One might think that chemists are a bunch of boring scientists who wear lab coats and look at beakers all day, but did you know that many toys you play with are made using chemistry?Some of your favorite toys like Gak, Slime and Silly Putty started out as chemistry experiments. In fact, some of your favorite toys may have been invented by chemists who work for toy companies like: Crayola, Play-Doh or Mattell. Chemistry is the study of matter, and how different elements of matter interact. There are many different kids of matter, which need to be described using the concept of properties. Toys like silly putty are unique because of they have distinct properties that are different from the properties of other types of matter.There are two different kinds of properties, chemical properties and physical properties. Chemical properties are qualities that can be observed during a chemical reaction, like when vinegar reacts with baking soda. Physical properties are qualities that can be observed during physical change in the absence of a chemical reaction, like the melting of an ice cube. Physical properties can be used to describe the state of a chemical, which can be a solid, liquid or a gas. The physical and chemical properties of Silly Putty are what make it so much fun because it is a polymer that is stretchy and bouncy!Scientists use properties to describe all of the unique qualities of a chemical or a mixture of chemicals. To do this they use descriptive language, or words that are used to describe objects. Some descriptive words used to describe a chemical might be: hot, cold, squishy, hard, soft, crystalline, granular, smooth, liquid, clear, 2 opaque, and runny. There are many different qualities to be described. You just need to find the right words to use. The unique physical and chemical properties of a polymer or mixture can be changed by the amount of each different ingredient used to make them.Sometimes the amount of one ingredient compared to the amount of another ingredient can make a big difference. This is called a ratio, and a ratio can be useful to know how much of each ingredient to add to your mixture so you will end up with a mixture that has desirable properties. RATIONALE Balls have been toys practically forever, but the bouncing ball is a more recent innovation. Bouncing balls were originally made from natural rubber, though now bouncing balls can be made of plastics and other polymers. In this researcher, the bouncing ball is made from a polymer.Polymers are molecules made up of repeating chemical units. The researchers will change the ratio of two basic ingredients in homemade Silly Putty. They will describe the physical properties of each different mixture using a data table. Then they will choose the ratio of ingredients to create the best putty product. The use of bouncing polymer in science education provides number of advantages. One can use it to describe the chemical and physical properties of the mixtures. It can also be used to describe potential and kinetic energy.It can also demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Energy and Newton’s Third Law of Motion – for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The researcher would like to find out which is the best ratio of the two basic ingredients in homemade Silly Putty that would produce better and higher bounce. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main purpose of this research project is to come up with the best silly putty product. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following objectives: 1. To evaluate the physical properties of the polymer balls; 2.To describe the product of the different ratio of ingredients; and 3. To determine the height of the bounce of the polymer balls. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The main problem of the study is coming up with the best silly putty product based on various ratios of ingredients. Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions: 1. Would it be possible to make a homemade bouncy polymer from a simple polymer found in white PVA glue and corn starch? 2. Which of the following ratio will produce the best homemade bouncy polymer? 3.What would be the effect of the varying ratio of the ingredients on the physical characteristics of the homemade bouncy polymer? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Science is fun. It cannot only be learned in the four corners of the classroom but rather it can also be learned at home. Chemistry can be a very intimidating subject that is hard for some students to understand. This project study would like to help demonstrate some basic principles of chemistry. Specifically, this project study will help students understand that there is a difference between a physical change and a chemical change.Silly putty, as well as bouncing polymer is fascinating and educational. It can teach everyone about Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. 