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395 Articles Of Indian Constitution In Hindi Analysis Paper

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Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules. O Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4: • Art.

1- Name and territory of the union. • Art. 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state. • Art. 3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.

O Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11: • Art. 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. • Art.

– Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan. • Art. 10- continuance of rights of citizenship. • Art. 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

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O Part 3- Art. 12 to art. 35 • Art. 12- Definition of the state • Art. 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44thamendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.

Some important Fundamental Rights are as: • Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18 • Art. 14- Equality before the law. • Art.

15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. • Art. 16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. • Art.

17- Abolition of the untouchability. • Art. 18- Abolition of titles • Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22 • Art.

19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights • (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression. • (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms. • (c) Right to form associations or unions. (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India. • (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.

• (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business. • Art. 20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences. • Art. 21-Protection of life and personal liberty.

• Art . 22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. • Right against Exploitation: Art. 23 & art. 24 • Art.

23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. • Art. 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines.

395 Articles Of Indian Constitution In Hindi Essay Sample

Important Articles of the Indian Constitution Important Articles of the Indian Constitution Important Articles of the Indian Constitution

Under age of 14. O Right to Freedom of Religion: Art. 25 to art. 28 • Art. 25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion.

• Art. 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs. • Art. 27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion. • Art.

28- Freedom from attending religious instruction. O Cultural and Educational Rights:Art. 29 & art. 30 • Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.

• Art. 30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. O Art. 32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights. O Part.

Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51 • Art. 36- Definition • Art. 37- Application of DPSP • Art. 39A- Equal justice and free legal aid • Art.

40- Organisation of village panchayat • Art. 41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases • Art. 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers. • Art.

43A- Participation of workers in management of industries. • Art. 44- Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only) • Art. 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.

• Art. 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC. Art. 47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath. • Art.

48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. • Art. 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance. • Art. 50- Separation of judiciary from executive.

• Art. 51- Promotion of international peace and security. • Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A • It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86thamendments act 2002. • Part. 5- The Union Executive: • Art.

52- The President of india • Art. 53- Executive Power of the union. • Art. 4- Election of President • Art. 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.

• Art. 63- The Vice-president of India. • Art. 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States. • Art.

66-Election of Vice-president. • Art. 72-Pradoning powers of President. • Art. 74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.

• Art. 76- Attorney-General for India. • Art. 79- Constitution of Parliament • Art. 80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.

• Art. 81- Composition of Lok Sabha. • Art. 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament. • Art.

93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people. Art. 105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament. • Art. 109- Special procedure in respects of money bills • Art.

110- Definition of “Money Bills”. • Art. 112- Annual Financial Budget. • Art. 114-Appropriation Bills.

• Art. 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament. • Art. 124- Establishment of Supreme Court. • Art.

125- Salaries of Judges. • Art. 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice. • Art. 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.

• Art. 128-Attendence of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court. • Art. 129- Supreme court to be court of Record. • Art.

30- Seat of the Supreme court. • Art. 136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court. • Art. 137- Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme court.

• Art. 141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts. • Art. 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India • Art. 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.

• Art. 153- Governors of State • Art. 154- Executive Powers of Governor. • Art. 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.

• Art. 165-Advocate-General of the State. • Art. 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances. • Art.

214- High Courts for states. • Art. 215- High Courts to be court of record. Art. 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.

• Art. 233- Appoinment of District judges. • Art. 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts. • Art. 243A- Gram Sabha • Art. 243B- Constitution of Panchayats • Art. 280- Finance Commission • Art. 300-A- Right to property. • Art. 301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse. • Art. 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commersce, and intercourse. • Art. 312- All- India-Service. • Art. 315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states • Art. 320- Functions of Public Service Commission. • Art. 23A- Administrative Tribunals • Art. 324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission. • Art. 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex. • Art. 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage. • Art. 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST. • Art. 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes. • Art. 343- Official languages of the Union. Art. 345- Official languages or languages of a states. • Art. 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts. • Art. 351-Directive for development of the hindi languages. • Art. 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency). • Art. 356- State Emergency • Art. 360- Financial Emergency • Art. 361- Protection of President and Governors • Art. 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution. • Art. 370-Special provision of J&K. • Art. 393-Constituion of India. Schedules of the Indian Constitution There are Twelve Schedules to the Constitution.

First Schedule (under Articles 1 and 4) gives a list of the States and Territories comprising the Union. States. Second Schedule under Arts. 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3) consists of 5 Parts, A to E. Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme court, Comptroller and Auditor General Third Schedule (under Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) contains forms of Oaths and Affirmations.

Fourth Schedule (under Articles 4(1) and (20)) allocates seats for each State and Union Territory, in the Council of States.

