook, Fotobounce can also upload photos to Flickr.

Away Apart Except Separated To be open and transparent as part of our commitment to boost public …… in publicly funded education. reliance possession confidence intimacy 28. Vehicle loan providers have set up internet …… where they allow clients to fill out loan applications on the internet. functions working operations actions 29. Yoox. com chose to launch in Europe first, close to the designers …… goods it sells. that which whom whose 30. We enjoy working with companies that want to …… the online world and generate revenue through the ‘ world wide web’ (www). mbrace contain hold encircle 1 ……biggest US retailers are developing integrated operations. Some of the Some the Some of Of the 2. The company has expanded well beyond its …… as a seller of books and CDs, acting as an online mall selling everything from gourmet foods to clothing. basis ground causes roots 3. JC Penney, the century-old department store chain, …… its Internet sales reach $600m last year. saw looked pointed stared 71. If you waste your company’s money you could risk going bankrupt because the money that you are wasting could be better spent else where. oing go to go went 72. If you …. customize a product or service, you make or change it according to the buyer’s need. customize individualize justify commercialize 73. Smarterwork does an excellent job of matching freelance…. professionals to organizations looking for particular skills. professors professionals employers recruiters 74. If you are ….. browsing the Internet, you are looking for information on it. seeking investigating browsing logging on 75. A directory is a book which gives a list of names, addresses or other facts. dictionary postal directory guidebook 76.

Major players such as Coca-Cola are now seeing their Facebook pages receive more hits… than their individual websites. comers guests strikes hits 77. A gourmet is a person who knows a lot about food and cooking, and who enjoys eating high-quality food. eater taster appetite gourmet 78. High-street products are those that are intended for ordinary public and not for rich people. high-street low-street common usual 79. Russian internet company Yota has grown from …… to become one of the largest firms in the market. basics scratch nothing fundamental 80. Internet shopping is easier, more convenient and offer bigger…. nd a lot of the major retailers are having to get to grips with it because consumers are dragging them into the space. sorts goods ranges kinds 81. As we didn’t understand the potential impact of e-purchasing early enough, so we are lagging behind our competitors. coming stepping lagging walking 82. Our company will be able to compete in the new global marketplace only if we seize the opportunities present. seize Do Make hold Fillblank 1. Search e(ngine/engine) is a computer program which finds information on the Internet by looking for words which you have typed in. To l(itter/litter) means to spread across an area or place untidily. 3. A s(tart-up/start-up/ start up/tart up) is a newly established business. “A(utonomy/autonomy) is the ability to act and make decisions without being controlled by anyone else. 4. Bricks and m(ortar/mortar) is the term used to denote a business that operates conventionally rather than over the Internet. 5. M(ail-order/mail-order/ mail order/ail order) is a way of buying goods in which you choose what you want, usually from a catalogue, and it is sent to you. FillBlank Unit 1 1.

As an instructor she has s(ense/sense) of humor, she is enthusiastic and sets long-span goals. 2. “C(orporate/corporate) i(dentity/identity)” is the characteristics of a corporation which is designed to accord with and facilitate the attainment of business objectives. It is usually visibly manifested by way of branding and the use of trademarks. 3. To encourage effective communication between departments, the Trust was keen to adopt open p(lan/plan) office accommodation. Unit 2 4. The process of expanding b(eyond/beyond) the domestic market can seem very intimidating and daunting for many small businesses. . If you state an amount per c(apita/capita), you mean that amount for each person. 6. An o(utlet/outlet) is shop that owned by a particular company and that sells the goods which the company has produced. 7. One of the big problems for smaller investors is getting a f(oothold/foothold) in the commercial property market. 8. F(oreign/forgeign) e(exchange/xchange) is the system by which the type of money used in one country is exchanged for another country’s money, making international trade easier. Unit 3 9. If you b(reak/break) off a talk with someone, you stop it because you can’t find agreement. 0. ILT Services is set to b(uild/build) up a sales network for Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. 11. LABG is a student organization whose purpose is to f(oster/foster) the relations between Chicago Booth and Latin American people. Unit 4 12. The customer b(ase/base) is the group of customers or consumers that a business serves. 13. A w(holly/wholly) owned subsidiary is a company whose stock is entirely owned by another company. 14. C(osmetic/cosmetic) s(urgery/surgery) is any medical operation which is intended to improve a person’s appearance rather than their health. 15.

