Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online

Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 1 Return to Table of Contents CLOUD COMPUTING Web-Based Applications That Change he Way You Work and Collaborate Online Michael Miller 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 2 Return to Table of Contents Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Copyright © 2009 by Que Publishing All rights reserved.No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechani- cal, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.

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Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any lia- bility assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3803-5 ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data is on file. Printed in the United States of America First Printing: August 2008 Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trade- mark or service mark.

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The information provided is on an “as is” basis.The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book. Bulk Sales Que Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact U. S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 [email protected] com For sales outside of the U. S. , please contact International Sales [email protected] com Associate Publisher Greg Wiegand Acquisitions Editor Rick Kughen Development Editor Rick KughenManaging Editor Patrick Kanouse Project Editor Seth Kerney Copy Editor Keith Cline Indexer Tim Wright Proofreader Paula Lowell Technical Editor/Reviewer Aaron Ricadela Publishing Coordinator Cindy Teeters Book Designer Anne Jones Page Layout Bronkella Publishing LLC Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 3 Return to Table of Contents About the Author Michael Miller is a successful and prolific author.He is known for his casual, easy-to-read writing style and his ability to explain a wide variety of complex topics to an everyday audience. Mr. Miller has written more than 80 nonfiction books over the past two decades, with more than a million copies in print. His books for Que include Absolute Beginner’s Guide to Computer Basics, How Microsoft Windows Vista Works, Making a Living from Your eBay Business, Googlepedia: The Ultimate Google Resource, and Is It Safe? Protecting Your Computer, Your Business, and Yourself Online. You can email Mr. Miller directly at [email protected] com. His website is located at www. olehillgroup. com. Dedication To Sherry. Life is a cloud. Acknowledgments Thanks to the usual suspects at Que, including but not limited to Greg Wiegand, Rick Kughen, Seth Kerney Keith Cline, and technical editor Aaron Ricadela. Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 4 Return to Table of Contents We Want to Hear from You! As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commenta- tor.We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way. As an associate publisher for Que Publishing, I welcome your comments. You can email or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books better. Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book We do have a User Services group, however, where I will forward specific technical questions related to the bookWhen you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author as well as your name, email address, and phone number. I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book. Email: [email protected] com Mail: Greg Wiegand Associate Publisher Que Publishing 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA Reader Services Visit our website and register this book at informit. com/register for convenient access to any updates, downloads, or errata that might be available for this book.Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 5 Return to Table of Contents Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 6 Return to Table of Contents Introduction IntroductionComputing as you know it is about to change: Your applications and documents are going to move from the desktop into the cloud. I’m talking about cloud computing, where applications and files are hosted on a “cloud” consisting of thousands of com- puters and servers, all linked together and accessible via the Internet. With cloud computing, everything you do is now web based instead of being desktop based. You can access all your programs and documents from any computer that’s connected to the Internet. How will cloud computing change the way you work? For one thing, you’re no longer tied to a single computer.You can take your work anywhere because it’s always accessible via the web. In addition, cloud computing facilitates group collaboration, as all group members can access the same programs and documents from wherever they happen to be located. Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 7 Return to Table of Contents 2 Cloud ComputingCloud computing might sound far-fetched, but chances are you’re already using some cloud applications. If you’re using a web-based email program, such as Gmail or Hotmail, you’re computing in the cloud. If you’re using a web-based application such as Google Calendar or Apple MobileMe, you’re computing in the cloud. If you’re using a file- or photo-sharing site, such as Flickr or Picasa Web Albums, you’re computing in the cloud. It’s the technol- ogy of the future, available to use today. How does cloud computing work? What does cloud computing mean for the way you use a computer?What are the top cloud computing applications? Good questions all, and all answered in this book: Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online. I don’t pre- tend to answer every question you may have (the overly technical ones in particular), but I do try to give you a good solid overview of the cloud comput- ing phenomenon, and introduce you to some of the more popular cloud applications—in particular, those that facilitate group collaboration. And that’s where cloud computing really shines.Whether you want to share photographs with family members, coordinate volunteers for a community organization, or manage a multifaceted project in a large organization, cloud computing can help you collaborate and