4 Results of the study would provide the pupils an opportunity to learn while having fun. Likewise, this study will provide opportunity to parents to have some quality time with their children. The result and findings of this study would give educators an alternative way of learning outside the classrooms. It would also encourage them to use other sources which are readily around them in teaching Science.SCOPE AND DELIMITATION The project study initiated after the researcher became interested and amazed about silly putty. The researcher made some readings and found that there silly putty can be possible made using readily available materials at home. There were also some studies and experiments where polymers are used as subject matter. With the help and guidance of the science teachers, the researcher came up with this project study. The researcher will try out various ratios using Elmer’s white glue, Borax, water, corn starch. They also used Zip-lock baggie, some bottles, weighing scale and graduated cylinder.The homemade bouncy polymers were evaluated in two ways: quantitatively, through the mass, volume, density, height of bounce/return, length of stretch and distance of roll, and qualitatively through the descriptive analysis of some observable characteristics of the homemade bouncy polymers. Findings of this study will be applicable only to the ratios of the materials used and the field of study that will be tested and may not be generalized with others. 5 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter reviews literature and studies related to the present project study.It presents literature on chemical properties, physical properties, polymers, and silly putty. RELATED LITERATURE Silly Putty, one of the most popular toys of the 20th century, was invented accidentally. Find out what a war, an indebted advertising consultant, and a ball of goo have in common. One of the most important resources needed for World War II war production was rubber. It was essential for tires (which kept the trucks moving) and boots (which kept the soldiers moving). It was also important for gas masks, life rafts, and even bombers.Beginning early in the war, the Japanese attacked many of the rubberproducing countries in Asia, drastically affecting the supply route. To conserve rubber, civilians in the United States were asked to donate old rubber tires, rubber raincoats, rubber boots, and anything else that consisted at least in part of rubber. Rations were placed even on gasoline to hinder people from driving their cars. Propaganda posters instructed people in the importance of carpooling and showed them how to care for their household rubber products so they would last the duration of the war.Even with this home front effort, the rubber shortage threatened war production. The government decided to ask U. S. companies to invent a synthetic rubber that had similar properties but that could be made with non-restricted ingredients. In 1943, engineer James Wright was attempting to discover a synthetic 6 rubber while working in General Electric’s laboratory in New Haven, Conn. when he discovered something unusual. In a test tube, Wright had combined boric acid and silicone oil, producing an interesting gob of goo.Wright conducted a multitude of tests on the substance and discovered it could bounce when dropped, stretch farther than regular rubber, didn’t collect mold, and had a very high melting temperature. Unfortunately, though it was a fascinating substance, it didn’t contain the properties needed to replace rubber. Still, Wright assumed there had to be some practical use for the interesting putty. Unable to come up with an idea himself, Wright sent samples of the putty to scientists around the world. However, none of them found a use for the substance either. Rosenberg, 2009) The term polymer comes from the Greek word “poly”, meaning “many”, and “meros” meaning “parts”. The word “parts” refers to a grouping of atoms called molecular units, known as a monomer. POLYMERS Polymers are special organic molecules that form very long chains. Usually polymers make compounds that are stronger and more flexible than other compounds. Examples of polymers are: rubber, latex, and nylon (sciencelab, 2009). Polymer backbones are held together by covalent bonds – by atoms sharing electrons. Other atoms, or even groups of atoms, hook onto the backbone by covalent bonds too.Some polymers that are called ionic polymers have ionic pendant groups. Their backbones are still held together by covalent bonds. When it comes to polymers, all of their backbones are held together by covalent bonds (that is, by sharing electrons) (pslc, 2009). 