History Questions Paper
Ch 20 From Restoration to Revolution Multiple Choice Only Essays are still optional and worth two points each Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____1. The principal idea that guided the Congress of Vienna was: a. | the creed of economic and political liberalism. | b. | the restoration of the French monarchy. | c. | the principle of legitimacy. | d. | the utilitarianism of the Benthamites. | ____2. The Troppau Memorandum, which was signed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, called upon the signatories to aid one another in: a. | times of economic depression. b. | repelling a foreign invasion. | c. | waging an offensive war. | d. | suppressing revolution. | ____3. The revolutions in South America were aided in 1823 when the United States issued the: a. | Doctrine of Manifest Destiny. | b. | Monroe Doctrine. | c. | Jefferson/Jackson Doctrine. | d. | Treaty of La Plata. | ____4. The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 was: a. | a direct response to the formation of the Third Section. | b. | led by army officers obsessed with Jacobin republicanism. | c. | caused by the assassination of Nicholas I. | d. | initiated by an elite corps of Russian army officers. | ___5. The Greek war of independence: a. | pitted various Greek groups against the Ottoman Turks. | b. | was both peaceful and bloodless. | c. | led to the repeal of the London Protocols. | d. | resulted in the destruction of the Ottoman empire. | ____6. Nineteenth-century liberals were least concerned with the: a. | relationship between the individual and the state. | b. | economic well-being of the middle classes. | c. | reform of the legal codes. | d. | plight of the agricultural laborers. | ____7. The utopian socialist Robert Owen put his beliefs into practice in his cotton factory in: a. Middleville, Massachusetts. | b. | Fourier, Provence. | c. | New Lanark, Scotland. | d. | Birmingham, England. | ____8. In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels: a. | argued that the standard of living had increased for skilled workers. | b. | gave an empirical report describing the misery of British factory workers. | c. | described his observations of a textile factory in Lancashire. | d. | offered philosophical justification for dialectical materialism. | ____9. The founder of modern socialism was: a. | Karl Marx. | b. | Friedrich Engels. | c. | Theodore Herzl. d. | Friedrich List. | ____10. Which of the following philosophers is often considered to be a precursor to the Romantic Movement? a. | Denis Diderot| b. | Immanuel Kant| c. | Jean-Jacques Rousseau| d. | Voltaire| ____11. A Romantic would probably argue that human nature is: a. | diverse, and therefore subject to no natural laws. | b. | incapable of expression in art. | c. | a universal, and therefore subject to investigation. | d. | necessarily evil. | ____12. In general, the Romantics would be likely to argue that: a. | the philosophies had elevated reason above emotion and spontaneity. b. | all poetic imagination must be subject to the laws of knowledge. | c. | nature reveals nothing, the mind everything. | d. | truth could be found in the art of the ancient world. | ____13. The fiercest critic of British industrial society was the poet: a. | William Blake. | b. | Samuel Taylor Coleridge. | c. | John Constable. | d. | John Keats. | ____14. The best known Romantic fiction, Frankenstein, was written by: a. | Mary Shelley. | b. | Mary Wollstonecraft. | c. | Mary Keats. | d. | Mary Bysshe. | ____15. The Reform Bill of 1832: a. | created equal electoral districts. b. | passed because the governing class feared a union of the working and middle classes. | c. | gave the vote to all males except those employed as agricultural workers. | d. | did not cleanse Parliament of “rotten” or “pocket” boroughs. | ____16. The writings of the seventeenth-century political philosopher, John Locke, formed the basis for English: a. | conservatives. | b. | liberals. | c. | royalists. | d. | democrats. | ____17. According to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s What is Property, property: a. | should be held in common by all. | b. | is theft. | c. is a natural right. | d. | should be controlled by the state. | ____18. Johan von Herder, author of Ideas for a Philosophy of Human History, argued in opposition to the philosophers that civilization came not from an elite but from the culture of the common people and was expressed, for the Germans, as: a. | niebelungenlied. | b. | mein kampf. | c. | volksgeist. | d. | endlos arbeit. | ____19. The July Ordinances of 1830 issued by Charles X restricted suffrage, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, imposed strict censorship on the press, and: a. reduced the power of the nobility. | b. | called for new elections. | c. | restricted the Catholic Church. | d. | repealed the Napoleonic legal code. | ____20. The British Anti-Corn Law League sought the repeal of laws regulating what commodity? a. | barley| b. | wheat| c. | corn| d. | soybeans| ____21. In early 1848, in response to un- and under-employment, the French government established public works projects in and around Paris under the name: a. | Works Progress Administration. | b. | National Workshops. | c. | National Recovery Agency. | d. | Paris Commune. | ____22.
Between 1839 and 1848, the leading British voice calling for democracy: a. | was the International Workingmen’s Association. | b. | were the socialists in a great many organizations. | c. | was the landed aristocracy; they believed they could control the peasants’ votes. | d. | were the Chartists, who gathered six million signatures in support in 1848. | ____23. As a result of “Peterloo,” Parliament passed the Six Acts, which included: a. | restrictions on the rights of public meeting. | b. | provisions for an eight-hour workday. | c. | universal manhood suffrage. | d. | the repeal of the Stamp Act. ____24. Karl Marx summarized the relationship between Napoleon Bonaparte and ____________ by stating: “All facts and personages of great importance in world history occur twice… the first time as tragedy, the second as farce. ” a. | N. Lenin| b. | Nicholas II of Russia| c. | Otto von Bismarck| d. | Louis Napoleon| ____25. The basis of nineteenth-century conservatism was a belief in political stability which they thought would be guaranteed by the: a. | monarchy. | b. | army. | c. | workers. | d. | peasantry. | True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____26.
The expansion of an informed reading public helped make it impossible for conservatives to restore the old order. ____27. The Romantics were a conservative force who looked back to religion and history for inspiration. ____28. After the fall of Napoleon, France still remained the most powerful continental state due to his efforts to centralize power and his governmental reforms. ____29. The aims of Tsar Alexander’s “Holy Alliance” were to establish justice, Christian charity, and peace. ____30. After the Congress of Vienna, a ruler was made legitimate by international treaties and support, not divine right. ___31. Tsar Nicholas sentenced five young members of the elite to be hanged and buried in secret graves in order to stop them from becoming martyrs to the Decembrists’ cause. ____32. Liberalism required democracy. ____33. National languages of European countries were not always the languages of the majority of citizens. ____34. Romanticism was a reaction against the Enlightenment and classicism. ____35. Volksgeist is the “spirit of the people” as praised by Herder to be the roots of civilization. Essay 36. Why was restoration not possible in Latin America? 37.
Why was the Greek war for independence so attractive to European powers? 38. How did republicanism and socialism differ from liberalism? 39. How was Marx’s socialism different from socialism in general? 40. How was nationalism transformed by the state? 41. How did Romanticism challenge the gender roles of men and women in the nineteenth century? 42. What was Orientalism? 43. What factors contributed to the second French Revolution in 1830? 44. What changes did the new regime in Britain enact in order to avoid revolution? 45. What was the role of the national workshops in bringing about the French Revolution?