Introduction to 21st Fashion Essay
Student name: Peiji Zhou Student number: 10344206 Content page: Lookbook and range building——————-P 3 Shop report———————————–P 7 Luxury brand———————————P 9 Ethical Fashion——————————–P 11 Footwear————————————-P 13 NEXT—————————————-P 16 Marks & Spencer——————————P 18 Jeffery West———————————- P 21 Tannery visit———————————-P 23 References————————————P 25 Lookbook and range building:
A lookbook is a collection of photographs to show a style, a model or a clothing line. It usually exists in fashion website and fashion bloggers. lookbook is like a fashion portfolio or fashion diaries, Fashion bloggers update their fashion look constantly online. It can be a record for blogger’s own fashion look and also a record for other people’s looks such as a celebrity, politician or socialite, it can be described as ‘artist portfolio’. Nowadays, lookbook is common for stores and clothing designers to use it to show off products. They include photos of multiple types of clothes, shoes and other accessories from a season or line.
Examples of lookbook: LOOKBOOK. nu known as ‘LB’— the largest online community which established in 2008 dedicated to showcasing member-uploaded “street style” photography. Members post photos on LOOKBOOK. nu to document their evolving style or a collective gallery from other ‘lookbolggers’. Non-members can also draw their daily fashion style on LOOKBOOK. nu. The most popular looks will be displayed on the ‘Hot’ page. “LOOKBOOK. nu was created to bring together creative, interesting, and openminded fashion enthusiasts, and to democratically recognize the talents of real people around the world. (lookbook. nu 2011). In a sense, LOOKBOOK. nu is the world’s first, truly editorless fashion magazine. Some lookbooks from fashion brand website: (LOVE. COM) (H;M. COM) Range building is usually mentioned with clothing line planning. They are important commercial functions in the fashion industry. The functions include making a good range, taking into account customers, competitors, price points, fabrics, core items and seasonal specials. They are also a key function of fashion merchandiser who may consult with designers and buyers depending on the business operating structure of a company.
The first step of range building is to determine what clothes to manufacture. Ascertain if there is a market for your proposed product, and then be able to define your specialty, both in line and price category. The market for clothes is as varied as the demographic segmentation of the population, it focuses on gender (girls, boys, woman, men. ) and age (baby clothes, granny clothes). Also, consider creating clothes for infants, large women and pregnant woman. Further, design clothes for a specific niche market such as for sports enthusiasts and athletes. (Golfing apparel, tennis outfits or swimwear).
Shop report: Shop report is one kind of report that introduces, describe and present stores and shopping opportunities in specific area. Firstly, a shop report should include a brief description of the area of choice and information about the local demographic. Provide detailed address, contact information and website, give direction that reader can find the shop. Secondly, it should explain what products the shop is selling. Identify whether it is handbags, leather goods or shoes. For example, write a detailed description of the goods in terms of colour, design, themes.
Further, outlining the prices of products for the shop is necessary, but it is not a list of every items. Give an approximation like shoes in this shop vary between $99~$500. These three steps are the base of shop report. A detailed shop report also provides a comparison of shops analyzed. Compare their selection of brands, designers, quality of garments, styles, prices and overall customer base. For example, while one shop may have a larger selection of clothing compared to other shops, the quality may be better in the stores with smaller selections.
If possible, make a table of contents at the beginning of the report let reader find information quickly. This is a shop report of Kaight which is a fashion boutique in New York. It gives detailed information about the designers and introduction of the products. Another website which is GLLTN. COM has a few detailed shop reports about London stores. Luxury brand: Luxury can be described as the great comfort and extravagant living or ‘an inessential’, desirable item that is expensive or difficult to obtain. It is a specific tier of offer in almost any product or service category.
Luxury products are always being classical, special, fashionable, value. Being luxury products are usually due to their design, quality, branding exclusivity, durability or performance. Luxury goods plays a role of status symbols as it tend to signify the power of purchase of people who can obtain them. In other words, luxury products are displaying wealth or income of their owners. These kinds of goods are objects of conspicuous consumption include handbags, shoes, cosmetics, jewelry, clothing, vehicle, perfume, watch, holiday, large residences.