7 Also, by choosing the right kind of polymer, our product can be soft or hard, flexible or stiff, or most anything we want. Most polymers will last a long, long, long, long time. That’s good – especially if you use them to make clothes, jars, even chairs. But it’s bad when polymers get thrown away.Some polymers are easier to recycle than others. It’s important to recycle the polymers that we can, like drink bottles, so that our landfills don’t get filled up so fast. Most polymers are safe and non-toxic. That’s good. The monomers that are used to make polymers, though, are often toxic or stinky. That means that the companies that make polymers need to be very careful not to let the monomers get out before they’re made into polymers (pslc, 2009). Remember that polymers are very very long chains. These long chains: ? can bend and twist and get all tangled up ? can stick to each other ? ove much slower because they’re so big The longer a polymer chain is, the more tangled up it can get. Since the chains are harder to pull out or separate, that can make things made out of polymers stronger. Some polymers are more straight and stiff than others. These won’t tangle up as much, but they’re strong for a different reason – stiff chains can pack together and stick to each other. Think of molecules as being like magnets. Some are like very weak magnets, and some are like strong magnets. So, some can be pulled apart easily, but others take a lot more energy to pull them apart (pslc, 2009). 8Polymers are large molecules formed by the repetitive bonding of small molecules called monomers. The bondings of these low molecular weight monomers produce high molecular weight polymeric substances which have mechanical and chemical properties suitable in the manufactures of fibers, films, protective coating, insulating materials and more. Polymers accommodate to meet the needs of a wide variety of uses in the world; therefore, they play an important role in the chemical industries. Aside from synthetic polymers such as polyethylene and polystyrene, there are biological/natural polymers as well that can be found in nature.Cellulose and starch are examples of biopolymers that are built from small sugar; while proteins are polymers built from amino acids. The basic idea of polymer remains the same between synthetic and biological polymers; however, synthetic polymers are much simpler than biopolymers due to the smaller size and simpler structure of the starting monomer. Polymer molecules may have anywhere from hundreds to thousands monomer units incorporated into a long chain, which depends on the properties of the polymer desired to achieve. Many simple alkenes, called vinyl monomers, ndergo polymerization (polymer-forming reactions) that made commercially important polymers. Polymerization involves the chemical combination of a number of identical or similar molecules, monomers, to form a complex molecule, polymer, of high molecular weight. There are a whole bunch of different ways that we can describe polymers what they look like, how they feel, how they smell, how they act, what they sound like when you drop them on the floor (ping! or splat! ) They can be hard or soft, stiff or bendy, strong or weak, smooth or rough, shiny or dull – and lots more! Scientists have come up with all kinds of ways to test polymers to answer questions like: ? How easy is it to scratch? ? How much weight can a thread (or fiber, or rope) hold? ? How long will it last if it’s left out in the sun? ? How will it act if it gets hot? Will it melt if I leave it in the car in the middle of summer? ? How much heat does it take to make it all goopy? ? How fast will it dissolve in your tummy? (That one is important for pill coatings. ) ? How well can I see through it? ? What happens if I hit it with a hammer? This one might sound funny, but polymers that can take a hit with a hammer might just be good for something like a skateboarding helmet or hockey shin pads for goalies. ) There are all kinds of instruments that scientists use to test different polymer properties. The goal is to get numbers (data) so that one polymer can be compared to another. Flexible plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene are different from rigid plastics in that they’re easier to stretch (so their tensile strength is lower), but they tend not to break. Interestingly, the ability to stretch is what keeps them from breaking.They’ll resist being stretched for a while, but if enough stress is put on a flexible plastic, it will eventually deform. You can try this at home with a piece of a plastic bag. If you try to stretch it, it will be very hard at first, but once you’ve stretched it far enough it will give way and stretch easily. The bottom line is that 10 flexible plastics may not be as strong as rigid ones, but they are a lot tougher (pslc, 2009). Polymers are made up of many many molecules all strung together to form really long chains (and sometimes more complicated structures, too). Figure 2. This is a polymer. It’s a very large molecule. Most of the polymers we’ll talk about here are linear polymers. A linear polymer is made up of one molecule after another, hooked together in a long chain. This chain is called the backbone. Now, linear polymers don’t have to be in a straight, rigid line. Those single bonds between atoms in the backbone can swivel around a bit, kinda like paper clips hooked together end-to-end. A LINEAR polymer chain starts at the beginning and goes straight to the end. You can take your finger and trace the curvy path from one end to the other.To the rest of the world, “linear” means “straight and not curved” but for polymers, linear means “straight and not branched”. A BRANCHED polymer chain has extra beginnings (branches! ) along the chain and so it has lots of ends. No matter where you start, you can’t trace the entire polymer without backtracking. 