Genealogic Classification and typology of languages. 2. Language as a Social Phenomenon. Definition of Language. Functions of the Language. 3. Languages as a Systemic System . Language Levels and Components. The History of the English Language 1. Theories of Language Evolution. Periodization of English and Main Events in the History of English 2. Common LinguisticFeatures of Ancient and Modern Germanic Languages 3. Grammatical andLexical Peculiarities of Old English 4. Main Features ofMiddle English: Phonetics, Grammar, Vocabulary 5.The Characteristicsof Early Modern English. The Process of Language Standardization 6. Development ofWiring in the history of the English language The EnglishLiterature 1.

Old EnglishLiterature / Epic, Lyric, Historical works/ 2. Middle EnglishLiterature /G. Chaucer, WLangland, “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”/ 3. The Main Periods inthe Literary Activity of William Shakespeare 4. The Romantic Subjectin Lord Byron’s Poetry 5. The Victorian Age inEnglish Literature. 6. English Prose of theXXth Century The English Lexicology 1.Word Building Processes Based on Addition and Contraction 2. Peculiarities of American and British English 3. Criteria of Classification of the Phraseological Units 4. Synonymy, Antonymy and Homonymy 5.

The Development of English and American Lexicography 6. Variants and Dialects of the English language 7. The Etymology of the English Word Stock 8. The Theory of the Word. Lexical Meaning and Semantic Structure of English Words. The English Stylistics 1. Functional Styles of the English Language 2. Phono-Graphical Expressive Means. 3.Lexical Stylistic Devices / Metaphor, Metonymy, Irony, Zeugma, Pun, Epithet, / 4. Lexical stylistic Devices /Oxymoron, Simile, Periphrases, Hyperbole, Repetition, Understatement/ 5. Syntactical Stylistic Devices /Stylistics Inversion, Detached Constructions, Parallel Construction, Chiasmus, Suspense, Climax, Antithesis/ 6. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary Theory and Practice of Translation 1. Speak on the Scienceof translating.

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2. Types ofTranslations. 3. Levels ofEquivalence of Translation. 4. Lexical Aspects ofTranslation 5.Machine Translationand its Perspectives 6. Handling AttributiveGroups 7. Translation ofPhraseological Units 8. Handling Equivalentand Equivalent-Lacking Forms and Structures 9. Translation of ModalForms 10. Direct and IndirectTranslating Procedures 11. Intercultural andInterlingual Translation 12. FundamentalParameters of Translational Competences 13. Pragmatics ofTranslation 14. Stylistic Aspects ofTranslation 15. Lexical and GrammarDifficulties in Translation 16. Types ofTransformations in the Process of Translation /lexical, grammatical, syntactic, miscellaneous types/ 17.AntonymousTranslation. Compensation in Translation. Other Translation Problems. Traductology 1. ProfessionalTranslation as an Act of Communication. The Role of a Translator. 2. Different Approachesto Translation. Four Schools of Translation. 3. Different Aspects ofTranslation Activity. Translation and Cultural Equation. 4. Components of Actsof Communication / aims, intentions, content, package / 5. Fidelity as aPhenomenon in Translation. Verbalizing a Simple Idea. 6. Principles of Fidelity/ primary and secondary information/ 7.Differences betweenInterpretation and Translation 8. KnowledgeAcquisition in Written and Oral Translation 9. Meanings of Words. Aspects of Synonyms* Translation 10. Translation and Style. Pragmatics of the Text 11. Translation of Terms and Professionalisms 12. Semantic Engineering and Levels of Translators’ Approximation 13. The Nature ofLiterature and Informative Text Translation. The Genres of Literary works 14. The Subdivisions ofInformative Translation /scientific and technical texts, publicistic texts,official documents etc/

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Jack London Essay. (2019, Dec 05). Retrieved from

Jack London Essay
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