communicate with other group members. You’ll have a better idea of how this works after you read the book, but trust me on this one—if you need to collaborate, cloud computing is the way to do it. How This Book Is Organized Cloud computing is actually a pretty simple concept, but one with lots of vari- ations and ramifications.To help you better understand what cloud comput- ing is and what it does, I’ve organized this book into four major parts: ¦ Part I, “Understanding Cloud Computing,” is the place for you to start learning about cloud computing. I explain how cloud computing works and examine which types of users can best benefit from this new technology. ¦ Part II, “Cloud Computing for Everyone,” examines the practical bene- fit of cloud computing for users in three different scenarios: in the fam- ily, in the community and in the large organization. Part III, “Using Cloud Services,” is an overview of various types of web- based applications. You’ll learn about cloud services for scheduling, contact management, project management, word processing, presenta- tions, and other key applications. Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 8 Return to Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 3 ¦ Part IV, “Outside the Cloud: Other Ways to Collaborate Online,” moves eyond strict cloud computing to examine other Internet-based tools for group collaboration, including web email, instant messaging, social networks, online groupware, blogs, and wikis. Taken together, the 20 chapters in this book provide an excellent overview of cloud computing. If you’re not sure what cloud computing is yet, you will be when you get done reading this book. Conventions Used in This Book I hope that this book is easy enough to figure out on its own, without requir- ing its own instruction manual. As you read through the pages, however, it helps to know precisely how I’ve presented specific types of information.Web Page Addresses There are a lot of web page addresses in this book. They’re noted as such: www. molehillgroup. com Technically, a web page address is supposed to start with http:// (as in http://www. molehillgroup. com). Because Internet Explorer and other web browsers automatically insert this piece of the address, however, you don’t have to type it—and I haven’t included it in any of the addresses in this book. Cloud Services I also list a lot of web-based applications and services in this book; after all, that’s what cloud computing is all about.Know, however, that companies are constantly changing prices, coming out with new features, introducing com- pletely new services, and discontinuing older ones. With that in mind, every service and URL listed in this book is valid as of June 2008; chances are, how- ever, that something will change by the time you read the book. Special Elements This book includes two special elements that provide additional information not included in the basic text. These elements are designed to supplement the text to make it your learning faster, easier, and more efficient.Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online Page 9 Return to Table of Contents Cloud Computing In addition, I end each chapter with a side- bar—a chunk of text that goes beyond what is presented in the normal chapter text to provide additional information that may be of interest to you. I find these side- bars interesting but not necessarily essen- tial; you may or may not feel the same. note A note is designed to provide information that is generally useful but not pecifically necessary for what you’re doing at the moment. tip A tip offers additional advice that might prove useful to the task at hand. Let Me Know What You Think I always love to hear from readers. If you want to contact me, feel free to email me at [email protected] com. I can’t promise that I’ll answer every message, but I do promise to read each one! If you want to learn more about me and any new books I have cooking, check out my Molehill Group website at www. molehillgroup. com. Who knows—you might A caution warns you of a particular situation-be alert to .the warning! ind some other books there that you’d like to read. 4 [pic] CHAPTER 1 Beyond the Desktop: An Introduction to Cloud Computing n a world that sees new technological trends bloom and fade on almost a daily basis, one new trend promises more longevity. This trend is called cloud computing, and it will change the way you use your computer and the Internet. Cloud computing portends a major change in how we store information and run applications. Instead of running programs and data on an individual desktop computer, every-thing is hosted in the “cloud”—a nebulous assemblage ofcomputers and servers accessed via the Internet.Cloud computing lets you access all your applications and docu-ments from anywhere in the world, freeing you from the confines of the desktop and making it easier for group mem-bers in different locations to collaborate. fe3 Cloud Computing: What It Is and What It Isn’t From Collaboration to the Cloud: A Short History of Cloud Computing . The Network Is the Computer: How Cloud Computing Works Companies in the Cloud: Cloud Computing Today Why Cloud Computing Matters Cloud 8 PART I Understanding Cloud ComputingThe emergence of cloud computing is the computing equivalent of the electric-ity revolution of a century ago. Before the advent of electrical utilities, every farm and business produced its own electricity from freestanding generators. After the electrical grid was created, farms and businesses shut down their generators and bought electricity from the utilities, at a much lower price (and with much greater reliability) than they could produce on their own. Look for the same type of revolution to occur as cloud computing takes hold.The desktop-centric notion of computing that we hold today is bound to fall by the wayside as we come to expect the universal access, 24/7 reliability, and ubiquitous collaboration promised by cloud computing. It is the way of the future. Cloud Computing: What It Is-and What It Isn’t With traditional desktop computing, you run copies of software programs on each computer you own. The documents you create are stored on the com- puter on which they were