11 Different kinds of polymers: stretchy like a rubber band, tough like a football, soft like a sweater, silky and strong like a parachute, and even polymers that are bulletproof!! (pslc, 2009). Kinds of Polymer 1. Natural Polymer.Plants are made of a polymer called cellulose. This is the tough stuff that wood and stems – and Paul’s tree house! – are made from. Cellulose is also what makes fibers like cotton and hemp that we can twist into threads and weave into clothing. And many plants also make starch. Potatoes, corn, rice, and grains all have a lot of starch. Starch is also a polymer. Even though starch and cellulose are both made from the same sugar (glucose), they act very differently (because the glucose molecules are joined together differently).Starch will dissolve in water, but cellulose won’t. So we make food from starches and we build things and make clothing out of cellulose. 2. Plastics I’m just guessing that everyone out there knows what plastic is. The word plastic means pliable. Plastics are materials that can be shaped and molded easily. Plastics become easier to mold and shape when they’re hot, and they melt when they get hot enough, so we call them thermoplastics. This name can help you tell them apart from cross linked materials that don’t melt.These materials can seem a lot like plastics, but they’re really thermosets. So we make things out of plastic by getting it really hot until it melts and then pouring it, stretching it, injecting it or blowing it into molded shapes, like drinking glasses and toys. It takes a lot of energy to deform plastics into shapes, but they stay the same shape. Until it gets hot enough, plastic cannot easily be deformed. 12 Sometimes additives are added to a plastic to make it softer and more pliable. These additives are called plasticizers. 3.Elastomer Elastomer is a big fancy word, and all it means is “rubber”. Some polymers which are elastomers include polyisoprene or natural rubber, polybutadiene, polyisobutylene, and polyurethanes. What makes elastomers special is the fact that they bounce, which is to say that they can be stretched to many times their original length, and can bounce back into their original shape without permanent deformation (pslc, 2009). Polymers are used to make numerous things, including clothing, plastic containers, nonstick cookware, and bulletproof vests.Try this experiment to see how polymers can make a toy. If you use the scientific method, you make observations before experimenting and forming or testing a hypothesis. You’ve followed a procedure to make a bouncing ball. Now you can vary the procedure and use your observations to make predictions about the effects of the changes. Observations you can make and then compare as you change the composition of the ball include the diameter of the finished ball, how sticky it is, how long it takes to solidify into a ball, and how high it bounces. (Helmenstine, 2009).What makes polymers so fun is that how they act depends on what kinds of molecules they’re made up of and how they’re put together? The properties of anything made out of polymers really reflect what’s going on at the ultra-tiny (molecular) level. So, things that are made of polymers look, feel, and act depending on how their atoms and molecules are connected, as well as which ones we use to 13 begin with! Some are rubbery, like a bouncy ball, some are sticky and gooey, and some are hard and tough, like a skateboard (pslc, 2009). Use simple chemistry to make a polymer bouncy ball with household ingredients.The ingredients used to make this ball form a type of elastic polymer that bounces like a store-bought super ball (ehow, 2009). Making polymer bouncy balls is a great project for anyone with an interest in chemistry, though kids probably get more out of the finished product than adults. Or maybe not… they are pretty fun. You can make polymer balls yourself using common household ingredients. You can also purchase kits that allow you to make balls in neon and glowing colors. The molds that come with the kits can be re-used to shape balls you make using your own ingredients (Helmenstine, 2009).Plastics and rubbers are made from polymers- long chains of molecules that can be ‘zipped’ together. The long tangled up polymer chains can be stretched out or squashed up. This makes the material elastic, which is an excellent property for a bouncy ball. We can make a bouncy ball from a simple polymer found in white PVA glue. Polymers are made by combining many individual units called monomers into a single larger unit. You will be making a “bouncing ball” polymer in this experiment by combining Elmer’s white glue and 20 Mule Team borax.The monomer unit in the bouncing ball polymer is polyvinyl acetate (from Elmer’s glue). When borax is dissolved in water, some borate ions form: Na2B4O7 + 9H2O —-> 2 Na+ + 2H+ + 4B(OH)4The borate ions form bridges connecting the polyvinyl acetate chains in the glue to one another. This is called a cross linking polymer. 