PART 1 TOPICS * INDUSTRY OF AUTOMOBILE * HISTORY OF BIKE ————————————————- THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY INDUSTRY PROFILE INTRODUCTION Industry Profile The market of two wheelers is very wide and because of technology, new products (two- wheeler) with new features are introduced day by day. The level of competition is also very high in two wheeler market. So, because of this competition the companies have to invest much more in research area for survival and success. The invention of the first two-wheeler is a much-discussable issue. “WHO invented the first motorcycle? this seems like a simple question, but the answer is quite complicated. Two-wheelers originated from the “safety” bicycle that is the bicycles with front and rear wheels of the same size with a pedal crank mechanism to drive the rear wheel. Those bicycles, in turn origin from high-wheel bicycles. The high-wheelers origin from an early type of pushbike, without pedals, propelled by the rider’s feet pushing against the ground. These appeared around 1800, used iron-banded wagon wheels, and were called “bone-crushers,” both for their jarring ride, and their tendency to toss their riders The First Motorcycle
We are going to begin by looking at the first bikes. They didn’t work very well and they were not very fast but moved with being drawn by a horse or being pedalled. When you look at a motorcycle today, have you ever thought what the old bikes were like? Were they easy to ride? How fast did they go? Were they comfortable? To answer all these questions, we have got to go quite a long way back say about 100 years. The world was very different in those days and there must have been a feeling of great excitement.
There was a great interest in science and engineering and almost every week, some fantastic new invention appeared. First there were gaslights and then electricity and new cures for many kinds of illnesses were always being announced this was period when people started thinking about how to travel quickly and safely. Before cars and bikes, the quickest mode of travelling was steam trains. And if there was a near to where you wanted to go then the next best thing was a stagecoach or paddle streamer. No one, except the very rich, could get from their own house to where they were going very quickly.
Then in 1885, a German called Gottlieb Daimler made a small engine, which ran on a kind of petrol. It wasn’t a very good engine but it just worked. Daimler fitted the engine to a cycle type frame, which exactly had one wheel at the front and two wheels at the rear. In the following year, another German, Wilhelm Maybach rode the Daimler bike for a few meters- something which everyone thought was very brave. At last, a way of moving people directly from one place to another had been invented. Not everybody thought that this was a good idea.
In England there was a law, which said that no vehicle powered by an engine could go faster than 4mph which is about as fast a s you walk. Many of the people were afraid and urged that the bike should be banned. But in 1896 an act was passed that bikes can travel 12mph speed-, which is considered to be a fantastic speed. At the same time, a French engineer called De Dion made the first real good engine for motorcycle and soon everyone was having a try at making complete machine. And this was the turning point where bike started getting its actual look many ideas poured in and were given shapes also.
The British Bikes: Today we won’t see many British bikes on the road but most of the older bikes were make in Great Britain, which had its name and fame. Now we see very few of British Bikes. What went wrong? In 1900, bikes were not very good. They were hard to start, they had poor brakes and did not have much power but everyone thought they were marvellous. For the first time, person could have his own individual way of getting about. He had personal transport, which he could use the moment he wanted to. Above all else, these first motorcyclists felt the sense of freedom, which a bike gave them.
The motorcycle manufacturers felt the same excitement. New designs appeared almost every day. Some were excellent and others silly but each factory learnt from others and bikes got better and better in just a few years. Then the First World War came in 1914, and the whole world changed. Bikes made in this first period, from 1885 until the end of 1914 are called veterans and the riders who are reliving how the first motorcyclists rode are still using many today. When the war came, the bikes went with the army. The fastest way to carry an urgent message was to send through a good rider on a bike.
Here again a bike had a turning point and during this period bikes got opportunity to claim its stake in the market. It was considered to be best mode of travelling from remote area to urban and from plains to rough terrain. Where a horse rider could not think of moving, their bikes were able to do so. Moreover, a horse rider and horse would take rest after certain interval of travelling, the bikes did not require since it was machine. The History of the automobile actually began about 4,000 years ago when the first wheel was used for transportation in India.
Several Italians recorded designs for wind-driven vehicles. The first was Guido da Vigevano in 1335. It was a windmill-type drive to gears and thus to wheels. Vaturio designed a similar vehicle that was also never built. Later Leonardo da Vinci designed clockwork-driven tricycle with tiller steering and a differential mechanism between the rear wheels. In the early 15th century, the Portuguese arrived in China and the interaction of two cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power.
