Job design: Job design is simply the designing of job and this is the process that is next to job analysis. Job design involves step-by-step or systematic attempts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. Job design makes the job highly specialized and well designed jobs are important in attracting and retaining a motivated work force. Elements of Job Design Job Design is affected by 3 categories of factors/elements: •Organizational elements •Environmental elements •Behavioral elements Organizational elements Workflow: The flow of work must not have any jerk. Means the workflow must be smooth. e. g. if a person’s job is to pick up a socket & puts it in, its jerkless. But if the same person is compelled to pick up, clean and then put it inside, the cleaning process will create a jerk. ?Work practice: Work practices are the set methods of performing work.
This can affect the job design as there is little flexibility in designing the job. And we must keep some part of the old job practices in the new job so that worker will not feel totally new to it. Mechanistic approach: We must design the job very scientifically. It must be practical and experienced. We must know which job will give us highest productivity and satisfaction. So that the people will be highly productive, motivated and satisfactory. ?Ergonomics : Ergonomics is the relationship between us and the non-living things in the surroundings. e. g. tall persons have problem in driving a small car , so that is ergonomically wrong, but some of the modern cars have fixing of steering and seat to make things ergonomically suitable.
So for jobs, we must make things ergonomically right to comfort the employees. Ergonomics is concerned with the designing and shaping of jobs as per the physical abilities and characteristics of individuals so that they can perform their jobs effectively. Environmental elements ?Availability of KSA: Abilities and availability of people plays an important role while designing jobs. We must ensure before designing the job that the available KSA people are there in the society or not. e. g. sometimes universities announces a particular course but they don’t have any teacher to teach it. Socially Accepted : Jobs should be designed keeping the employees in mind. Due to increase in literacy rate and knowledge, employees are now more aware and only perform jobs that are to their liking and matches their profile. e. g. in our society, if alcohol is sold in super markets , many people will be reluctant to do job there because it’s not socially accepted. Behavioral elements Behavioral factors are related to human needs and they need to be satisfied properly. •Autonomy •Variety •Job identity •Job significant •feedback