The recent global sales of luxury goods: leather goods (33%), watch;jewlry (30%), perfume;other (27%), apparel (10%). Luxury brand is a heritage global brand that is focused on exclusive fashion and luxury goods which is expensive and coveted by consumers. It is another market characteristic of luxury goods which is high profit margins as well as prices, and very tightly controlled brands. For example, LVMH (Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy) is the largest luxury good producer in the world with over 50 brands. In 2003, it made a profit of €2 billion on the sales of €12 billion.
A few of luxury brands are classified as designer brand which is an established or rising major designer whose signature personality and associated with fashion. Such as Paul Smith, Vivienne Westwood, Prada, Giorgio Armani, Versace. There are some star designers like John Galliano who was head designer of French haute couture houses Givenchy in 1996 and Christian Dior now, and also his own self-titled fashion house. Karl Lagerfeld is a German fashion designer, artist and photographer. He is most notably as head designer and creative director for Chanel.
John Paul Gaultier is a French haute couture fashion designer and the creative director of Hermes. Marc Jacobs who is an American fashion designer has been the creative director of the French design house Louis Vuitton since 1997. He won a number of awards and has his own brand called Marc Jacobs as well. Top 10 luxury markets are Japan, North American, London, France, China, Italy, Taiwan, German, Spain, Switzerland, and Brazil. Ethical Fashion: Ethical in business is usually defined as doing no harm, take an active role in poverty reduction, sustainable livelihood creation and counteracting environmental concerns.
Ethical Fashion is an umbrella term to describe ethical fashion design, production, retail, and purchasing. It covers a range of issues such as working conditions, exploitation, fair trade, sustainable production, the environment, and animal welfare. According to EFF. COM (2010), ethical fashion is an approach to the design, sourcing and manufacture of clothing which maximizes benefits to people while minimizing impact on the environment. The triple bottom lines of sustainability are social, environmental and commercial. A business or initiative is not ethical and sustainable unless the triple bottom line is integrated.
Social: “Increasing the capacity and wellbeing of the people and communities behind fashion. Any fashion business depends on the people behind it. In a broader context, poverty and exploitation of the human workforce behind fashion affects the stability of the industry itself. ” (EFF 2010) Environmental: play some action to reducing the environmental impact of all business operations. Such as awareness raising , investment in and support of environmental initiatives. Commercial: without a strong financial business structure, none of the above can be achieved and good intentions can backfire.
Furthermore, a sustainable approach includes quality products or services that meet customers’ needs and are fairly marketed. The Ethical Fashion Forum has created a set of 10 criteria for ethical fashion: 1. Countering fast, cheap fashion and damaging patterns of fashion consumption 2. Defending fair wages, working conditions and workers’ rights 3. Supporting sustainable livelihoods 4. Addressing toxic pesticide and chemical use 5. Using and /or developing eco- friendly fabrics and components 6. Minimizing water use. 7. Recycling and addressing energy efficiency and waste 8. Developing or promoting sustainability standards for fashion 9.
Resources, training and/ or awareness raising initiatives 10. Animal rights Case about ethical fashion: In Germany, a boom in sustainable fashion is expected these years. Although the market is still small, it is growing steadily. More than 200 fashion labels and 30concept stores are now dedicated to sustainability. Ethical fashion events are attracting an increasing number of visitors to Germany. Also, in October 2011, Universities in Germany opened first master degree course called “Sustainability in fashion”. Footwear: Footwear is included in garments, it is apparel worn on the feet. Footwear is a key element of fashion and adornment.
It has been designed to meet people’s real and perceived needs-protection, support, comfort, sturdiness, and stylishness. According to Drummond (2000), From over 15,000 years ago, there were some draws which made by Spanish cave show humans with animals skin or furs wrapped around their feet. So, shoes in some form or another have been existed for a long time. From the sandal to modern athletic shoes, the evolution of footwear is marvels of engineering. Even today, footwear industries continue to developing and find new materials to cover our feet. Materials of footwear: Leather Plastic
Rubber Textiles Wood Jute, Metal The Anatomy of a Shoe (footwearhistory. com): Breast: the front of the heel under the arch. Cap: the toecap. Counter: overlaid piece at the back of the upper. Feather: the part of the last and the shoe where the upper edge meets the sole. Insole: a piece of leather or other material between the sole and the foot. Puff: a light reinforcing inside the upper which gives the toe its shape and support. Quarter: the part of the back of the upper, which covers the heel. Seat: the concave part of the heel that fits into the shoe and into which the heel of the foot sits.