By the 1600s, small steam-powered engine models were developed, but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered vehicle was created. A Catholic priest named Father Ferdinan Verbiest is credited to have built a steam-powered vehicle for the Chinese Emperor Chien Lung in about 1678. There is no information about the vehicle, only the event. Since James Watt didn’t invent the steam engine until 1705, we can guess that this was possibly a model vehicle powered by a mechanism like Hero’s steam engine-a-spinning wheel with jets on the periphery.
Although by the mid-15th century the idea of a self-propelled vehicle had been put into practice with the development of experimental vehicles powered by means of springs, clockworks, and the wind, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France is considered to have built the first true automobile in 1769. Designed by Cugnot and constructed by M. Brezin, it is also the first vehicle to move under its own power for which there is a record. Cugnot’s three-wheeled steam-powered vehicle carried four persons and was meant to move artillery pieces.
It had a top speed of a little more than 3. 2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh steam. Evans was the first American who obtained a patent for “a self-propelled carriage. ” He, in fact, attempted to create a two-in-one combination of a steam wagon and a flat-bottomed boat, which didn’t receive any attention in those days. During the 1830’s, the steam vehicle had made great advances. But stiff competition from railway companies and crude legislations in Britain forced the poor steam vehicle gradually out of use on roads.
Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, both Germans, share the credit of changing the transport habits of the world, for their efforts laid the foundation of the great motor industry, as we know it today. First, Carl Benz invented the petrol engine in 1885 and a year later Daimler made a car driven by motor of his own design and the rest is history. Daimler’s engine proved to be a great success mainly because of its less weight that could deliver 1000rpm and needed only very small and light vehicles to carry them.
France too had joined the motoring scenario by 1890 when two Frenchmen Panhard and Levassor began producing vehicles powered by Daimler engine, and Daimler himself, possessed by the automobile spirit, went on adding new features to his engine. He built the first V-Twin engine with a glowing platinum tube to explode the cylinder gas-the very earliest form of sparking plug. Charles Duryea built a motor carriage in America with petrol engine in 1892, followed by Elwood Haynes in 1894, thus paving the way for motorcars in that country.
For many years after the introduction of automobiles, three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines, gasoline or petrol engines, and electric motors. In 1900, over 2,300 automobiles were registered in New York, Boston, Massachusetts, and Chicago. Of these, 1,170 were steam cars, 800 were electric cars, and only 400 were gasoline cars. In ten years from the invention of the petrol engine, the motorcar had evolved itself into amazing designs and shapes. By 1898, there were 50 automobile-manufacturing companies in the United States, a number that rose to 241 by 1908.
In that year, Henry Ford revolutionized the manufacture of automobiles with his assembly-line style of production and brought out the Model T, a car that was inexpensive, versatile, and easy to maintain. Herbert Austin and William Morris, two different carmakers, introduced mass production methods of assembly in the UK, thus paving the way for a revolution in the automobile industry. Austin Seven was the world’s first practical four-seater ‘baby car’ which brought the pleasures of motoring to many thousands of people who could not buy a larger, more expensive car.
Even the ‘bull-nose’ Morris with front mounted engine became the well-loved model and one of the most popular cars in the 1920s. Automobile manufacturers in the 1930s and 1940s refined and improved on the principles of Ford and other pioneers. Cars were generally large, and many were still extremely expensive and luxurious; many of the most collectible cars date from this time. The increased affluence of the United States after World War II led to the development of large, petrol-consuming vehicles, while most companies in Europe made smaller, more fuel-efficient cars.
Edward Butler, an Englishman, built the first motor tricycle in 1884. The first gasoline-engine motorcycle to appear publicly was built by Gottlieb Daimler, of Bad Cannstatt, Germany, in 1885. Gottlieb Daimler, who later teamed up with Karl Benz to form the Daimler-Benz Corporation is credited with building the first motorcycle in 1885, one wheel in the front and one in the back, although it had a smaller spring-loaded outrigger wheel on each side. It was constructed mostly of wood, the wheels were of the iron-banded wooden-spokes wagon-type, and it definitely had a “bone-crusher” chassis!
This two-wheeler was powered by a single-cylinder Otto-cycle engine, and may have had a spray-type carburetor. One of this type of machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern US in 1867. The first practical engines and motorcycles were designed by the French and Belgians, followed by British, German, Italian, and American makers. The popularity of the vehicle increased, especially after 1910. During World War FIRST the motorcycle was used by all branches of the armed forces in Europe, principally for dispatching. After the war it enjoyed a sport craze until the Great Depression began in 1929.
