What are the (four) goals of science/theories? How do each of these goals contribute to our knowledge in reference to human development? What do continuous/discontinuous and quantitative/qualitative changes in development refer to and how do these two terms differ from one another? What are the three domains of development and what does each refer to? What is the nature-nurture debate about? What would someone believe if they argued that nature (or nurture) were more important influences on development? What are the key principles of the (Baltes’) lifespan approach?
What does each of these principles mean? 2. What is imprinting? What are critical and sensitive periods (what was the point of the video clip! )? What does the terms plasticity mean in reference to development? What is the difference between normative and nonnormative influences on development and what is an example of each? Be able to define normative age-graded and normative history-graded influences. What is a cohort and how could cohort effects influence development? 3. What do genotype-environment interactions suggest? What are passive, evocative, and active genotype-environment interactions (these are also listed on pp. 2-73 in the text)? Why might active genotype-environment interactions become more common during adolescence than during early childhood? Why might siblings raised in the same family be different? What is an example of a non-shared environment? 4. What is a theory? On what fundamental issues to most theories differ (three were mentioned in class)? Who were the main theorists (what were their names) behind each major theory presented in class and the text? Be sure to know the main ideas associated with each theory and be able to name stages, but not necessarily the details of Erikson at this point, we get at those throughout.
Be able to recognize the stages of Freud and Piaget. What is the information processing approach and what is the key concern of this theory? What is developmental cognitive neuroscience? What are ethology and evolutionary psychology (the text call this evolutionary developmental psychology)? What is the difference between behaviorism and social learning theories? You may skip Vygotsky (not on the test). And you should know each of the levels of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems theory and how this theory is usually applied. 5. What is the difference between an idiographic and a nomothetic explanation?
How does sampling relate to the generalizability (our ability to generalize results) or research results? What are the common research methods presented in your text? What are the basic research designs? What do correlational studies tell us? What kind of research design is necessary for researchers to draw conclusions regarding cause and effect? What is random assignment and what role does it play in experimental research designs? What is the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each versus each other? Chapter 3 & 4 1.
What are the stages of childbirth and what happens during each stage? Under what conditions are cesarean deliveries typically performed? What is the average length and weight of a newborn? What is the Apgar scale? What is considered a “good” score for these scales? What are the typical activities that women participate in who want to have a natural childbirth? What is an epidural analgesia and when is it used? How does it work? What are the concerns about negative outcomes for the newborn when mother’s have an epidural? 2. What is the definition of for referring to a baby as “premature”?
How many US babies are born underweight? What factors are related to an increased likelihood of a woman having a low birth weight baby? What concerns are there for the health and development of low birth weight babies? What treatments are used to reduce problems for these babies? 3. What is the infant mortality rate in the U. S.? How does this rate compare to other countries? What factors increase the likelihood of infant mortality? What does SIDS refer to? What should new parents know (or do) to reduce the odds of SIDS? 4. What are the health advantages of breastfeeding (both dietary and generally)?
What might some social or emotional advantages be? What are the main advantages to bottle-feeding? What are some reasons why mothers do not breastfeed? What role does maternal employment play in breastfeeding duration? Is co-sleeping with infants more common in the U. S. or other countries? What are some concerns about co-sleeping? Why are these concerns less of an issue in developing countries? 5. What are the typical primitive reflexes that are present in newborns? What are postural and locomotor reflexes? What are the rooting, tonic neck, palmar grasp, stepping, and moro reflex?
What is the point of babies being born with these reflexes? 6. What are some typical neurophysiological methods to sudy brain functioning? What is lateralization in the brain? What is the cerebral cortex? What are the functions of the left and right hemispheres in the brain? What are neurons, synapse, synaptic pruning, and neurotransmitters? What is the process of myelination? 7. What is classical conditioning? What is operant conditioning? What is habituation and recovery? How is habituation used to study infant memory and knowledge? 8. At what age can most infants support their own heads?
Sit alone? Stand alone? Walk alone? Crawl? Grasp a large object (like a rattle) using ulnar grasp? Pass an object from hand to hand? Use the pincer grasp to hold small objects the size of a cheerio or a pea? How many hours on average per day will a neonate sleep (from notes or add the two from chart in the text)? What are the differences in infant smiling at ages 1 month, 4-6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 to 8 months? Chapter 5 1. Which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development corresponds to infancy? How do babies think during this stage? What are primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions?
What do the terms adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation refer to? What is organization? What are mental representations? What is object permanence and how is it related to Piaget’s theory? What does more recent research suggest about Piaget’s ideas regarding children’s development of object permanence? What does research on violation-of-expectations suggest about infants abilities to think and reason? 2. What approach does the behaviorist approach take towards understanding how babies learn and remember? What are operant conditioning and classical conditioning? note I discuss these in class during Ch. 5, they appear in Ch. 4 of the text) 3. According to the information processing approach (p. 161) what are the major advances in cognition in early development? What are working, short-term, and long-term memory? What is the central execituve? What are the key changes in attention, memory and categorization? 4. How can early interventions (Carolina Abcedarian Project, Head Start) benefit cognitive devevelopment in early childhood? What percentage of mothers with children under the age of 2 work outside of the home? . How do the behaviorist and nativist perspectives on language development differ? At what age do children say their first word? What are the characteristics of early speech? What are overextension and underextension of words/meanings? What evidence regarding nativist perspective on language development did the video on deaf children in Nicaragua provide? When do infants start imitating language sounds? When do babies learn language sounds in their parents’ native language? According to the video in class, at what age can babies learn to sign?