Fifth Schedule (under Articles 244(1) provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas. This schedule provides for amendment by a simple majority of Parliament and takes it out of the ambit of Article 368 (Amendment of the Constitution). Sixth Schedule (under Articles 214(2) and 275(1)) Provisions for administration of Tribal Area in Asom, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram & Arunachal Pradesh Seventh Schedule (under Article 246) Gives allocation of powers and functions between Union & States. It contains 3 lists 1. Union List (For central Govt) 97 Subjects.

2. States List (Powers of State Govt) 66 subjects 3.

Concurrent List (Both Union & States) 47 subjects. Eighth Schedule (under Articles 344(1) and 351(1) gives a lot of 18 languages recognised by the Constitution : 1. Assamese, 2. Bengali, 3. Gujarati, 4.

Hindi, 5. Kannada, 6. Kashmiri, 7. Malayalam, 8. Marathi, 9.

Oriya, 10. Punjabi, 11. Sanskrit, 12. Sindhi, 13. Tamil, 14.

Telugu, 15, Urdu, 16. Konkani, 17. Manipuri, 18. Nepali. Ninth Schedule (under Article 31(B) Added by Ist amendment in 1951.

Contains acts & orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways, industries. {Right of property not a fundamental right now} Tenth Schedule (under Articles 101, 102, 191 and 192).

It contains the Anti-defection Act. Eleventh Schedule (under Article 243 G) By 73rd amendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Panchayati Raj. Twelfth Schedule By 74thamendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Municipal Corporation.

Amendments to The Constitution-Important The first Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution was made in the year 1951 According to it, Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 376 were amended and Articles 31A and 3IB inserted and Ninth Schedule was added. The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution.

After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to the Concurrent List by this amendment. The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975: By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union. The Constitution (39th Amendment) Act, 1975: The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on August 7 and received Presidential assent on August 9,1975. The Act places beyond challenge in courts the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of Prime Minister or Speaker and the election of President and Vice-President.

The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985: The Act has made defection to another party, after elections illegal. Any member defecting to another party after elections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State Legislature. The Constitution (53rd Amendment) Act, 1986: It confers Statehood on Mizoram and ensures against unnecessary interference by the Central Government with the laws relating to spheres of social relationship and community conduct applicable to Mizoram. The Constitution (55th Amendment) Act, 1987: It grants Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh which consequently became the 24th State of the Indian Union.

The Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987: It confers Statehood on Goa and forms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the Indian Republic. The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987: It made a special provision for the setting up of the new State of Goa. Consequently Daman and Diu were separated from the former to form a Union Territory. The Constitution (59th Amendment) Act, 1988: It empowered the Central Government to impose Emergency in Punjab when deemed necessary.

Under the amendment, President’s rule can be extended upto three years. Earlier maximum period was two years. The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989: It lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. The Constitution (62nd Amendment) Act, 1989: It provided for the extension by another 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by nomination. The Constitution (64th Amendment) Act, 1990: It extended the President’s rule in Punjab by six months.

The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990: To bring land reforms within the purview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution. The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991: Delhi made National Capital Region. The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi. The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992: Before this act was made Article 54 relating to the election of the President provided for an electoral college consisting only of the elected members of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of the States (not of Union Territories).

The amendment provide for inclusion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi. The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992: The act amends the 8th Schedule to the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. The Constitution (72nd Amendment) Act, 1992: To make temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all seats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population; and for reservation of not less than one third of the seats in Panchayats for women. The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct election to all seats in Nagarpalikas and Municipalities. The Constitution (76th Amendment) Act, 1994: It relates to the Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under a State, for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

The Supreme Court had ruled on November 16, 1992, that the total reservations under Article 16(40) of the Constitution should not exceed 50 per cent. The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995: According to this Act, the Government have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995: It includes land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

The Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999: It extends the reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for next 10 years. The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding year and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 0% quota of the respective year. The Constitution (82nd Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that nothing in the Article 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the members of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job/promotion. The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000: The Act amended Article 243 M to provide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.

The Emergency Amendments i. e. 42,43,44 The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period of internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and received Presidential assent on December 18, 1976. The Amendment established beyond doubt the supremacy of Parliament over the other wings of Government; gave the Directive Principles precedence over the Fundamental Rights; enumerated for the first time a set of ten Fundamental Duties.

It further imposed limits on the power and jurisdiction of the judiciary; raised the term of the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha from five to six years; authorised the use of Central armed forces in any State to deal with law and order problems, made the President bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and envisaged the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Government employees and also other tribunals for economic offences. The Act also clearly laid down that no Constitutional Amendment could be questioned in any court of law.

The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978: It received the Presidential assent on April 13, 1978. This Act repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency. It restores civil liberties by deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of anti-national activities. The new law, which was ratified by more than half of the States in accordance with the Constitution, also restores legislative powers to the States to make ppropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent with the Fundamental Rights. Under the Act, the judiciary has also been restored to its rightful place.

