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The intestinal digestive enzymes alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase are plays a vital role in the carbohydrate digestion. One antidiabetic therapeutic approach reduces the post prandial glucose level in blood by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes. These can be an important strategy in management of blood glucose.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical bioactive compounds of the methanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves, its in vitro anti-diabetic activity.The assay results suggests that the presence of bioactive compounds, could be responsible for the versatile medicinal properties of this plant including diabetes, the extract exhibit the dose-dependent increase in inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase enzyme (upto 89. 4%), and alpha-amylase enzyme (upto 96. 3%). The current study proves that the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves by in vitro studies.
* Keywords Psidium guajava; Phytochemical; alphaglucosidase; alpha-amylase Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a complex and a diverse group of disorders that disturbs he metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein. The number of diabetes mellitus cases has been increasing worldwide in recent years. In 2000, the world health organization estimated a total of 171 million of people with diabetes mellitus from the global population, and this report projected to increase to 366 million by 2030 (Wild et al. , 2004). With a long course and serious complications often resulting in high deathrate, the treatment of diabetes spent vast amount of resources including medicines, diets, physical training and so on in all countries.
Thus searching for a new class of compounds is essential to overcome diabetic problems. There is continuous search for alternative drugs (Syamsudin, 2010). 15 Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2013) 2(2):15-19 Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) is commonly known as Peru or Guava in English. The Psidium guajava leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, cough, stomachache, dysentery and decoction of the leaves for cholera patients, toothache and gum boils. The leaves showed hypoglycemic, cardioprotective, myocardial depressant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic actions (Ross, 1999).Inhibition of alphaamylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes can be an important strategy in management of post prandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes patient (Ali et al. , 2006). Thus, objective of the present study is to investigate the phyto chemical, invitro antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves. reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids by using standard phytochemical procedures (Evans, W. C and Evans, T. 2003). In vitro methods employed in antidiabetic studies Inhibition of alpha-amylase enzyme A starch solution (0. 1% w/v) was obtained by stirring 0. g of potato starch in 100 ml of 16 mM of sodium acetate buffer. The enzyme solution was prepared by mixing 27. 5 mg of alpha-amylase in 100 ml of distilled water. The colorimetric reagent is prepared by mixing sodium potassium tartarate solution and 3, 5 di nitro salicylic acid solution 96 mM. Both control and plant extracts were added with starch solution and left to react with alpha- amylase solution under alkaline conditions at 25? C. The reaction was measured over 3 minutes. The generation of maltose was quantified by the reduction of 3, 5 dinitro salicylic acid to 3amino-5- nitro salicylic acid.This reaction is detectable at 540 nm (Malik and Singh, 1980). Materials and Methods Plant material and extraction The fresh leaves of Psidium guajava were collected locally and authenticated by the department of Botany, St. Joseph College, Trichy. The shade dried Psidium guajava leaves were powdered mechanically and stored in an air tight container. The extraction was carried out by hot percolation method using Soxhlet apparatus. The solvent used was methanol. About 100 gm of powder was extracted with 600 ml of methanol. The extract was concentrated to dryness under controlled temperature 4050°C.The percentage yield was found to be 10. 15%. The extract was preserved in refrigerator till further use. Phytochemical Screening For preliminary phytochemical analysis the freshly prepared crude methanolic extracts of leaves were tested for the presence or absence of phytoconstituents such as 16 Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzyme The inhibitory activity was determined by incubating a solution of starch substrate (2 % w/v maltose or sucrose) 1 ml with 0. 2 M Tris buffer pH 8. 0 and various concentration of plant extract for 5 min at 37°C.The reaction was initiated by adding 1 ml of alpha-glucosidase enzyme (1U/ml) to it followed by incubation for 40 min at 35°C. Then the reaction was terminated by the addition of 2 ml of 6N HCl. Then the intensity of the colour was measured at 540nm (Krishnaveni et al. , 1984). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2013) 2(2):15-19 Calculation of 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) The concentration of the plant extracts required to scavenge 50% of the radicals (IC50) was calculated by using the percentage scavenging activities at five different concentrations of the extract.Percentage inhibition (I %) was calculated by I % = (Ac-As)/Ac X 100, (Shai et al. , 2010). where Ac is the absorbance of the control and As is the absorbance of the sample. Table 1 Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves S. No. Phytochemical Constituents Name of the Test Mayer s test Dragondraff test Wagner Test Molish Test Fehling Test Benedicts Test Lead Acetate Ferric chloride. Ammonia Salkowaski H2So4 Liebermann s Burchard Test H2So4 Ammonia Shinoda s Test Ferric chloride Sodium chloride Borntrager s test Methanolic Extract + + + + + + + Condensed Tannin + + + + + _ Alkaloids 2 3 4 5 6 Carbohydrates Tannins Pseudo tannins Chlorogenic acid Steroidal Glycosides Anthocyanin Steroidal Glycosides Saponins glycosides Flavonoids Flavones Phenols Coumarin Phytochemical constituents Results The preliminary phytochemical screening tests for the methanol extract of Psidium guajava leaves (Table 1) revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavones, tannins, steroidal glycosides, phenols and coumarin. Any of these secondary metabolites, singly or in combination with others could be responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of the plant.There was a dose-dependent increase in percentage inhibitory activity against alphaamylase enzyme. At a concentration of 0. 