After World War II motorcycles are being used for high-speed touring and sport competitions. During the 1950s with the help of Western Europe and parts of the United States, the development of a new type of vehicle that is light weighted motorcycle is become possible, later on it is known as moped. The first moped Originating in Germany as a 50-cubic-centimetre machine with simple controls and low initial cost, it was largely free of licensing and insurance regulations except in Great Britain. The more sophisticated motor scooter originated in Italy after World War II, led by manufacture of a 125-cubic-centimetre model.
Even with strong competition from West Germany, France, Austria, and Britain, the Italian scooters maintained the leading position in the diminishing market India is the second largest manufacturer and producer of two-wheelers in the world. It stands next only to Japan and China in terms of the number of two-wheelers produced and domestic sales respectively. This distinction was achieved due to variety of reasons like restrictive policy followed by the Government of India towards the passenger car industry, rising demand for personal transport, inefficiency in the public transportation system etc.
The Indian two-wheeler industry made a small beginning in the early 50s when Automobile Products of India started manufacturing scooters in the country. In 1948, Bajaj Auto began trading in imported Vespa scooters and three-wheelers. Finally, in 1960, it set up a shop to manufacture them in technical collaboration with Piaggio of Italy. The agreement expired in 1971. In the initial stages, the scooter segment was dominated by Automobile Products of India (API), it was later overtaken by Bajaj Auto.
Although various government and private enterprises entered the fray for scooters, the only new player that has lasted till today is LML. Under the regulated regime, foreign companies were not allowed to operate in India. It was a complete seller market with the waiting period for getting a scooter from Bajaj Auto being as high as 12 years. Because of government regulation, foreign companies were not allowed to operate in Indian market. It was a complete seller market with the waiting period for getting a scooter from Bajaj Auto being as high as 12 years.
The first Japanese motorcycles were introduced in the early eighties. TVS Suzuki and HERO MOTOCORP brought in the first two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles respectively. The industry had a smooth ride in the 50s, 60s and 70s when the Government prohibited new entries and strictly controlled capacity expansion. The industry saw a sudden growth in the 80s. The two-wheeler market was opened to foreign competition in the mid-80s. And then the market leaders – Escorts and Enfield – were caught unaware by the attack of the 100cc bikes of the four Indo-Japanese joint ventures.
With the new feature of fuel efficient low power bikes, demand swelled, resulting in HERO MOTOCORP – then the only producer of four stroke bikes (100cc category), gaining a top slot. The entry of Kinetic Honda in mid-eighties with a barometric scooter helped in providing ease of use to the scooter owners. This helped in inducing youngsters and working women, towards buying scooters, who were earlier inclined towards moped purchases In 1990, the entire automobile industry saw a drastic fall in demand. This resulted in a decline of 15% in 1991 and 8% in 1992, resulting in a production loss of 0. mn vehicles. Excluding HERO MOTOCORP, all the major producers suffered from recession. HERO MOTOCORP showed a marginal decline in 1992. The reasons for recession in the sector were the constant rise in fuel prices, high input costs and reduced purchasing power due to significant rise in general price level and credit crisis in consumer financing. Factors like increased production in 1992, due to new entrants joined with the recession in the industry resulted in companies either reporting losses or a fall in profits. Competitors of Two-Wheelers industries
Honda| Bajaj| HERO MOTOCORP| Kandaa | Kinetic| LML | Royal Enfield| Suzuki| TVS| Yamaha| Activa| Wave Dtsi| Pleasure | Thunder 100| Kineticx| Crd 100 Sd| Std| Heat| Scooty Pep| Crux S| Dio| CT 100| CD deluxe| | 4s| Freedom Topper | Machismo| Zeus| Star std| Libero G5| Eterno| Platina| Splendor plus ; pro | | Nova| Freedom prima| Electra| Access| Star city| Gladiator | Shine| Discover| Splendor NXG| | Striker| Beamer| Thunderbold| Sling shot| Victor Edge | Ray| Unicorn| Pulsar| Passion pro ; Xpro| | Blaze| | 500 Ex| GS 150| Victor Glx 125| R15| Stunner| Avenger| Super splendor| | | | | | Apache | FZ| Twister| | Achiever| | | | | | Wego| Fazer|