If you o(utbid/outbid) someone for something, you offer more money than him or her to buy that thing. Unit 5 16. “C(omission/commission)” is the payment to someone who sells goods which is directly related to the amount of goods sold. 17. C(ommon/common) sense is the basic level of practical knowledge and judgment that we all need to help us live in a reasonable and safe way. 18. If you get a pay r(ise/rise), you have an increase in the fixed amount of money you earn for doing your job. 19. Like the rest of the world, Canada will face a labour c(runch/crunch/crisis/risis) in the next 10 years. Unit 6 20.

Successful modern leaders should be supportive of staff, but should also take d(ecisive/decisive) action to maintain standards of behaviour. 21. A h(azard/hazard) is something that is dangerous and likely to cause damage. 22. Staff t(urnover/turnover) is the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced by new people. 23. “A(bsenteeism/ bsenteeism)” is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, it has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance. 24. Financial services firms are ahead of the curve when it c(omes/comes) to risk management practices.

Unit 7 26. A d(irectory/directory) is a book that gives a list of names, addresses or other facts. 27. A p(ioneer/pioneer) is a person who is one of the first people to do something. 28. M(ail/mail) o(rder/order) is way of buying goods in which you choose what you want, usually from a catalogue, and it is sent to you. 29. If someone or something is home-g(rown/grown), they belong to or were developed in your own country. 30. If a product or a service is e(xclusive/exclusive), it is expensive and only for people who are rich or of a high social class. IndicateMistakes Midterm 1.

In the Harvard Business School professor Theodore Lewitt’s seminal paper The Globalization of Market, (written) in 1983, he argued that, as new media and technology shrank the world, people’s tastes would converge, (creating) a single global market that (would be dominated) by the world’s most (success) brands. 2. So when the Berlin Wall (fell) and the barriers (to) world trade (came down), it seemed Prof Lewitt would be proved (rightly). 3. Global brand owners (poured into) the (newly opened markets) and, facing (few competition) in countries (unaccustomed to) consumer culture, they thought they would clean up.

Then some awkward commercial realities started to close in. 4. Once local consumers (had tried) these new products, they (found) them (far too expensively) to buy (on regular basis), even if they liked them. 5. And soon, local producers (sprang up) (offer) much better (value for money) with products of only (slightly inferior quality) at a vastly lower price. 6. (Usually), too, these products were (better suited) to local tastes and cultural preferences than (that) being (foisted onto) consumers by the global corporations. 7.

The global brand owners were left (spreading) their advertising and other (fixing costs) over (tiny market shares) and often faced (extra costs), such as tariffs. 8. In (many of) these countries today, global brand owners command the (super-premium end) of he market in any (given product category), while local brands command (rest). 9. The global brand owners could try (to move) into the mass market by (creating) low-price products (design) to suit local tastes, but that would throw them into head-on competition with local companies possessing better distribution channels and a (far deeper understanding) of the market. 0. Increasingly, therefore, they have resorted to (buying) local brands and the companies (whose) own them. And here, of course, (lies) the paradox. Whatever is the point of owning a global brand if it does not (work) in global market? Final exam 1. (On the surface), flexible working might (seem to be) about people (being) able to choose their working hours and, perhaps, spend some time (to work) away from the office. 2. But it is also (a fundamental change) in the way (people work)- and, (more importantly), the way (they managed). 3.

Flexible working is (a shift) from “time-based” to “result-based” (working practices) and could herald the biggest change (for) the (workplace) since the (start) of the industrial revolution. 4. New employee legislation is one of the main (motivation) for employers (to introduce) flexible working practice-but not the only one. In Europe, for example, employers are obliged (to offer) parents with young or disabled children the right (to request) flexible working. 5. While legislation is a major catalyst to (introducing) flexible working, there are other reasons.

In the US, for example, the fall in the price of (mass market computer) and communications technologies (are) encouraging organization (to allow) more home working. 6. Flexible working is also (likely) to (appeal to) a wider skill pool and help with (staff retention). Marry Sue Rogers, human capital management leader at IBM Global Service, says that IBM has embraced flexible working (helping) with recruitment. 7. In Europe, companies have to (provide) flexible working (because of) legislation-but it is also a way (to recruit) from a broader skill pool, (include) women and older people. . (With) an (ageing) workforce we have to find ways to retain older staff. It also gives (greater scope) to male employees who (increasing) want flexible working to create a better work/life balance. 9. Although new legislation (is forcing) organizations (to adopt) flexible working practices, there are (sound) business reasons to give employees more (flexible). 10. Organizations which have (embraced) flexible working have found that it can (cut costs) and improve productive). More importantly, it enables them (to recruit) staff from much broader skill pool and retain staff.