2 ml of plant extract showed a percentage inhibition 27. 8% and for 1. 0 ml plant extract showed inhibition of 96. 3% (Table 2). The Psidium guajava methanol extract revealed a significant inhibitory action of alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The percentage inhibition at 0. 2-1. 0 ml concentrations of Psidium guajava extract showed a dose dependent increase in percentage inhibition. The percentage inhibition varied from 89. 4% – 31. 7% for highest concentration to the lowest oncentration (Table 3). 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 +++= High; + = Present; ++ = Moderate; – = Absent Table. 2 In vitro antidiabetic activity of alpha-amylase method S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Concentration of Sample (ml) 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 % of Inhibition 27. 8 48. 9 62. 5 87. 2 96. 3 17 Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2013) 2(2):15-19 Table 3 In vitro antidiabetic activity of alpha glucosidase method S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Concentration of Sample (ml) 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 % Of Inhibition 31. 7 53. 9 68. 2 76. 5 89. 4 Discussion Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with increasing incidence throughout the world.Insulin is a key player in the control of glucose homeostasis. Lack of insulin affects carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Rajiv Gandhi and Sasikumar, 2012). Management of diabetes without side effects is still challenge to the medical community. It was proposed that inhibition of the activity of such alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase would delay the degradation of carbohydrate, which would in turn cause a decrease in the absorption of glucose, as a result the reduction of postprandial blood glucose level elevation (Rhabaso Lhoret and Chiasson, 2004).In the present study, research has been carried out to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical investigation and the potential of methanol extract of Psidium guajava leaf in inhibiting alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. The present finding of Phytochemical screening of the plant extract confirmed the presence of several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavones, tannins and phenols which could be responsible for the versatile medicinal properties of this plant. The present finding reveals that Psidium guajava efficiently inhibits both alpha18 mylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro in a dose dependent manner. The aqueous extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds and Psidium guajava leaves both showed a dose dependent inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase activity (Karthic et al. , 2008). The antidiabetic action of Psidium guajava can also be attributed to the intestinal alpha-amylase and alphaglucosidase inhibitory activity. Further studies are required to elucidate whether Psidium guajava have antidiabetic potential by in vivo for validating the traditional claim of the plant.In this present study we evaluated in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity of crude methanol extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The plant showed significant inhibition activity, so further the compound isolation, purification and characterization which is responsible for inhibiting activity, has to be done for the usage of antidiabetic agent. Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to Dr. P. Selvaraj, Chairman, Shivani Group of Institutions, Trichy, whose spacious heart cheered our efforts to process this venture properly, successfully to complete the task.Also we extend our thanks to The Secretary, The Principal and The Staff members of the SSK Polytechnic College, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India. References Ali, H. , P. J. Houghton, and Soumyanath, A. 2006. J. Ethnopharmacol. 107: 449-455. Evans, W. C. , and Evans, T. 2003. Pharmacognosy, 5th Edn. , Cambridge University Press, London, 336-93. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2013) 2(2):15-19 Karthic, K. , K. S. Kirthiram, S. Sadasivam, and Thayumanavan, B. 2008. Identification of – amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn seeds. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 6:677- 680. Krishnaveni,S. , B.Theymoli, and Sadasivam,S. 1984. Food Chem. 15: 229. Malik,C. P. , and Singh, M. B. 1980. Plant Enzymology and Histoenzymology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, p. 278. Rajiv Gandhi, G. , and Sasikumar, P. 2012. Antidiabetic effect of Merremia emarginata Burm. F. in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian. Paci. J. Tropi. Biomedicine. 2: 281-286. Rhabaso Lhoret, R. , and Chiasson, J. L. , 2004. – Glucosidase inhibitors. In: Defronzo R. A, Ferrannini E, Keen H, Zimmet P. (Eds. ), International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, Vol. 1, third ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. , UK, pp. 901-914. Ross, I. A. 1999. Medicinal Plants of the World, Chemical constituents, traditional and modern medicinal uses. Human Press Inc. , Totowa, NJ. 263-272. Shai, L. J. , P. Masoko, M. PMokgotho, S. R. Magano, M. A. Mogale, N. Boaduo, and Eloff, J. N. 2010. South African J. Bot. 76: 465 470. Syamsudin,S. , 2010. Standardization of extract of Leucaena leucocephala (lmk) De Wit seeds by -glucosidase inhibitor. Int. J. Phytomedicine. 2. 430-435. Wild, S. , G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and King, H. 2004. Global prevalence of Diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes care. 27:1047-1053. 19