Dream Yuga| | Karizma ; ZMR| | | | | | | RX 125| CBR| | CBZ| | | | | | | YBR| | | Extreme| | | | | | | | | | Hunk| | | | | | | | | | Impulse| | | | | | | | | | Igniter| | | | | | | | | | Maestro| | | | | | | | TWO WHEELERS PRODUCTION TREND| Category| 2007-08 | 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| 2011-12| Scooters| 937506| 848434| 935279| 987498| 1020013| Motorcycles| 2906323| 3876175| 4355168| 5193894| 6201214| Mopeds| 427498| 351612| 332294| 348437| 379574| Grand Total| 4271327| 5076221| 5622741| 6529829| 7600801| TWO WHEELERS DOMESTIC SALES TREND| Category| 2007-08 | 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| 2011-12| Scooters| 908268| 825648| 886295| 922428| 908159|
Motorcycles| 2887194| 3647493| 4170445| 4964753| 5815417| Mopeds| 408263| 338985| 307509| 322584| 332741| Grand Total| 4203725| 4812126| 5364249| 6209765| 7056317| TWO WHEELERS EXPORTS TREND| Category| 2007-08 | 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| 2011-12| Scooters| 28332| 32566| 53687| 60699| 83873| Motorcycles| 56880| 123725| 187287| 277123| 386202| Mopeds| 18971| 23391| 24078| 28585| 43181| Grand Total| 104183| 179682| 265052| 366407| 513256| Source: www. autoindia. com/twowheeler 1. 1. 1 Growth of the Industry Today the growth rate of motorcycle industry is very high as compared to few years back. Two wheeler segment as a whole during the year 2004-05 grew by over 15%.
This growth has been due to the Government’s initiative on rural roads and better connectivity with major towns and cities, improved agricultural performance, upward trend of purchasing power in the hands of rural people. The northward trend of growth among two-wheelers is set to continue in the years ahead. Motorcycles Sales (Nos. ): 2007-08 | 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| 2011-12| 2906323| 3876175| 4355168| 5193894| 6201214| Motorcycles account for nearly 80% of the total two wheeler sales in the country. This trend is set to continue as more and more models of two wheelers enter the market. The figures above show the sales of motor cycles over the years. ———————————————— HISTORY OF BIKE Throughout the centuries man has striven to expand his capabilities through the use of machines. His ever inventive mind has constantly devised ways to use tools to increase his abilities to explore the world around him, to go faster, deeper, higher and further than before. Coupled with his need to find new thrills, new adventures and new modes of transportation, the invention and refinement of the motorcycle seems an inevitable outcome. For me, the early years of the development of the motorcycle are especially fascinating as they hold of some of mans most bizarre experimental machinery.
Before we get started on the history of the motorcycle itself, I feel a short review of it’s predecessor, namely the bicycle, is in order, an invention without which the motor bicycle, as they were first called, may well have never come about. It would seem that Michelangelo conceived of the bicycle as early as the 14th century and his drawing shows a remarkable resemblance to the modern day bike. It had wheels of similar size and even pedals and a leather “chain”, albeit without any apparent means of steering. The first attempt at actually producing any sort of 2 wheeled conveyance fell on the shoulders of one Comte de Sivrac in the late 1791, though hardy a bicycle as we understand the meaning today. It was crude affair made entirely of wood with no pedals, brakes or even steering.
This early machine was referred to as a hobbyhorse and was considered nothing more than a curiosity or rich mans folly, an attitude that remained for a number of years, until the late 1800’s. A person simply sat upon it and pushed it along with their feet in a sort of gliding walk. Then in 1869 some inventive person named William van Anden in New York added pedals directly to the front wheel, now at last we approach what can be called by modern terms, a bicycle. It also had free-wheeling pedals that allowed the wheel to turn while the pedals remained stationary and had a friction brake on the rear wheel operated by twisting one of the hand grips. Oddly enough these innovations did not appear on many other machines for quite some time. quickly became apparent however that the only way to increase speed or distance traveled per rotation of the pedals was to increase the size of the front wheel, leading to what became known as the High Wheeler. Unfortunately because of the high center of gravity and forward position of the rider, not only was some skill required to mount and dismount this contraption, but should the front wheel suddenly stop, the rider was thrown forward on his head, thus giving rise to the term “Taking a Header”. To overcome this difficulty, the small wheel was moved to the front giving rise to the High Wheeled “Safety” bicycle. Because of the difficulty in riding a high wheeler with the style of skirts worn by women at the turn of the century they were mostly confined to three wheelers specifically designed with them in mind.