14 This polymer also displays hydrogen bonding. The cross linking and hydrogen bonding produce a three-dimensional polymer with many open spaces for water to occupy (www. files. chem. vt. edu, 2009) Polymers are molecules made up of repeating chemical units.Glue contains the polymer polyvinyl acetate (PVA), which cross-links to itself when reacted with borax (Helmenstine, 2009) PVA (polyvinyl acetate) is a polymer or ‘long chained molecule’ – so too is starch (present in the custard powder). The borax causes cross-links to develop between the two polymers and the mixture becomes stiff. It is important to get the correct amount of borax, too much i. e. too many cross-links, and the mixture is brittle; too little and the mixture flows; just right and the mixture can be rolled into a ball and bounced! Polymers (like PVA and starch) are a very important part of our world.The ingredients combine to make a fairly solid mixture which when rolled into a ball, you should be able to throw and bounce! (yummyscience, 2009) The glue is a polymer (long chain molecule) called polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and the custard powder contains corn flour which is a starch. Starch is also a polymer, this time made up from smaller glucose molecules. The borax acts as a cross linking agent and binds the two polymer chains together. Too much borax gives too many cross-links and hence a brittle substance. Too little borax means not enough cross-links giving a weak substance that’s easily pulled apart.The ball is made of an elastic material. When it bounces the ball gets squashed and the kinetic energy gets converted to elastic potential energy, and some heat, plus a little sound. The ball then unsquashes and bounces back up. So as the ball bounces there are number of energy transfers: Gravitational energy is 15 transferred to kinetic as it falls. When it hits the ground the ball squashes. The kinetic energy is transferred to elastic strain energy in the ball. As the ball unsquashes the strain energy is converted back to kinetic energy.Some of the energy is ‘lost’ as heat, sound, etc, which is why the ball doesn’t bounce up to the same height it was dropped from (planetscience, 2009). What’s Happening? The white glue contains polyvinyl acetate, a strong and flexible polymer that gives the ball strength. Cornstarch contains amylopectin, a polymer whose shape is best described as “branched” – it sticks out like the branches of a tree – and gives the ball the property of elasticity. Elasticity allows the ball to return to its original shape after being compressed or stretched, such as hitting the floor.So instead of splattering everywhere, the ball bounces back up. The borax is needed to help the glue and the starch stick together. This connects the two polymers into a netlike formation, keeping the ball from crumbling or becoming slime when it is bounced. SUMMARY Polymers are long-chained molecules formed by repetitive molecules called monomers. Polymers exist from natural to synthetic forms. various ways from plastics to rubbers. Bouncy balls can be made out of glue, corn starch and borax due to its composition, polyvinyl acetate (PVA). Polymerization causes this reaction to occur.They have been used in 16 DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined according to how they will be used in the study. Bounce – is the height of the homemade polymer reached after releasing at a certain starting point. Glue – a sticky white substance whose property is made up of polyvinyl acetate. Elastomer – is a polymer with rubbery characteristics. Polymer – is a large molecule formed by the repetitive bonding of small molecules called monomers. Roll – is the distance traveled by the homemade bouncy polymer over a 45° angle of inclined plane.Silly putty – is a toy that is a ball of soft, moldable, rubber-like material. Stretch – is the length of the homemade polymer to stay together before it is torn apart. 17 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter discussed the materials used, the formulas to be tested, instrument to be used, data collection and data analysis. RESEARCH METHOD The project study aimed to evaluate which ratio would produce the best homemade bouncy polymer. This study will further examine the characteristics of polymers produced from different ratio of solutions. MATERIALS The researcher will use some household materials readily available at home.Warm water, Elmer’s white glue, corn starch, borax, Zip-lock baggie, some bottles, weighing scale, beaker and graduated cylinder. PROCEDURE After gathering the necessary materials, the researcher prepared the following solutions They will prepare the Glue solution, which made up 30 ml of Elmer’s white glue and 30 ml of water. Stir well until the glue is fully diluted and no gooey clumps remain. They will also prepare the Borax solution, which is up of 360 ml of warm water and 10 ml of Borax. Stir well until no particles of Borax remain and the solution is clear. 