Resit 1. Management (at) large organizations do not embark (on) widespread and risky company restructurings (unless) they believe their businesses are (for) straitened financial circumstances. 2. And the potential long-term damage (with) company branding that can be done if staff and managers clash publicly (over) plans will almost always take a back seat (to) other priorities, such as getting the business back (into) profit. 3. Nevertheless, brands are (a key part) of the intangible assets that (is) playing an (increasingly) important role on company (balance sheets). 4.

This (means) that it can be a serious issue for any business if its brands emerge as (tainted) in the long term by strikes and other industrial conflicts. If this is the (risky), how can corporations or other (branded organizations) reduce this danger? 5. Langford estimates that about a third of his clients’ problems (with respect to) this risk (are) caused by the behavior of their (staff); with industrial action and disaffected workers (be) the most common examples. 6. Poor industrial relations do not come about (in isolation). They reflect (on) the business (as whole) and the way (in which) it is being managed. 7.

If the management think the brand is (something) (done) by the marketing communications department, (this) makes for very poor brand (strategic). 8. The danger here for service companies (is) that the impression of the brand (given) to the customer is often dictated by the (behave) of staff at the bottom of the (organization hierarchy). 9. Brands (represent) the (value) of the organization’s relationship with (their) customers. It’s the one thing (a competitor) cannot copy. 10. Companies are not able (to insure) against (declines) in brand value, but often compound the problem by (not manage) the risk to (their) most valuable asset.

Indicate mistakes Midterm (1-3) 1. The communication between companies and customers is (increasing) becoming two-way, with customers service centres (designed) to gather information, not just (complaints), from customers about (all aspects of use) of a company’s products. 2. (Some) say that first impressions (count). (Another) think that someone’s character can only be judged after a lot of (contact) in business contexts and socially. 3. A new trend for companies (to set up) e-marketplaces on the Internet (that) they work together (on) procurement of materials and parts.

Suppliers can make bids (in competition with) each other. 4. When firms work together (on) a particular project, they may (enter) into a strategic alliance. This may (take the format) of a (joint venture) between two or three companies or a consortium between several organizations. 5. Globalization has (affected) marketing strategies in many ways. In the past, for example, the best way to enter a market tended (be) the main concern. Today, (by contrast), international marketers ask themselves whether it is better to standardize or to adapt a product (across) different markets. . (Finding) the right international mix has (become) one of the key (question), and answers vary (greatly) from company to company and from product to product. 9. HCPS is a private health care organization (based) in Geneva, Switzerland. It (offers) advice and (treat) to wealthy people and company employees (all over the world). 10. The HCPS group was (formed) a year ago, (following) a takeover of HCP by Sanicorp, another health care organization. Since the takeover, the company has become more centralized, with more decisions (is) made by the top management at (head office).