Shank: a piece of metal inserted between the sole and the insole lying against the arch of the foot. Sole: the piece of leather or other material that comes in contact with the ground. Stiffener: the inside stiffening of the upper, covering the heel and giving the back of the shoe support. Throat: the front of the vamp. Top Piece: the part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. Topline: the top edge of the upper. Upper: the piece of the shoe that covers the foot. Vamp: the part of the upper that covers the front of the foot as far as the back as the joint of the big toe.
Waist: the part of the last and the shoe that corresponds to the arch and instep of the foot. Famous brands of footwear: NEXT: The NEXT was founded in 1982 by J Hepworth. Their first store was selling women fashion garments which include clothes, shoes and accessories. Nowadays, NEXT is the UK leading brand and owns more than 500 stores in the UK and 200 stores in oversea countries. Recent years, NEXT opened a few larger format fashion and home stores across the UK. The first combined fashion, home and garden store has been opened at Shoreham-by-sea in August 2011. It also means the product range of NEXT is wider than before.
Its product range includes apparel of woman, men and children, homeware, electrical, grader accessories now. NEXT launched products for men in 1984, after 4 months there are 52 menswear stores. The home interiors was established in 1985 and childrenswear was added in 1987. Thus NEXT became a full-line lifestyle brand in a short time. The NEXT directory which is a new standard home shopping was launched in 1988. It is a seasonal catalogues of their products with fantastic photography. In 1999, NEXT became pioneer of online shopping as it created online version at www. Next. co. uk.
Since 2011, NEXT’s standard of delivery has became next day on most home shopping orders, about 80% customers is trading online. In 2001, NEXT flowers which is selling plants, flowers, gift cards, wine;champagne. In 2008, NEXT acquires the younger women’s fashion brand which is Lipsy. Recently, NEXT has been appointed as official clothing and homewear supplier to the London 2012 Olympic Games. NEXT will supplies uniforms for 4,500 technical officials and suits for reception staff and also home textiles for the athlete’s village. John Barton has become the chairman of the board of NEXT Plc since 2006.
He became a member of the board in 2002 and was appointed deputy chairman in 2004. Other board members are Lord Wolfson of Aspley Guise (Chief Executive), Christos Angelides (Group Product Director), David Keens (Group Finance Director), Andrew Varley (Group Property Director). Independent non-executive directors are Jonathan Dawson, Steve Barber, Christine Cross, Francis Salway. NEXT still continues to improve their customer service. In addition, NEXT has preparing has operations in Hong Kong, Sri Lanka and India and the UK engaged in the design, sourcing, buying, merchandising and quality control of NEXT products.
Marks ; Spencer: Marks ; Spencer is also known as M;S which is a British leading retailer. M;S started from a market stall in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds. Now, its retailer headquartered in the city of Westminster, London. M;S owns over 700 stores in the UK and over 300 stores across more than 40 countries, over 78,000 people employed by M;S in the UK and abroad. M;S offer high quality fashion clothing and home products, as well as luxury food products. When Michael Marks came to England from Slonim, he opened his first penny bazaar in Leeds.
Michael wanted to look for a partner to help his growing business. He reminded of Isaac Jowitt Dewhirst who lent money to Michael towards his start up costs. Isaac rejected Michael’s request, but he recommended his cashier who was Tom Spencer. After Tom’s agreement, Marks ; Spencer was born on 28 September. In the next few years, Michael Marks and Tom Spencer opened market stalls in many locations around the North West of England and moved the original Leeds penny bazaar to Manchester. In 1901, Marks ; Spencer built a warehouse at Derby Street, Manchester.
It is the first property and company’s first registered address and it was also ready for having 145 stores by 1915. In 1920s, underwear first appeared in Marks ; Spencer, bra has become M;S most iconic product. Flagship store was opened at London, Records and electrical household goods were started selling in 1930s. Further, a food department was introduced selling produce and canned foods in 1931. Cafe bar was introduced in 1935. In 1940s, M;S created utility clothing, which could be brightly pattered but was very simple in design.