created. Although documents can be accessed from other computers on the network, they can’t be accessed by computers outside the network.The whole scene is PC-centric. With cloud computing, the software programs you use aren’t run from your personal computer, but are rather stored on servers accessed via the Internet. If your computer crashes, the software is still available for others to use. Same goes for the documents you create; they’re stored on a collection of servers accessed via the Internet. Anyone with permission can not only access the documents, but can also edit and collaborate on those documents in realtime. Unlike traditional computing, this cloud computing model isn’t PC- centric, it’s document-centric.Which PC you use to access a document simply isn’t important. But that’s a simplification. Let’s look in more detail at what cloud computing is—and, just as important, what it isn’t. What Cloud Computing Isn’t First, cloud computing isn’t network computing. With network computing, applications/documents are hosted on a single company’s server and accessed over the company’s network. Cloud computing is a lot bigger than that. It encompasses multiple companies, multiple servers, and multiple networks. Plus, unlike network computing, cloud services and storage are accessible fromC H A P T E R 1 Beyond the Desktop: An Introduction to Cloud Computing anywhere in the world over an Internet connection; with network computing, access is over the company’s network only. Cloud computing also isn’t traditional outsourcing, where a company farms out (subcontracts) its computing services to an outside firm. While an out-sourcing firm might host a company’s data or applications, those documents and programs are only accessible to the company’s employees via the com-pany’s network, not to the entire world via the Internet. So, despite superficial similarities, etworking computing and outsourcing are not cloud computing. What Cloud Computing Is Key to the definition of cloud computing is the “cloud” itself. For our purposes,the cloud is a large group of interconnected computers. These computers can be personal computers or network servers; they can be public or private. For example, Google hosts a cloud that consists of both smallish PCs and larger servers. Google’s cloud is a private one (that is, Google owns it) that is publicly accessible (by Google’s users). This cloud of computers extends beyond a single company or enterprise.The applications and data served by the cloud are available to broad group of users, cross-enterprise and cross-platform. Access is via the Internet. Any authorized user can access these docs and apps from any computer over any Internet connection. And, to the user, the technology and infrastructure behind the cloud is invisible. It isn’t apparent (and, in most cases doesn’t mat-ter) whether cloud services are based on HTTP, HTML, XML, JavaScript, or other specific technologies. It might help to examine how one of the pioneers of cloud computing,Google, perceives the topic.From Google’s perspective, there are six key prop-erties of cloud computing: ¦ Cloud computing is user-centric. Once you as a user are connected to the cloud, whatever is stored there—documents, messages, images, applications, whatever—becomes yours. In addition, not only is the data yours, but you can also share it with others. In effect, any device that accesses your data in the cloud also becomes yours. ¦ Cloud computing is task-centric. Instead of focusing on the applica-tion and what it can do, the focus is on what you need done and how the application can do it for you. Traditional applications—word pro-cessing, spreadsheets, email, and so on—are becoming less important than the documents they create. 9 10PART IUnderstanding Cloud Computing ¦ Cloud computing is powerful. Connecting hundreds or thousands of computers together in a cloud creates a wealth of computing power impossible with a single desktop PC. ¦ Cloud computing is accessible. Because data is stored in the cloud, users can instantly retrieve more information from multiple reposito-ries. You’re not limited to a single source of data, as you are with a desktop PC. Cloud computing is intelligent. With all the various data stored on the computers in a cloud, data mining and analysis are necessary to access that information in an intelligent manner. ¦ Cloud computing is programmable. Many of the tasks necessary with cloud computing must be automated. For example, to protect the integrity of the data, information stored on a single computer in the cloud must be replicated on other computers in the cloud. If that one computer goes offline, the cloud’s programming automatically redis- tributes that computer’s data to a new computer in the cloud.All these definitions behind us, what constitutes cloud computing in the real world? As you’ll learn throughout this book, a raft of web-hosted, Internet-accessible, group-collaborative applications are currently available, with many more onthe way. Perhaps the best and most popular examples of cloud computing applications today are the Google family of applications—Google Docs & Spreadsheets, Google Calendar, Gmail, Picasa, and the like. All of these appli-cations are hosted on Google’s servers, are accessible to any user with an Internet con-nection, and can be used for group collab-oration from anywhere in the world.In short, cloud computing enables a shift from the computer to the user, from appli-cations to tasks, and from isolated data to data that can be accessed from anywhere and shared with anyone. The user no longer has to take on the task of data management; he doesn’t even have to remember where the data is. All that mat-ters is that the data is in the cloud, and thus immediately available to that user and to other authorized users. Note: Developers and IT types might have a slightly different definition of cloud computing than that for an end user.To the people who develop and manage computer systems, cloud computing is all about horizontal scalability in the form of server capability; the technical challenge is developing operating systems and applica-tions to manage this sort of on-the-fly scaling-while keeping the mechanics of it