Final (1-7) 1 It (estimated) that 90 per cent of (medium) to large companies that could not (resume) near-normal operations within five days of an emergency would (go out of) business. 2 While acts of terrorism receive the most (coverage), it’s the more traditional (events) such as fires, floods, explosions, power failures or natural disasters (who) have the biggest (impact). 3 To (best) protect cashflow, competitive position and profit, companies need to (access) the potential hazards that can (impact) top revenue sources and make sure (there is) business continuity planning. 4. Getting) to a (win-win situation) clearly requires (a number of) special skills, such as (make) concessions. 5. After 17 years of (lobbying) by Mr Greenberg, AIG was the first foreign (insurer) (being) allowed (in to) China. 6. Over the (past) six years, Samsung (fights) to move its brand image more (upmarket) to compete with (premium) names, such as Sony. 7. Pressure has (mounted) on Samsung to keep its (efforts). The company recently slipped back (into) third place behind Motorola (on) mobile handset sales. 8. It is clear that young people have a (huge impact) (over) their parents and older people (when) it comes to (choose) technology. . (On) the surface, flexible working might seem to be about people (be) able to choose their working hours, and perhaps, spend (some time) working away from office. But it is also a fundamental change in the way people work, and more (importantly) the way they are managed. 10. (Flexible working) is also likely to appeal (with) a wider (skill pool) and help (with) staff retention. Resit (1-7) 1 People are happiest not only when they are (respected member) of a team (they admire) (but) when the team and the company are respected by (the world outside). Being (part) of a (trusted), honest group is an indispensable component of employee happiness and engagement. So (is) (establish) ties with colleagues you respect. 3 Management at large organizations do not embark (on) widespread and (risk) company (restructurings) unless they believe their businesses are in (straitened) financial circumstances. 4. Brands (are) a key part of the intangible (assess) that are (playing) an increasingly important role (on) company balance sheets. 5. It can be a serious issue (for) any business if its brands (emerge) as tainted (in the long term) by strikes and (another) industrial conflicts. . (Figures) out from 2004 from Ofcom, the communications regulator, (showed) that more than 56 per cent of homes had internet (access), with a third of those (have) a broadband connection. 7. Externally, advertising has been the most visible (form) of communication (with) customers. (Usual) this is designed to increase product sales, but there is also institutional advertising, designed to improve perceptions of company (as a whole). 8. UK companies have failed in the past (prepare) their (staff) in key areas before (sending) them abroad. What’s new is that they are starting to (pay attention to) it. . While 89 per cent of companies formerly assess a candidate’s job skills prior to a foreign posting, less than half go through the same process for cultural suitability. 10. Several department heads are unhappy because they can’t get a quick answer when they want to spend money, even small sums. When they ask their present line manager 1. In 1967, John Kenneth Galbraith argued that the USA (was run) by a handful of big companies (who) planned the economy in the name of stability. These were (hierarchy) and bureaucratic organizations (making) long runs of standardized products. 2.

They introduced “new and improved” (varieties) with predictable regularity; they provided their workers (for) lifetime employment and they enjoyed (fairly) good industrial relations with the (giant trade unions). 3. That world is now dead. The US’s giant corporations have either (disappeared) or (be transformed) by global competition. (Most) have shifted their production systems from high-volume to high-value, from standardized to customized. And they have (flattened) their management hierarchies. 4. Few people these days expect (to spend) their lives (to move) up the ladder of a single organization.

Dramatic changes (are taking place). But where exactly are they (taking up)? Where is the modern company heading? 5. These are three standard answers (to) this question. The first is that a handful of giant companies are engaged (with) a “silent takeover” of the world. The past couple of decades have (seen) a record number of mergers. The survivors are (far) more powerful than nation states. 6. The second (school of thought) argues (almost the opposite): it (says) that big companies are thing of the past. For a glimpse of the future, look at the Monorail Corporation, (that) sells computers. 7.

Monorail (owns no) factories, warehouses or any (others) tangible assets. It operates in an office building in Atlanta. (Freelance workers) are designing the computers while (demand) is still low. 8. The third (school of thought) (says) that companies are being replaced by “net works”. Groups of entrepreneurs form such a network to market an idea. They then sell it to the highest bidder and (move on to) produce another idea and to create another firm, with the money (is) supplied all the time by venture capitalists. 9. Another way (to look) at the future of the company is (to focus) on the environment that will determine it.

That environment is dominated by one thing: choice. Technology and globalization opens up (ever more) opportunities for individuals and (firm) to collect information and conduct economic activity outside traditional structures. 10. While the age of (mass production) lowered the costs of products (for) the expense of (limiting) choices, modern “flexible” production systems both (lower) costs and increase choices. 11. Consumers have more choice over where (will they spend) their money. Producers have more choice over which suppliers (to use). Shareholders have more choice over where (to put) (their) money. 12.

With (all that choice) around, future (company) will have to be very flexible in order to (quickly adapt) to the changing environments if they (are to survive). 1. The nation was (in shock). David Beckham, Britain’s most (beautiful) footballer emerged from his house on Monday morning (to allow) the world (photograph) a wound above his left eye. 2. Sir Alex Ferguson, manager of (his then team) Manchester United, had (lost his temper) after a defeat and(kick) a football boot, (which) hit the Beckham eyebrow. 3. In sports, more than in most businesses, the management tactics are (out in the open) for all to see.