Now that we’ve looked at the precursor to the motorcycle lets turn our attention to the first motor bicycles. Curiously enough the first attempts to motorize a two wheeled vehicle were made before the high wheeler had been replaced by the modern safety bicycle, thus explaining why the first motor bicycles had a much larger front wheel, with one exception. In 1818 an attempt was made to fit a steam engine to a Drasiane hobbyhorse (see above) which had two similar sized wheels. This however, did not succeed in capturing a market, as can well be imagined when looking at the picture below of the Vocipedraisiavaporianna, and I therefore only mention it in passing
This curious contraction was supposedly built in 1818 and is shown in this French print under testing in the Luxembourg Gardens in Paris on April 5 of that year, thou actually invented in Germany. This print is from the collection of the Science Museum in London. It was a Drasine hobby horse being powered by a steam turbine engine in both front and rear wheels. It would appear to be somewhat top heavy, and never made it into production, which is probably just as well! American, Sylvester Howard Roper (1823-1896) invented a two-cylinder, steam-engine motorcycle (powered by coal) in 1867. This can be considered the first motorcycle, if you allow your description of a motorcycle to include a steam engine. Howard Roper also invented a steam engine car.
Gottlieb Daimler – First Gas Engine Motorcycle German, Gottlieb Daimler invented the first gas-engine motorcycle in 1885, which was an engine attached to a wooden bike. That marked the moment in history when the dual development of a viable gas-powered engine and the modern bicycle collided. Gottlieb Daimler used a new engine invented by engineer, Nicolas Otto. Otto invented the first “Four-Stroke Internal-Combustion Engine” in 1876. He called it the “Otto Cycle Engine” As soon as he completed his engine, Daimler (a former Otto employee) built it into a motorcycle. 1877 Daimler-Maybach, France This is reputed to be the first version of Mr. G. Daimler motor bicycle.
This again is from a French site and the best translation I could come up with for the caption is quoted below. “IT had a limited autonomy, but accomplishes anyway traverses it Paris to German Saint (15 Km) to the speed of 15km/h. The tricycles to vapor of Meek in 1877, 1881 The Parkyns-Bateman Steam Tricycle. England 1885 The Daimler, Europe 1892 The five cylinder Millet, France 1894 Hilderbrand and Wolfmuller, France 1898 Orient-Aster, USA 1903FN (Fabrique Nationale) 188 cc, 2 hp engine Harley Davidson Model 7, 1911 Harley Davidson Model 11J w sidecar, 1915 Indian Board racer, 1920 PART 2 TOPICS ABOUT COMPANY HERO MOTOCORP ————————————————- CORPORATION PROFILE
HERO MOTOCORP two wheelers have been on Indian roads since 1984 when Hero Cycles Ltd. tied up with Honda Motor Company to start a joint venture. Today, HERO MOTOCORP is taken to be the world’s largest two-wheeler manufacturer. The HERO MOTOCORP story began with a simple vision – the vision of a mobile and an empowered India, powered by HERO MOTOCORP. This vision was driven by HERO MOTOCORP’s commitment to customer, quality and excellence, and while doing so, maintains the highest standards of ethics and societal responsibilities. Twenty five years and 25 million two wheelers later, HERO MOTOCORP is closer to fulfilling this dream. This vision is the driving force behind everything that we do at HERO MOTOCORP.
We understood that the fastest way to turn that dream into a reality is by remaining focused on that vision. Over the course of two and a half decades, and three successive joint venture agreements later, both partners have fine-tuned and perfected their roles as joint venture partners. What the two partners did was something quite basic. They simply stuck to their respective strengths. As one of the world’s technology leaders in the automotive sector, Honda has been able to consistently provide technical know-how, design specifications and R&D innovations. This has lead to the development of world class, value for money motorcycles and scooters for the Indian market.
Hero Group has taken on the singular and onerous responsibility of creating world-class manufacturing facilities with robust processes, building the supply chain, setting up an extensive distribution networks and providing insights into the mind of the Indian customer. Since both partners continue to focus on their respective strengths, they have been able to complement each other. In the process, HERO MOTOCORP is recognized today as one of the most successful joint ventures in the world. It is therefore no surprise that there are more HERO MOTOCORP bikes on this country’s roads than the total population of some European countries put together! The company’s meteoric growth in the two-wheeler market in India stems from an intrinsic ability to reach out and come closer to its customers, with every passing year.