18Label 5 Zip-lock baggies: Polymer #1, Polymer #2, Polymer #3, Polymer #4 Polymer #5. Combined the solutions in the Zip-lock baggies using the following ratios: Zip-lock Baggie Polymer # 1 Polymer # 2 Polymer # 3 Polymer # 4 Polymer # 5 Borax Solution 1 Tbsp 2 Tbsp 3 Tbsp 4 Tbsp 5 Tbsp Glue Solution 5 Tbsp 4 Tbsp 3 Tbsp 2 Tbsp 1 Tbsp Corn starch 1 Tbsp 1 Tbsp 1 Tbsp 1 Tbsp 1 Tbsp Seal the baggie, and using your fingers squish the mixture around to mix together the ingredients. When the mixture begins to form a sticky glob, take it out of the baggie. Start molding the ball with your hands.DATA GATHERING The data gathered was based from the objectives of the project study. Since the study wanted to assess the describable characteristics of each ratio and compare it, it dealt on some numerical data based on the mass, volume, density, height of bounce/return, length of stretch and distance of roll. 5 trials were done for the height of bounce/return, length of stretch and distance of roll of each homemade bouncy polymer. The researchers will also describe the observable physical characteristics of the products from the 5 ratios of the polymers. 19 The problems encountered in the project study were noted.DATA ANALYSIS The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The researcher would get the average of the height of bounce/return, length of stretch and distance of roll, in centimeters. Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Average Height of Bounce/Return Polymer Polymer Polymer 1 2 3 Polymer 4 Polymer 5 Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Average Length of Stretch Polymer Polymer Polymer 1 2 3 Polymer 4 Polymer 5 Trials 1 2 3 4 5 Average Distance of Roll Polymer Polymer Polymer 1 2 3 Polymer 4 Polymer 5 20 Below is an illustration how the researcher underwent the process of the project study.Planning the procedure and materials needed Gathering of materials needed Preparing the borax solutions Preparing the glue solution Mixing the two solutions in a zip-lock baggie Adding the corn starch Squishing the solution inside the baggie Rolling the polymer in the palm Evaluating and assessing the product Figure 3. 1. Flowchart of the procedure 21 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Homemade bouncy polymer can be made using materials readily available at home. It was able to produce bouncing polymer which has rubbery characteristics.The results of this project study were shown in the preceding tables and figures. MASS Based on the observation, when the result from each ratio have the following measurement: Polymer Mass 1 40 2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 Table 4. 1 Comparison of Mass of the Polymers 40 35 Mass (in grams) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 1 Comparison of Mass of the Polymers After mixing the Borax solution and the glue solution, together with the corn starch, the five (5) polymer products were weighed and it was found out the mass was the same at 40 grams. 22VOLUME Based on the observations, the following volumes were gathered: Polymer Volume 1 90 2 85 3 80 4 78 5 75 Table 4. 2 Comparison of Volume of the Polymers 90 85 80 75 70 65 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 2 Comparison of Volume of the Five Polymers Polymer 1 has a volume of 90 ml followed by Polymer 2 with 85 ml, then Polymer 3 with 80 ml, Polymer 4 with 78 ml and Polymer 5 with 75 ml. DENSITY After getting the Mass and Volume of the 5 Polymers, the following Densities were met: Result Density 1 0. 44 2 0. 47 3 0. 50 4 0. 51 5 0. 53 Table 4. 3 Comparison of Density of the Polymers 23 Volume (in mL) . 60 Density (in g/mL) 0. 50 0. 40 0. 30 0. 20 0. 10 0. 00 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 3 Comparison of Density of the Five Polymers Polymer 1 has a density of 0. 44 g/ml. Polymer 2 has 0. 47 g/ml. Polymer 3 has 0. 50 g/ml. Polymer 4 has 0. 51 g/ml and Polymer 5 has 0. 53 g/ml. HEIGHT OF BOUNCE/RETURN Based on the observations, after the 5 Polymers were dropped, the following data were noted: Trials Polymer 1 6 6 7 8 5 6. 4 Polymer 2 5 5 6 5 4 5 Polymer 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Average Standard 1. 02 0. 63 0. 00 0. 00 0. 00 Deviation Table 4. Comparison of Height of Bounce/Return of the Polymers 24 7 Height of Bounce (in cm. ) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 4 Comparison of Height of Bounce/Return of the Five Polymers Polymer 1 has an average bounce/return height of 6. 4 while Polymer 2 has an average bounce/return height of 5. 0 cm. , after being release at a starting position of 77 cm. Polymer 3, 4 and 5 did not bounce at all. LENGTH OF STRETCH The 5 Polymers were pulled to test its ability to be stretched. The following figures were recorded: Trials Polymer 1 30 54 59 35 40 43. 6 Polymer 2 46 36 34 29 29 34. Polymer 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Average Standard 11. 11 6. 24 0. 00 0. 00 0. 00 Deviation Table 4. 5 Comparison of the Length of Stretch of the Polymers 25 45 40 Distance (in cm. ) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 5 Comparison of the Length of Stretch of the Polymers Polymer 1 has an average stretch distance of 43. 