Not many managers try (to strangle) their subordinates-as Bobby Knight, a former basketball coach at Indiana University, (once do). But the ability (to inspire fear) has always been an essential tool of management. 4. (Lots of) successful chief executives (rule by terror). (None), it must be said, (reaches) the standard (setting) by John Patterson, who built NCR early in the 20th century. 5. One NCR executive discovered he (had been fired) when he found his desk and chair (in flames) on the company lawn. Modern laws (on) constructive dismissal and employee harassment have put an end (with) such fun. . However, terror in the workplace is (making a comeback) these days. In an economic upswing, fear (goes underground). Workers are (scarcity), and therefore powerful; bosses must handle the talent (with) care. 7. When times (turn tough), the balance of power swings. As Hank Paulson, chairman of Goldman Sachs, (put it), in a speech that upset his staff, “in almost every one of our businesses, there are 15-20% of the people that really (adds) 80% of the value. ” (In other words), 80-85% are largely redundant-and had better shape up fast. 8. Does fear really motivate?

In sport, says Scott Snook, who teaches organizational behavior at Harvard Business School, “fear can become a barrier to (take) risks, (yet) can provide the essential emotional kick needed to (meet) a challenge. ” Coaches need to (strike) the right balance in order to develop talent. 9. Yet (use) in boardroom, fear can be disastrous. Tony Couchman, a headhunter at Egon Zehnder in London, (recalls) the board of a large firm with a chief executive who so dominated his directors that they (rarely) questioned or challenged him. “Success in such a company depends on (having) a great leader and a steady market,” he argues. 0. Jim Collins, author of a book that explains why some firms (succeed in) making the jump “from good to great’ and (other) fail, found that the approach (to) fear was a key distinction among firms that he surveyed. He found that in the (truly) successful firms people were “productively neurotic”. 11. At Microsoft, for example, employees worry all year (at the prospect) of their annual meetings with Bill Gates, (who) even (being shouted at) would not hurt as much as (seeming) to be an idiot. 12. The (driving) fear of failure, points out Mr.

Collins, is not unique (to) corporate life. “I’m self-employed, and I live with constant fear,” he says. “But I’m self-afraid. ” That kind of fear is common among creative artists and also in professional services (where) the person is the product and lots of fragile egos have to (manage). 1. In its 30-year history, Nike had become the (undisputed) leader in sports marketing. But beneath the success (was) an Achilles’ heel. Nike is named (for) a woman – the Greek goodness of victory-but for most of its history, the company had been perceived as (being) mostly about men. . Could Nike do more to realize full potential of female customers? And how could it afford (not to), given the threats to its future with Air Jordan (ran) out of air and brands like Sketchers (digging) into the teen market with shoes inspired by skateboarding, not basketball. That was a huge question at Nike HQ. The launch of Nike Goddess was the (makings) of an answer. 3. For (many of) its history, Nike’s destiny was controlled by its founders, Phil Knight and his (running buddies), who designed up athletes in locker rooms and made the (executive decisions).

But by throwing together a diverse team of people with different backgrounds and different levels of seniority, Nike has found that it can keep (many of) its core attributes while (adding) news sources of inspiration. 4. (Taking) the (combination) of star designer John Hoke and newcomer Mindy Grossman, vice president of global apparel. Hoke designed (the look) and (feel) of the first Nike Goddess store. 5. Then Grossman, whose career has included (helping) (making) Ralph Lauren into a retail icon, pitched the design ideas to Nike’s top retailers as stores within stores.

Now it (looks) like Nike has a chance (to reach) a crucial objective: double its sales to women by the end of the decade. 6. Nike Goddess began (as a concept) for a women-only store, and there’s a reason why. (Many) of the retail settings in which the company’s products were found were a turnoff to female customers: dark, loud, and harsh- in a word, male. (On sharp contrast), the Nike Goddess stores have the comforting (feel) of a woman’s own home. 7. Designing a new approach to retail was only one element in Nike’s campaign. (Another) was redesigning the shoes and clothes (themself).

Nike’s footwear designers worked (on) 18-month production cycles-which made (it) hard to stay in step with the new styles and colours for women. 8. The apparel group, (which) worked around 12-month cycles, was better at (keeping on with) fashion trends. But (that) (meant) that the clothes weren’t co-ordinated with the shoes-a big turnoff for women. 9. When Jackie Thomas, Nike’s US brand marketing director for w

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