invisible to , the end user. CHAPTER 1 Beyond the Desktop: An Introduction to Cloud Computing 11 From Collaboration to the Cloud: A Short History of Cloud Computing Cloud computing has as its antecedents both client/server computing and peer-to-peer distributed computing.It’s all a matter of how centralized storage facilitates collaboration and how multiple computers work together to increase computing power. Client/Server Computing: Centralized Applications and Storage In the antediluvian days of computing (pre-1980 or so), everything operated on the client/server model. All the software applications, all the data, and all the control resided on huge mainframe computers, otherwise known as servers. If a user wanted to access specific data or run a program, he had to connect to the mainframe, gain appropriate access, and then do his business while essen-tially “renting” the program or data from the server.Users connected to the server via a computer terminal, sometimes called a workstation or client. This computer was sometimes called a dumb terminal because it didn’t have a lot (if any! ) memory, storage space, or processing power. It was merely a device that connected the user to and enabled him to use the mainframe computer. Users accessed the mainframe only when granted permission, and the infor- mation technology (IT) staff weren’t in the habit of handing out access casu-ally. Even on a mainframe computer, processing power is limited—and the IT staff were the guardians of that power.Access was not immediate, nor could two users access the same data at the same time. Beyond that, users pretty much had to take whatever the IT staff gave them—with no variations. Want to customize a report to show only a subset of the normal information? Can’t do it. Want to create a new report to look at some new data? You can’t do it, although the IT staff can—but on their schedule, which might be weeks from now. The fact is, when multiple people are sharing a single computer, even if that computer is a huge mainframe, you have to wait your turn.Need to rerun a financial report? No problem—if you don’t mind waiting until this afternoon,or tomorrow morning. There isn’t always immediate access in a client/server environment, and seldom is there immediate gratification. So the client/server model, while providing similar centralized storage, differed from cloud computing in that it did not have a user-centric focus; with client/server computing, all the control rested with the mainframe—and with the guardians of that single computer. It was not a user-enabling environment. 2 PART I Understanding Cloud Computing Peer-to-Peer Computing: Sharing Resources As you can imagine, accessing a client/server system was kind of a “hurry up and wait” experience. The server part of the system also created a huge bottle-neck. All communications between computers had to go through the server first, however inefficient that might be. The obvious need to connect one computer to another without first hitting the server led to the development of peer-to-peer (P2P) computing.P2P computing defines a network architecture in which each computer has equivalent capa-bilities and responsibilities. This is in contrast to the traditional client/server network architecture, in which one or more computers are dedicated to serv-ing the others. (This relationship is sometimes characterized as a master/slave relationship, with the central server as the master and the client computer as the slave. ) P2P was an equalizing concept. In the P2P environment, every computer is a client and a server; there are no masters and slaves.By recognizing all com-puters on the network as peers, P2P enables direct exchange of resources and services. There is no need for a central server, because any computer can func-tion in that capacity when called on to do so. P2P was also a decentralizing concept. Control is decentralized, with all com-puters functioning as equals. Content is also dispersed among the various peer computers. No centralized server is assigned to host the available resources and services. Perhaps the most notable implementation of P2P computing is the Internet.Many of today’s users forget (or never knew) that the Internet was initially conceived, under its original ARPAnet guise, as a peer-to-peer system that would share computing resources across the United States. The various ARPAnet sites—and there weren’t many of them—were connected together not as clients and servers, but as equals. The P2P nature of the early Internet was best exemplified by the Usenet net-work. Usenet, which was created back in 1979, was a network of computers (accessed via the Internet), each of which hosted the entire contents of the net-work. Messages were propagated between the eer computers; users connect-ing to any single Usenet server had access to all (or substantially all) the messages posted to each individual server. Although the users’ connection to the Usenet server was of the traditional client/server nature, the relationship between the Usenet servers was definitely P2P—and presaged the cloud com-puting of today. CHAPTER 1 Beyond the Desktop: An Introduction to Cloud Computing 13 That said, not every part of the Internet is P2P in nature. With the develop-ment of the World Wide Web came a shift away from P2P back to the client/server model.On the web, each website is served up by a group of com-puters, and sites’ visitors use client software (web browsers) to access it. Almost all content is centralized, all control is centralized, and the clients have no autonomy or control in the process. Distributed Computing: Providing More Computing Power One of the most important subsets of the P2P model is that of distributed com-puting, where idle PCs across a network or across the Internet are tapped to provide computing power for large, processor-intensive projects.It’s a simple concept, all about cycle sharing between multiple computers. A personal computer, running full-out 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, is capa-ble of tremendous computing power. Most people don’t use their computers 24/7, however, so a good portion of a computer’s resources go unused. Distributed computing uses those resources. When