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Carrie Collins Donnie Harris Rosemary Sullivan TESL 5230 – SLA October 14, 2010 Case Study Outline Case Study Outline 1. Introduction Does TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) enhance student learning and growth in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) when used with Middle School students of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) when teaching map skills? (Per Grade Level Expectation SS5 1. 4, 1. 5 a. Locate states of the United States) Purpose of Study • In studying SLA we explored the benefits of various approaches that have been used over the years to teach a second language.
For many years schools relied on a Traditional Approach when teaching almost every subject including a second language. By Traditional Approach we mean that the teacher lectures and shows new topics while the students sit quietly in their seats listening, repeating, memorizing, doing assignments, taking tests, and interacting very little with each other or the teacher. (Wikipedia. org) • One of the newer approaches, TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE, introduced by James Asher in 1977, is based on the observations of children learning their first language.
This involves use of the five senses along with body movements in activities designed to activate right-brain function. Asher believed that use of the right-brain, which includes much listening and acting, enables the needed processing of language in the left-brain. TPR also emphasizes fun, along with a more relaxed, non-threatening atmosphere in the classroom. (Brown, 2007) Past Research on Topic • Asher, J. (2010). A new note about tpr. Proceedings of Project Coach, www. tpr-world. com • Brown, H. D. (2007). Principals of anguage learning and teaching: fifth edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. • Krashen, S. (1998). Tpr: still a very good idea [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://ipisun. jpte. hu/-joe. novelty • Mohammed, R. (2009, July 28). Total physical response [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://myenglishpages. com/blog/total-physical-response • Renshaw, J. D. (2007). Total physical response. Retrieved from Onlineenglish. net • Shearon, B. (2004). James asher’s total physical response: a short introduction. www. c-english. com/files/tpr. df • Tomlinson, B. & Masuhara, H. (2009, July). Playing to learn: a review of physical games in second language acquisition. Simulation & Gaming. 40(5), Retrieved from http://wwwsagepub. com/content/40/5/645. • Traditional Education (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Traditional_education Subjects • Our subjects were three sixth grade girls from the International Welcome School (IWS). They were recommended highly by their teacher, LaShonda Terry, because of their similar educational background experience, English proficiency and academic levels. According to their composite scores on the MAC II English proficiency screening test, given a year ago, all three placed at the basic beginner level. • Their Student Academic Survey (SAS) indicated that all the girls have previously received formal education. • On their most recent screening assessment for English proficiency, the WIDA ACCESS Placement Test (W-APT), all three students scored at the mid to high range of level two. Other factors these three students have in common are: • Country of origin is Iraq; • Native language is Arabic; • All are eleven years of age; All have been in the USA for less than two years; • They share the same culture and religion; • None of the three wear the traditional head covering worn by other Muslim females; • All girls have siblings attending the IWS and/or the Newcomers’ Program at Roosevelt High School. 2. Method The topic of the lesson we used to compare the Traditional Approach to the TPR Approach is identifying and naming the fifty states of the United States. • The United States was divided into states east of the Mississippi River and states west of the Mississippi River.
Traditional Approach In Teaching
There are twenty-six states to the east and twenty-four states to the west. • Students were given a pre-assessment to determine how many of the fifty states could be properly placed on a blank map of the United States of America. • The objective of the first lesson was that students would learn the states west of the Mississippi River and correctly place them on a blank map of the western portion of the USA. • The first approach used was the Traditional Approach. This method included lecture, work sheets, paper pencil task, coloring activity, rote memorization, and use of a transparency on the overhead projector.
Instruction was teacher-centered with whole group. Students were grouped in proximity, but not encouraged to work together in pairs or small groups. • After using the Traditional Approach students were given a post assessment of the western states. ************************************************************************ • The objective of the second lesson was that students would learn the states east of the Mississippi River and correctly place them on a blank map of the eastern portion of the USA. • The students were instructed using the Total Physical Response (TPR) approach.
This instructional method involves activities using physical or kinesthetic movement. • A teacher-made floor map of the United States was used. • Students gathered around the map. • The classroom teacher and researcher modeled the activity first. A command was given by the researcher to the classroom teacher. “Place your left hand on Alabama and your right leg on New York. ” Then a command was given by the classroom teacher to the researcher. “Locate North Carolina. Now stand on the state that is immediately south of it. ” • The students then began to take turns following the command given by the researcher.
After a while the students were instructed to give the command to their classmates. This was repeated until each student had a chance to stand on the map. • The game was then revised and became competitive. Two students stood on opposite sides of the map on the floor. A state is called out and the goal is to be the first to step on the state and stand on it. All students had a turn either stepping on the map or giving the command. Students eventually began using the entire map for this activity. • After using the Total Physical Response (TPR) approach students were given a post-assessment of the eastern states. . Data Collection and Analysis Data was collected based on the number of states that were correctly placed on the map for each of the tests: pre-assessment, all fifty states; post-assessment 1, western states; post-assessment 2, eastern states. Students’ individual growth was determined using the following data: • Student A: Pre-assessment, 3/50 correct. This is her baseline for her previous knowledge. After Traditional Approach (TA): Post-assessment 1, 15/24 correct on western states. After TPR: Post-assessment 2, 20/26 correct on eastern states. Student B: Pre-assessment, 5/50 correct – baseline. After TA: Post-assessment 1, 11/24 correct on western states. After TPR: Post-assessment 2, 19/26 correct on eastern states. • Student C: Pre-assessment, 3/50 correct – baseline. After TA: Post-assessment 1, 13/24 correct on western states. After TPR: Post-assessment 2, 19/26 on eastern states. Using this data and comparing the post-assessments to the pre-assessments it is clear that each student showed growth in the knowledge of the names and locations of the states on a map of the USA.
The following are the rates of growth by percentage correct: • Student A: Baseline – 6%; Western states, TA – 63%; Comparison to baseline – 57% growth factor; Eastern states, TPR – 77%; Comparison to baseline – 71% growth factor; TA vs TPR = gain of 14% using TPR. • Student B: Baseline – 10%; Western states, TA – 46%; Comparison to baseline – 36% growth factor; Eastern states, TPR – 73%; Comparison to baseline – 63% growth factor; TA vs TPR = gain of 27% using TPR. Student C: Baseline – 6%; Western states, TA – 54%; Comparison to baseline – 48% growth factor; Eastern states, TPR – 73%; Comparison to baseline – 67% growth factor; TA vs TPR = gain of 19% using TPR. 4. Conclusions The results of this case study, while limited due to number of subjects, are based on similarities of subjects, data collected and analyzed, and implies that the Total Physical Response (TPR) approach produced a higher growth increase in student learning and SLA as compared to the Traditional Approach (TA).
In teaching the location and names of the fifty states of the USA, all four domains of language were explored. The predicted outcome expectation was to conclude that the use of Total Physical Response (TPR) approach does enhance learning and growth in SLA of the ESOL students at a higher rate than the Traditional Approach (TA). This expectation was met. A suggestion for improvement in a follow-up study might be to give a post-test of all fifty United States to compare with the results of the pre-test, since all fifty states were used as the baseline of previous knowledge. 5.