This essay sample on H2o2 Intermolecular Forces provides all necessary basic info on this matter, including the most common “for and against” arguments. Below are the introduction, body and conclusion parts of this essay.
Analyzing the effects of varying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on the volume of its drop Jonah Jemina IB Chemistry SL 11 Mr. Eastwood Analyzing the effects of varying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on the volume of its drop Jonah Jemina Introduction: Hydrogen peroxide is a clear and colourless substance that has a strong oxidizing characteristic.
From the books, “Hydrogen Peroxide: Medical Miracle” by Douglass and “Applications of hydrogen peroxide and derivatives”  by Jones, hydrogen peroxide can be used in numerous industrial and domestic applications such as a disinfectant, an oxidizer, or treatment for cancer and other diseases. However, hydrogen peroxide can be toxic when highly concentrated in the body. Hydrogen peroxide can easily breakdown into water and a single oxygen molecule through exothermic reaction, but when stored properly at low concentrations, the solution becomes stable.
As a molecule, hydrogen peroxide has a double bent structure and is also a polar covalent particle. Due to these properties, hydrogen peroxide can exert the three types of intermolecular forces: Van der Waal’s force, Dipole-dipole force, and hydrogen bonding. According to “Hydrogen Peroxide Background”, 3% hydrogen peroxide is denser and has a higher boiling point than water. For this experiment, the purpose will focus on how hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0%, 0. 75%, 1. 5%, 2. 25%, and 3% affects the volume of its drop.
To obtain different concentrations, 3% hydrogen peroxide will be diluted with varying amounts of distilled water.
Each different concentration will then be transferred into a buret in order to find the volume of 50 drops of each solution. This will be done in three trials in order to provide enough data to support a strong analysis and conclusion. By measuring 50 drops, the ability to analyze the volume of a drop will be significantly read using the buret to show the differences between different concentrations.
A drop of each solution will also be observed by analyzing their relative diameter and height sizes on a flat surface table using a dropper pipette. Their relative sizes will not be measured but compared to one another by putting each drop closely on a flat surface table in three trials as well. Research Question: How do varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0%, 0. 75%, 1. 5%, 2. 25%, and 3%) affect the volume of its drop? Hypothesis: Hydrogen peroxide has stronger intermolecular forces compared to water because it can create exert two hydrogen bonds per molecule.
Generally, the stronger the intermolecular forces are between molecules, the more they are attracted to one another resulting to a higher volume of a drop. Using this information, my hypothesis will be: As the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases, the volume of its drop will also increase due to the increase of intermolecular forces between the molecules (by the increase of hydrogen peroxide molecules) Variables: In this experiment, the factor that will be manipulated is the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
The hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0%, 0. 75%, 1. 5%, 2. 25%, and 3% will be the independent variables in this experiment that will be tested to find how they affect the volume of a drop. Each varying concentration of hydrogen peroxide will be analyzed by measuring the volume of 50 drops using a buret. The dependent variable that will be measured is the volume of the drop of each varying concentration. The volume of a drop of each concentration will be measured by dividing the volume of 50 drops by 50, which will be done for each data collected.
For qualitative observations, a drop of each solution will be placed on a flat surface table where their relative size and height will be observed. The controlled variables will include the factors that will remain the same for each experimented concentrations. These will include: -same equipments used (50 mL buret, dropper pipette, 100mL graduated cyclinder) so that the quality of the apparatus will not hinder the results and be constant for each concentration of hydrogen peroxide that will be manipulated and tested for, especially in this experiment (ie.
The size of the holes on the buret and dropper pipette might affect the volume of a drop if one uses different materials). -quality of distilled water and hydrogen peroxide(temperature, etc) so that when mixed with hydrogen peroxide, it will have the same effect if there is any. This will be accomplished by using solutions that came from the same container. -the environment where the experiment will take place (room pressure, temperature) -volume of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on buret so that the pressure exerted by the mass of the solution will be constant.