a computer is enlisted for a distributed computing project, software is installed on the machine to run various processing activities during those peri-ods when the PC is typically unused.The results of that spare-time processing are periodically uploaded to the distributed computing network, and com-bined with similar results from other PCs in the project. The result, if enough computers are involved, simulates the processing power of much larger main-frames and supercomputers—which is necessary for some very large and com-plex computing projects. For example, genetic research requires vast amounts of computing power. Left to traditional means, it might take years to solve essential mathematical problems. By connecting together thousands or millions) of individual PCs, more power is applied to the problem, and the results are obtained that much sooner. Distributed computing dates back to 1973, when multiple computers were net-worked together at the Xerox PARC labs and worm software was developed to cruise through the network looking for idle resources. A more practical appli-cation of distributed computing appeared in 1988, when researchers at the DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) System Research Center developed soft-ware that distributed the work to factor large numbers among workstations within their laboratory.By 1990, a group of about 100 users, utilizing this software, had factored a 100-digit number. By 1995, this same effort had been expanded to the web to factor a 130-digit number. 14PART IUnderstanding Cloud Computing It wasn’t long before distributed computing hit the Internet. The first major Internet-based distributed computing project was distributed. net, launched in 1997, which employed thousands of personal computers to crack encryption codes. Even bigger was [email protected], launched in May 1999, which linked together millions of individual computers to search for intelligent life in outer space.Many distributed computing projects are conducted within large enterprises, using traditional network connections to form the distributed computing net-work. Other, larger, projects utilize the computers of everyday Internet users, with the computing typically taking place offline, and then uploaded once a day via traditional consumer Internet connections . Collaborative Computing: Working as a Group From the early days of client/server computing through the evolution of P2P, there has been a desire for multiple users to work simultaneously on the same computer-based project.This type of collaborative computing is the driving force behind cloud computing, but has been around for more than a decade. Early group collaboration was enabled by the combination of several different P2P technologies. The goal was (and is) to enable multiple users to collaborate on group projects online, in real time. To collaborate on any project, users must first be able to talk to one another. In today’s environment, this means instant messaging for text-based commu-nication, with optional audio/telephony and video capabilities for voice and picture communication. Most collaboration systems offer the complete range of udio/video options, for full-featured multiple-user video conferencing. In addition, users must be able to share files and have multiple users work on the same document simultaneously. Real-time whiteboarding is also common, especially in corporate and education environments. Early group collaboration systems ranged from the relatively simple (Lotus Notes and Microsoft NetMeeting) to the extremely complex (the building-block architecture of the Groove Networks system). Most were targeted at large corporations, and limited to operation over the companies’ private networks.Note: Whiteboarding is where one or more users “draw” on a virtual white-board that is viewable by all the members of the group. C H A P T E R 1 Beyond the Desktop: An Introduction to Cloud Computing15 Cloud Computing: The Next Step in Collaboration With the growth of the Internet, there was no need to limit group collaboration to a single enterprise’s network environment. Users from multiple locations within a cor-poration, and from multiple organizations,desired to collaborate on projects that crossed company and geographic boundaries.To do this, projects had to be housed in the “cloud” of the Internet, and accessed from any Internet-enabled location. The concept of cloud-based documents and services took wing with the devel-opment of large server farms, such as those run by Google and other search companies. Google already had a collection of servers that it used to power its massive search engine; why not use that same computing power to drive a collection of web-based applications—and, in the process, provide a new level of Internet-based group collaboration?That’s exactly what happened, although Google wasn’t the only company offering cloud computing solutions. On the infrastructure side, IBM, Sun Systems, and other big iron providers are offering the hardware necessary to build cloud networks. On the software side, dozens of companies are develop-ing cloud-based applications and storage services. Today, people are using cloud services and storage to create, share, find, and organize information of all different types. Tomorrow, this functionality will be available not only to computer users, ut to users of any device that con-nects to the Internet—mobile phones, portable music players, even automo-biles and home television sets. Note: The term cloud com-puting is a relatively recent one, gaining prominence in 2007 as a means of describing Internet-based distributed com-puting and its associated applications. The Network Is the Computer: How Cloud Computing Works Sun Microsystems’s slogan is “The network is the computer,” and that’s as good as any to describe how cloud computing works. In essence, a network of computers functions as a single computer to serve data and applications to users over the Internet.The network exists in the “cloud” of IP addresses that we know as the Internet, offers massive computing power and storage capabil-ity and enables widescale group collaboration. But that

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