The food technology department was established to collaborate with supplier and by 1942 it had created 82 Cafe bars in store. In 1950s, “We were not complaining when glamour came bouncing back. It was a time for looking forward”. (M;S) Fashion finally had the chance to rebel against the harsh conditions of the war years. A new style of dress was created base on the ‘Corolle’ collection by Christian Dior. It also improved the fit of clothing, such as nylon stockings. In 1956, M;S became the first retailer to introduce No Smoking rules in their stores.
During 1960s, M;S created a number of modern new items. Tights were introduced to M;S for the first time in 1962. New products made from the man-made fabric terylene which is a type of polyester, it was very popular because it was so practical and hardwearing. In order to sell fresh products to customers, M;S invented the “cold-chain” process, to keep meat chilled and fresh. Therefore, M;S was the first major British retailer to offer fresh, chilled chicken. .In the early 1970s, frozen food became more and more popular.
M;S developed our nation cuisine because it was the first major retailer selling Indian and Chinese meals. On the other hand, “From the mid-1970s suppliers slowly became more involved in design. ”(M;S), the products were designed by Brian Godbold, and it leaded the fashion trends. First range of furniture was introduced in 1986. M;S launched an online shopping service in 1999. The limited collection for woman was launched in 2003. M;S announced the opening of the world’s largest M&S shop at Dubai Festival City in 2007. M&S opened its first mainland China shop in Shanghai in 2008.
More than 125 years, Marks & Spencer never change their five key principles Quality, Value, Service, Innovation and Trust. As well as, the five key principles is reflected by “plan A” that target climate change, waste, sustainable raw materials, fair partnerships and health. Jeffery West: Jeffery West is a British shoes brand which created by Mark Jeffery and Guy West. Jeffery West began in 1983 when Mark Jeffery and Guy West decided to selling second-hand shoes which were reject products and samples from the shoe factory of Mark’s father. In 1987, the first Jeffery West shoe was designed.
They were designing and selling their own shoes at markets in Northamptonshire and London, although they were just 16 years old. Jeffery West has earned a loyal following by unique, innovative designs and superior quality. Jeffery West produces men’s shoes and men’s accessories are suitable for the modern gentleman. “Jeffery West shoes and Jeffery West boots merge both classic rich designs with modern sophistication and elegance” (Mr-shoes. co. uk 2010) “Jeffery West uses laborious techniques such as hand burnished uppers and Goodyear welted soles, to create edgy, luxurious shoes for the true modern dandy. (asos. co. uk. 2012) The company’s aim is to produce passionate designs consistently and high attention to detail and commitment to originality that make sure each shoe is special. While many footwear manufactures are cutting corners with mass production and produce the same trite designs, Jeffery West remains committed to hand-making, artful adornment and exclusive style. Jeffery West in Northampton. Tannery visit: Tannery is the term for place where to tanning. Tanning is the process of treating skins of animals and produce durable leather. Traditionally, Tanning used an acidic chemical compound called tannin.
Coloring may occur during tanning. In addition, “A tannery may be associated with a grindery, originally a whetstone facility for sharpening knives and other sharp tools, but later could carry shoemakers’ tools and materials for sale. ” (Possehl, Gregory L. 1996) Before tanning, the skins should be “defresh” that include unhaired, degreased, desalted and soaked in water about 6 hours to 48 hours. Tanning can be performed with either vegetable or mineral methods. Except drying, the steps of preparation are often more complex than the process of tanning and production of leather.
Curing is the most first step of tanning. Preparing skins begins by curing them with salt, curing removes superfluous water from hides in a different osmotic pressure and usually done by preserving the hides at an extreme low temperature. Beamhouse operations are known as the steps in the production of leather between curing and tanning, which include soaking, liming, unhairing and scudding, deliming, bating, drenching, and picking. Vegetable tanning is a traditional method that uses tannin (an acidic chemical compound). Tannin is collected from bark and leaves of many plants. Tannins bind to the collagen proteins in the hide and coat them causing them to become less water-soluble, and more resistant to bacterial attack. ”(Fao. org 2005) Vegetable tanning causes the hide become more flexible so that vegetable tanned hide is used for luggage and furniture. The process of vegetable tanning takes a long time and it can take up to 60 days. Today, the process has been speeded up with chrome tanning (mineral tanning). Chrome tanning usually only taking up to 1 day and produces stretchable leather which is great for use in handbags and clothes. But chrome tanning is very bad for the environment.
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