Definition of Terms A. Art According to various authors 1. J. V Estolas – Art is derived from the Latin word “ars” which means ability or skill 2. A. Tan – Art is taken from the Italian word “artis”, which means craftsmanship, skill, mastery of form and ideas, between materials and techniques. 3. F. Zulueta – Art is a product of man’s needs to express himself. 4. C. Sanchez – Art is concerned itself with the communication of certain ideas and feelings by means of sensuous medium, color, sound, bonze, marble, words and film.
5. Plato – Art is that which brings life in harmony with the beauty of the beauty of the world 6.
John Dewey – 7. Panizio and Rustia – B. Appreciation C. Art Appreciation Art Appreciation simply means being able to look at works and form your own opinions. Naturally, those arty terms will be explained along the way. D. Humanities The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences.
E. Subject Four Common Essential of Arts Common essentials of arts are line, shape, texture, light, value, color, and space.
The Subject of Arts Ways of Representing the Subject 1- REALISM – the attempt to portray the subject as it is. Realists try to be as objective as possible. 2- ABSTRACTION – the attempt of the artist to show only his idea or his feeling; not as objective as the realist.
3- SYMBOLISM – the use of a visible sign of an idea to convey to the viewers, readers or audiences the message of his work. 4- FAUVISM – the artist use of bright colors which shows pictures of comfort, joy and pleasure. This is the method used by Henry Matisse, Raoul Drify and George Ronault. 5-
DADAISM – is a protest movement in the art that is playful and experimental. “Dada” means a “hobby horse”. Dadaism is most often nonsensical. Marcel Duchamp is the famous painter using this method. 6- FUTURISM – developed in Italy about the same time as cubism appeared in France. Futurist painters wanted their works to capture the mechanical energy of modern life. 7- SURREALISM – this method mirrors the evils of the present society. Surrealism means super realism, influenced by Freudian psychology which emphasizes the activities of the subconscious state of the mind. – IMPRESSIONISM – this method presented the artist’s impression on the art subject, not as detailed as a realist painting. 9- EXPRESSIONISM – are art works describing pathos, morbidity chaos or even defeat. Introduced in Germany from 1900 – 1910. Kinds of Subject 1. Realism – Realism in the visual arts and literature is the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in third person objective, without embellishment or interpretation and “in accordance with secular, empirical rules. As such, the approach inherently implies a belief that such reality is ontologically independent of man’s conceptual schemes, linguistic practices and beliefs, and thus can be known (or knowable) to the artist, who can in turn represent this ‘reality’ faithfully. As Ian Watt states, modern realism “begins from the position that truth can be discovered by the individual through the senses” and as such “it has its origins in Descartes and Locke, and received its first full formulation by Thomas Reid in the middle of the eighteenth century. ” The attempt to portray the subject as it is.
Realists try to be as objective as possible. 2. Abstraction – Abstraction is the attempt of the artist to show only his idea or his feeling; not as objective as the realist. 3. Distortion 4. Surrealism – This method mirrors the evils of the present society. Surrealism means super realism, influenced by Freudian psychology which emphasizes the activities of the subconscious state of the mind. Subject and Content The Four Main Functions of Arts Aesthetic – through art, man becomes conscious of the beauty of nature. He benefits from his own work and from those done by his fellowmen.
He learns to use, love, and preserve them for his enjoyment and appreciation. Utilitarian -with the creation of the various forms of art, man now lives in comfort and happiness. Through art, man is provided with shelter, clothing, food, light, medicine, beautiful surroundings, personal ornamentals, entertainment, language, transportation, and other necessities and conveniences of life. Art not only enriches man’s life but also improves nature through landscape gardening, creation of super-highways and through propagation of natural resources.
Cultural – through the printed matter, art transmits and preserves skills and knowledge from one generation to another. It burdens one’s cultural background and makes man more civilized and his life more enduring and satisfying. Social – Art has social functions when it addresses aspects of life, as opposed to one person’s point of view or experience Other Functions Personal – The personal functions of art vary from person to person. Physical – Works of art that are created to perform some service have physical functions. The Scope of Art According to: Monopolies Custodia Sanchez Josefina Estolas Panizio and Rustia
The Origin of Art The very concept of the ‘birth’ or ‘origin’ of art may seem inappropriate, since humans are by nature artists and the history of art begins with that of humanity. In their artistic impulses and achievements humans express their vitality, their ability to establish a beneficial and positive relationship with their environment, to humanize nature; their behavior as artists is one of the characteristics for selection favorable to the evolution of the human species. Evidence from a huge analysis of rock art and cave paintings and engravings shows that, from their origins, humans have also been Homo aestheticus.