To What Extent Did Nationalism Threaten Peace in Europe from 1870 to 1914 ? Essay
To what extent did nationalism threaten peace in Europe from 1870 to 1914 ? From 1870, two big powers, Italy and Germany, were established after their unifications. At the same time, it aroused nationalism in Europe. So, it did a large extent of nationalism threatening peace in Europe until 1914, because they tried to gain national glory. Nationalism is the movement for national unity, independence and advancement. Nationalists tried to gain national glory and to unify with the people in same race.
There is few doubts to say that nationalistic movements did bring unrests and conflicts among European powers. There were many nationalistic movements in the period of 1870-1914, including the Pan-German movements, Pan-Slavs movement, Greater Serbian movement, the revenge by France and the Young Turks movement. These all intensified the conflicts among the powers and suspicions rose gradually. What kind of nationalism were these so called movements based on? First, the Pan-German Movement did bring to the deterioration of the relations between Germany and Russia, which advocated the Pan-Slavs Movement.
The Germans tried to unify with the German-speaking in the Balkans, which would bring national glory as well. Their conflicts deepened the roots of hostility. They were the two mainly rival powers leading to and in the First World War in 1914. Rather brief. Give examples. Besides, the Pan-Slav movement and the Greater Serbia movement brought unrest in the Eastern Europe and intensified the conflicts between Russian-Serbia and Austria-Hungary too. Explain why they were rivals in the area.
These two movements were to enlarge Serbia with Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Montenegro, and to unify all Slavs under the leadership of Russia. The Treaty of San Stefano and Congress of Berlin in 1878 made the situation worse as the Russian gains were limited by other powers, led by Germany and Austria-Hungary. These two treaties were made as the Second Russo-Turkish war in 1875-76 when the Russian tried to protect the Slavs in the Turkish Empire. The Russian thought through the war, they could gain territories and influence in the Turkish Empire and then gain national glory.
However, this failure brought the Dreikaiserbund, the Three Emperors?? League, to an end. These made Germany?? s alliance system less powerful and faced German with a chance of two front war, which finally occurred in the First World War. On the other hand, the French revenge movement also brought conflicts with Germany. What is this revenge movement? For example, the two Moroccan Crises in 1905 and 1911 intensified the hostility between two camps. Explain more — how were these crises related to the revenge movement??
It made a war between these two powers more likely. The Young Turks Movement what is this? in 1900s also brought a few conflicts among the powers. In1908, Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina and it directly worsened the relations among Russia, Serbia and Austria. How was this related to the Young Turks Movement? Or you have to improve the paragraph organization. And the two Balkan wars even showed that greater power of Serbia and further intensified the hostility between Serbia and Austria.
Last but not least, the colonial conflicts Why just mention colonial rivalry, was it related to nationalism or what? Or as “other cause”? also threatened the peace in Europe. In order to gain national glory, the powers put their efforts on gaining colonies in the Far East and Africa. The colonial conflict in Tunis in 1881-82 brought Italy into the camp of Germany. And, the Moroccan Cries and the Fashoda Incident led to a better relations between France, Britain and Russia, which might mean a hostile camp against Germany.
What is more, Germany even pass the Naval Law in 1898 and 1900 to expand their navy in order to gain more colonies and develop a colonial empire against Britain. To conclude, most of the conflicts from 1870-1914 occurred because of the nationalism in each powers. The nationalism movements intensified the hostilities among the powers and made a war more likely to occur. So, it is a large extent of nationalism threatening peace in Europe from 1870-1914. From admin — A concise answer. You have quite many points related to nationalism.
You need to further elaborate them with some more details. Peace may not be just threatened by nationalism (though it is important). You can elaborate on colonial rivalry as another cause – yet you can also argue that colonial rivalry is a result for extending national glory or strength, not merely for economic reason. Even the so called ‘alliance system’ initiated by Bismarck was for the sake of German domination of “Mitteleuropa”, not just for self-preservation. So nationalism was perhaps the most important cause.