HERO MOTOCORP’s bikes are sold and serviced through a network of over 3500 customer touch points, comprising a mix of dealers, service centers and stockiest located across rural and urban India. HERO MOTOCORP has built two world-class manufacturing facilities at Dharuhera and Gurgaon in Haryana, and its third and most sophisticated plant at Haridwar has just completed a full year of operations. It is difficult to imagine that all this has happened in the span of just two and a half decades! The best is yet to come. During the year in review, HERO MOTOCORP powered its way in a market that, for all practical purposes, was feeling the full effects of the economic slowdown in India. With an economic recovery now clearly on the cards, HERO MOTOCORP is all set to ride into another summit.
As Brijmohan Lall Munjal, the Chairman, HERO MOTOCORP Motors succinctly puts it, “We pioneered India’s two wheeler industry, we’ve steered it through difficult times; now it is our responsibility to set the pace again. ” ————————————————- HERO MOTOCORP MOTORS LTD HERO MOTOCORP Motors Ltd. is a result of the joint venture between India’s Hero Group and Japanese Honda Motors Company in the year 1983. This joint venture has not only created the world’s single largest two wheeler company but also one of the most successful joint ventures worldwide. HERO MOTOCORP is globally known of being the most fuel-efficient and the largest CBZ selling Indian Motorcycle Company.
This is a relationship so harmonious that HERO MOTOCORP has managed to achieve indigenization of over 95 percent, a Honda record worldwide. The company is committed to provide the customer with excellence. A rich background of producing high value products at reasonable prices led the world’s largest manufacturer of motorcycles to collaborate with the world’s largest bicycle manufacturer. During 80s, HERO MOTOCORP became the first company in India to prove that it was possible to drive a vehicle without polluting the roads. They company possess three manufacturing units based at Dharuhera, Gurgaon and Haridwar are capable to produce 4. 4 million units per year.
They introduced new generation motorcycles that set industry benchmarks for fuel thrift and low emission. The unique features like fuel conservation, safety riding courses and mobile workshops helped the group reach in the interiors of the country. Well-entrenched in the domestic market, HERO MOTOCORP Motors Ltd. turned its attention overseas, and exports have been steadily on the rise. The below chart shows the golden years in the history of HERO MOTOCORP :- 1985| CD-100| 1989| SLEEK| 1991| CD-100 SS| 1994| Splendor| 1997| Street| 1999| CBZ| 2001| PASSION| 2002| DAWN, AMBITION| 2003| CD-DAWN, SPLENDOR +, PASSION +, KARIZMA| 2005| SUPER-SPLENDOR,CD-DELUX, GLAMOUR, ACHIEVER|
Year Event 1984 * He Company was incorporated on 19th January, at New Delhi. The Company Manufacture motor cycles up to 100 cc capacity. The Company was promoted by Hero Cycles (P) Ltd. (HCPL). * The Company entered into a technical-cum-financial collaboration agreement with Honda Motor Co. Ltd. , Japan (HML). As per this collaboration agreement, HML was to furnish complete technical information and know-how and trade secrets and other relevant data. * HERO MOTOCORP CD-100 is the first four stroke motorcycle to be introduced in India in 100cc range. 1985 1986 * 36, 00,000 rights equity shares issued at par in prop. 3:10. 990 * In the domestic market the Company was reported to have a market share of 46%. 1994 * The Company’s production and turnover increased to 1, 83,490 motorcycles and Rs. 483. 85 crores respectively due to growth in demand for two wheelers and declining inflation. 1995 * A new Technical Collaboration Agreement has been signed with Honda Motor Co. Ltd. , Japan for the period up to the year 2004 which includes technology related to models of higher Engine displacement. 1997 * HERO MOTOCORP Motors Ltd (HHML) has set up a new motorcycle plant in Gurgaon, near Delhi for the manufacture of the Honda Super Cub 100 cc stepthro bike 1998 Honda Motor Company Ltd of Japan (Honda) and Kinetic Honda Motor Ltd (KHML) have signed a five-year licence and technical assistance agreement under which KHML will continue to receive the technical knowhow, critical vehicle parts and access to Honda’s markets even after the sale of Honda stake in KHML to Kinetic Engineering Ltd (KEL). * The Company changed the paradigm in two-wheelers by launching the most powerful and fast bike- CBZ (e) with a unique feature of Transient Power Fuel Control (TPEC) system. 1999 * Leading two-wheelers manufacturer Hero Motors has formed a joint venture with Briggs Stratton of US to develop and manufacture four-stroke engines for mopeds and scooters in India, a top company. 2000 HERO MOTOCORP Motors Ltd. and Tata Finance Ltd. have signed a national tie-up agreement. The Company is the largest manufacturer of motorcycles in the country. * He Company was ranked as the