This will be accomplished by initially having a buret reading of 10. 00 + 0. 01 mL in every trial. -flat, clean surface table where qualitative experiment will be done so that observation and comparisons will be accurate and precise -number of drops that will be measured for the volume of each solution (50 drops) so that the experiment will only focus on the volume of 50 drops. Materials: Apparatus:Solutions: -100mL graduated cyclinder-3% hydrogen peroxide -50mL buret-distilled water -200mL beakers -stirring rod -dropper pipette -flat surface table ring stand -ring clamp Safety Precautions: 3% hydrogen peroxide can be toxic when swallowed, bleach the skin, and can irritate the eyes. Wear goggles and a lab coat when handling hydrogen peroxide and wash hands thoroughly upon contact. Wipe spills immediately as well. Procedure: 1. Collect 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and distilled water. Obtain 0%, 0. 75%, 1. 5%, 2. 25%, and 3% concentrations of hydrogen peroxide by measuring the following volumes using 100mL graduated cylinder into clean and dry 200mL beakers: 0% = 100mL of distilled water 0. 5% = 25mL of 3% H2O2 and 75mL of distilled waters 1. 5% = 50mL of 3% H2O2 and 50mL of distilled water 2. 25% = 75mL of 3% H2O2 and 25mL of distilled water 3% = 100mL of 3% H2O2 2. Mix each solution gently using a clean stirring rod. 3. Rinse a buret three times with one of the solutions and ensure that the tip gets rinsed as well. Add the same solution into the buret until the meniscus has reached 10mL reading according to the buret. Use a ring stand to keep it in place and a ring clamp to hold it. Make sure that the initial volume of the solution is always at 10. 0 + 0. 01mL for each concentration and trials so that pressure exerted by mass of solution will not affect the volume of a drop. 4. Put a 200mL beaker on the bottom of the buret’s tip and slowly open the buret until a drop has left the tip. Keep the buret dripping and close the opener immediately after counting 50 drops. Record the final volume on the buret. 5. Repeat procedure 2-4 using other concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and until 3 trials are recorded for each solution. 6. On a flat surface, put a drop of each solution using a dropper pipette.
Rinse the pipette with distilled water before measuring a concentration of hydrogen peroxide and rinse again but using the solution that will be observed and analyzed. 7. Repeat for each different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Record three trials and observe the relative differences of each solution to another by looking at the diameter of the water bubble and the height of the drops as well. Conclusion: When varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide was tested for their effect on its drop, a pattern and trend can be observed.
Looking at the graph, an increase in concentration of hydrogen peroxide also results to an increase of the volume of a drop. However, there is a large uncertainties and error bars of the volume of a drop from 0. 75%- 3%, which signify a broad range of the volume of one drop. This seems to be too large for a significant conclusion because there are numerous overlaps of the data for different concentrations. Nevertheless, the mean of the range of the volume of a drop for each concentration does increase from low to high concentration.
This finding does indirectly support the data from “Safety and Handling Hydrogen Peroxide” showing that an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration results to a higher boiling point. From this evidence, a higher boiling point usually signifies stronger intermolecular forces between the molecules, resulting to an increase of a volume of a drop due to a greater attraction between molecules. When the slopes of the graphs are analyzed, the overall range of the maximum and minimum slopes was 0. 002 + 0. 001 mL/ H2O2%.
This finding also has a large uncertainty but it does relate the two variables as having a positive slope even considering the uncertainties. This means that there is an increase of a volume of a drop with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration. Therefore, a conclusion that an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration also results to an increase of the volume of its drop can be validated by the data collected and analyzed, which also supports my hypothesis. Evaluating Procedure: Within the procedure of the experiment, a number of flaws can be seen in how it is designed and investigated.
For example, there is a possibility of hydrogen peroxide to decompose because it is exposed to the environment and contaminated with water. According to the website “Hydrogen Peroxide Background” and “US Peroxide”, dilution of hydrogen peroxide with water could cause hydrogen peroxide to become unstable and decompose readily into water and oxygen. Due to this property, the ability to know whether hydrogen peroxide has decomposed when diluted is uncertain, which could reduce the concentration of solutions, affecting the experimental purpose.
Another limitation of this experiment is that the observation of a drop on the flat surface is based on comparison, relied upon observation, and wasn’t measured. By observing it using the eyes, there might be have been some aspects of a drop that could have been inaccurately observed and compared to another. Improving Investigation: A method to improve the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is to add inorganic stabilizers (ie. nitrate) that are of equal volumes to the water content of the solution, which will reduce the rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.
In addition, cold distilled water could have been used throughout the experiment to deduce the heat of the environment that might activate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. To improve the investigation of a drop of each solution on a flat surface table, one could have used an accurate and precise ruler that could effectively measure the height and diameter of the drops on the table. Not only will this data support the observations of the drops, but also allow for numerical values that would support the observations and can be analyzed to contribute the goal of the experiment.
References and Bibliographies: 1. Douglass, William C. Hydrogen Peroxide: Medicine Miracle USA, Second Opinion Publ. 1995 2. Jones, Craig W. Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide and Derivatives UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999 3. Zakirov, V. “Hydrogen Peroxide Background” Space Repulsion. Nov. 2005 4. Schumb, Walter. Satterfield, Charles and Wentworth, Ralph. “Hydrogen Peroxide” Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1955. 5. “Technical Library ” US Peroxide. Atlanta, 2009. 6. “Safety and Handling” Solvay Chemicals, US, 2006