The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate State laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also be able to go into the question of constitutional validity of Central laws thereby enabling persons living in distant places to obtain speedy justice without having to come to the Supreme Court.

The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978: The Constitution (45 th Amendment) Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when the President gave his assent. The Act removes major distortions in the Constitution introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five years—the normal term which was extended during the Emergency under the 42nd Amendment to achieve some political purposes. The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and becomes only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment.

The Act also extends, for the first time since independence, constitutional protection for publication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, except in cases where it is proved to be “malicious”. Another important feature of the Act is that any proclamation of Emergency need henceforward, be issued by the President only after receiving the advice of the Cabinet as a whole in writing. The President will not be called upon to act on the basis of advice by the Prime Minister on his own without consulting his Cabinet.

Other safeguards provide that the proclamation will have to be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of both Houses of Parliament within a month. The 44th Amendment provides safeguards against future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regime. It contains provisions which are designed to make it impossible to impose the kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months. Constitution of India – Articles Chart In this section of India Facts we discuss about Constitution of India – Articles. You get all the articles i.

e. Part I to Part XXII, in details. In hese Part I to Part XXII you will learn about 395 articles. Article 123 explains about the legislative powers of the President and article 213 is for the legislative powers of the Governor. Article 300A is important for everyone because it explains about Right to Property.

Check out yourself all the articls under different chapters and Parts. Part I – consists of Articles 1 – 4 on the Union and its Territory Part II – consists of Articles 5 – 11 on Citizenship. Part III – consists of Articles 12 – 35 on Fundamental Rights. •Articles 14 – 18 on Right to Equality, •Articles 19 – 22 on Right to Freedom, Articles 23 – 24 on Right against Exploitation, •Articles 25 – 28 on Right to Freedom of Religion, •Articles 29 – 31 on Cultural and Educational Rights, •Articles 32 – 35 on Right to Constitutional Remedies. Part IV – consists of Articles 36 – 51 on Directive Principles of State Policy.

Part IV (A) consists of Article 51A – Fundamental Duties of each citizen of India. Part V – consists of Articles on the Union. Chapter I – Articles 52 to 78 on The Executive. •Articles 52 – 73 on the President and Vice-President, •Articles 74 – 75 on Council of Ministers, •Articles 76 – Attorney General of India, Articles 77 – 78 on the Conduct of Government Business Chapter II – Articles 79 – 122 on Parliament. •Articles 79 – 88 on Constitution of Parliament, •Articles 89 – 98 on Officers of Parliament, •Articles 99 – 100 on Conduct of Business, •Articles 101 – 104 on Disqualification of members, •Articles 105 – 106 on Powers, privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members, •Articles 107 – 111 on Legislative Procedure, •Articles 112 – 117 on Procedure in Financial Matters, •Articles 118 – 122 on Procedure Generally.

Chapter III – Article 123 on the Legislative Powers of the President. Article 123 on Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Chapter IV – Articles 124 – 147 on The Union Judiciary. •Articles 124 – 147 Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court Chapter V – Articles 148 – 151 on the Controller and Auditor-General of India. •Articles 148 – 151 on Duties and powers of Comptroller and Auditor-General. Part VI – Articles on the States.

Chapter I – Article 152 on the General definition of a State of the Union of India •Article 152 – Exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir from the general definition of a state of the Union of India.

Chapter II – Articles 153 – 167 on The Executive •Articles 153 – 162 on The Governor, •Articles 163 – 164 on The Council of Ministers, •Article 165 on the Advocate-General for the State. •Articles 166 – 167 on the Conduct of Government Business. Chapter III – Articles 168 – 212 on The State Legislature. •Articles 168 – 177 General •Articles 178 – 187 on the Officers of the State Legislature, •Articles 188 – 189 on Conduct of Business, •Articles 190 – 193 on Disqualification of members, •Articles 194 – 195 on Powers, Privileges and Immunities Parliament and its Members, •Articles 196 – 201 on Legislative Procedure, Articles 202 – 207 on Procedure in Financial Matters, •Articles 208 – 212 on Procedure Generally. Chapter IV – Article 213 on the Legislative Powers of the Governor •Article 213 – Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Chapter V – Articles 214 – 231 on The High Courts in the States.

•Articles 214 – 231 on High Courts in the States, Chapter VI – Articles 233 – 237 on the Subordinate Courts •Articles 232 – 237 on Subordinate Courts Part VII – consists of Articles on States in the B part of the First schedule. Article 238 Repealed, Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. Part VIII – consists of Articles on The Union Territories •Articles 239 – 242 Administration, creation of Council of Ministers and High Courts Part IX – consists of Articles on the Panchayat system. •Articles 243 – 243O on the Gram Sabha and Panchayat system Part IXA – consists of Articles on Municipalities.