6 cm before it breaks. Polymer 2 broke at an average stretch distance of 34. 8 cm. Polymer 3, 4 and 5 was not possible to be stretch. DISTANCE OF ROLL In a 45° inclined plane, each Polymer was allowed to roll.The following data were collected: Trials Polymer 1 84 46 119 58 117 84. 8 Polymer 2 26 36 40 38 43 36. 6 Polymer 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymer 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Average Standard 29. 77 5. 78 0. 00 0. 00 0. 00 Deviation Table 4. 6 Comparison of the Distance of Stretch of the Polymers 26 90 80 Distance (in cm. ) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 Polymer 4 5 Graph 4. 6 Comparison of the Distance of Stretch of the Polymers Polymer 1 traveled an average roll distance of 84. 8 cm while Polymer 2 had an average roll distance of 36. 6. Polymer 3, 4 and 5 did not roll at all.OBSERVABLE CHARACTERISTICS Polymer 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics White in color, rubbery, easy to mold into a ball, smooth, soft White in color, rubbery, easy to mold into a ball but it is also easily can loose its shape, smooth, soft White in color, slimy, not too easy to mole into a ball White in color, some small formation of ‘gooey’ substance can be observe White in color, watery Table 4. 7 Observable Characteristics of the Polymers 27 COST ANALYSIS The following were the cost made in this project study. Total Amount Cost per unit Units used Expenses for the setup 30 P 11. 7 10 10 0 5 P 0. 42 0. 93 0. 00 14. 71 27. 82 5 5. 56 Material Glue Borax Corn starch Water Zip-lock baggie Cost 130 P 51. 00 P 0. 39 1000 200 360 30 42. 00 18. 50 0. 00 88. 25 0. 04 0. 09 0. 00 2. 94 Total expenses Polymer products Cost per Polymer product P Table 4. 8 Cost Analysis of the Research Project The amount of each material was divided by the cost of the material to get the cost per unit. Then the cost per unit was multiplied to the amount of units used to enable the researchers to get the expenses based on the setup of the project study.The total cost of the five (5) polymer products amounted to P27. 82. The cost of each polymer product was P 5. 56. 28 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Based on the observation, homemade bouncy polymer can be created by mixing Borax dissolved in water, glue diluted in water and cornstarch. The characteristics of the polymer depend on the amount or ratio of the solution. The more glue solution is added the more elastic the polymer is while the more Borax solution is added the more watery it is. All the Polymers weighted the same, 40 grams.Polymer 1 has the highest volume with 90 ml. Polymer 5 has the highest density with 0. 53 g/ml. Polymer 1 has an average bounce/return height of 6. 4 cm; an average stretch distance of 43. 6 cm; and, an average roll distance of 84. 8 cm. Polymer 2 has an average bounce/return height of 5. 0 cm; an average stretch distance of 34. 8 cm; and, average roll distance of 36. 6. Polymer 3, 4 and 5 did not bounce at all; was not possible to be stretch; and, did not roll at all. The total cost of the five (5) polymer products amounted to P27. 82. The cost of each polymer product was P 5. 56.CONCLUSION Based on the results and findings of the project study, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. It is possible to make a homemade bouncy polymer using PVA glue and cornstarch with the addition of Borax dissolved in water. 29 2. Polymer 1 with the ratio of 1:5:1 (Borax solution:glue solution:cornstarch) produced the best homemade bouncy polymer. It has the highest average bounce/return, highest average stretch distance and highest average roll distance. 3. Varying ratio of the ingredients, Borax solution and glue solution, affect the physical characteristics of the homemade bouncy polymer.Using less borax will produce a ‘goopier’ type of ball while adding more glue for a slimier ball. RECOMMENDATIONS Making a homemade bouncy polymer produced a positive result. With this basis, the researchers recommend the adaptation of this homemade bouncy polymer on the teaching-learning process which can be used by both teachers and students specifically in representing chemical reactions in Chemistry and demonstration of some laws in Physics. To further improve the project study, the researcher would also like to recommend the following: 1. Experiment with the ratio between the amounts of glue, cornstarch, and borax; 2.Experiment on the floor where the homemade bouncy polymer will bounce the highest, on a wood, on a glass or on a concrete floor; 3. Experiment if temperature will affect the characteristics of the homemade bouncy polymer; 4. Experiment if the size will affect the height of bounce/return, length of stretch and distance of roll; and, 30 5. Experiment if the homemade polymer can be used as an alternative on some rubber products. Moreover, other investigators are encouraged similar project to improve the quality and provide homemade bouncy polymer.
Investigatory Project Homemade Bouncy Polymer Paper
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