•Articles 243P – 243ZG on Municipalities Part X – consists of Articles on the scheduled and Tribal Areas •Articles 244 – 244A on Administration, creation of Council of Ministers, and legislatures.

Part XI – consists of Articles on Relations between the Union and the States. Chapter I – Articles 245 – 255 on the Distribution of Legislative Powers •Articles 245 – 255 on Distribution of Legislative Relations Chapter II – Articles 256 – 263 on Administrative Relations •Articles 256 – 261 – General •Article 262 – on Disputes relating to waters. •Article 263 – on Co-ordination between States Part XII – consists of Articles on Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits Chapter I – Articles 264 – 291 on Finance •Articles 264 – 267 General Articles 268 – 281 on Distribution Revenues between the Union and the States •Articles 282 – 291 on Miscellaneous Financial Provisions Chapter II – Articles 292 – 293 on Borrowing •Articles 292 – 293 on Borrowing by States Chapter III – Articles 294 – 300 on Property, Contracts, Right, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits •Articles 294 – 300 on Succession to property assets, liabilities, and obligations. Chapter IV – Article 300A on the Right to Property •Article 300A – on Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law Part XIII – consists of Articles on Trade and Commerce within the territory of India Articles 301 – 305 on Freedom of Trade and Commerce, and the power of Parliament and States to impose restrictions on the same •Article 306 – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

•Article 307 – Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304. Part XIV – consists of Articles on Services Under the Union and the States Chapter I – Articles 308 – 314 on Services •Articles 308 – 313 on Services •Article 314 – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972, s. 3 (w. e. f.

29-8-1972).

Chapter II – Articles 315 – 323 on the Public Service Commissions •Articles 315 – 323 on Public Service Commissions Part XIVA – consists of Articles on Tribunals •Articles 323 A – 323 B Part XV – consists of Articles on Elections •Articles 324 – 329 on Elections •Article 329A – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 36 (w. e. f. 20-6-1979).

Part XVI – consists of Articles on Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes. •Articles 330 – 342 on Reservations Part XVII – consists of Articles on Official Language Chapter I – Articles 343 – 344 on Language of the Union Articles 343 – 344 Official Language of the Union Chapter II – Articles 345 – 347 on Regional Languages •Articles 345 – 347 on Language of the State Chapter III – Articles 348 – 349 on Language of the Supreme Court, High courts, Etc •Articles 348 – 349 on Language used in Supreme Court, High courts Etc Chapter IV – Articles 350 – 351 on Special Directives •Article 350 – on Language to be used in representations forredress of grievances. •Article 350A – on Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage. •Article 350B – on provision for Special Officer for linguistic minorities. Article 351 – on Directive for development of the Hindi language.

Part XVIII – consists of Articles on Emergency Provisions •Articles 352 – 359 on Emergency Provisions •Article 359A – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989, s. 3 (w. e. f. 6-1-1990) •Article 360 – on Provisions as to financial emergency.

Part XIX – Miscellaneous •Articles 361 – 361A – Miscellaneous •Article 362 – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2. •Articles 363 – 367 – Miscellaneous . Part XX – consists of Articles on Amendment of the Constitution • Articles 368 on the Power of parliament to amend the constitution and procedure therefor Part XXI – consists of Articles on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions •Articles 369 – 378A on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions •Article 379 – 391 – Repealed – Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,s. 29 and Sch.

•Article 392 – on the Power of the President to remove difficulties. Part XXII consists of Articles on short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals. •Articles 393 – 395 Commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals Important points of Indian constitution

It is the largest written legal document in the world. It took 2 years, 11 months and 17 days to complete the text of constitution. Initially it contained 395 articles and 8 Schedules. Sachchidanand Sinha was the first chairman of the constituent Assembly ( it consisted of elected member of legislative assembly). Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of constituent assembly.

Dr B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee and was assisted by B. N. Rau who created the draft of constitution of India.

The draft of the constitution was approved on26th November 1949 and hence it is observed as Law day.

National Anthem was adopted on 24th January 1950 whereas National Flag was adopted on July 22nd 1947, India has a Quasi Federal structure. In India there are three levels of government one at center, one at state and one at Local. In case of emergency the central government gains control over the nation. Preamble India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic. Sovereign means India is an independent country.

Socialist Pattern is an economic pattern where both public and private sector work together under Government’s control. Secularism means no fixed religion and respect for all religion.

Democratic means that the government which is of the people by the people and for the people. Republic means people select the head of government directly or indirectly. Preamble embodies the noble concept of : Justice in social, economic and political aspects. Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. Equality of status and opportunity Fraternity assuring dignity, unity and integrity to all the citizens of the nation.

Note: the concept of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity is adopted from French revolution. Constitution is amended once during 42ndamendment where the words Socialist and Secular were added.

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