Running head: Clinical Psychology Paper Clinical Psychology Paper Launita D. Joseph University of Phoenix Clinical Psychology Paper When psychology is mentioned one will think about the study of the mind. Several topics may be discussed under psychology. Psychology is a discipline that involves the scientific study of human or animal mental functions and behaviors. However, clinical psychology is integrated with theory, science, and practice to understand, predict, and remove maladjustment, discomfort, and also to promote humans to adapt, adjust, and improve personal development (American Psychological Association, Division 12, 2009).
Within this paper one will locate the history and evolving nature of clinical counseling psychology and the role of research and statistics in clinical counseling psychology. Clinical psychology is the most popular of all areas of psychology. Clinical psychology came about in 1896 when Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) opened the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania. Witmer’s undergraduate studies were completed in 1888 at the University of Pennsylvania. Later in 1892, Witmer earned his PhD at the University of Leipzig in psychology, under Wilhelm Wundt.
Witmer became the director of the psychology laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania after receiving his doctoral studies (Plante, 2005). Witmer’s practical application of psychology expanded the clinical applications to begin treating various mental health disorders. Clinicus is a Latin word that derived clinic. Clinical psychology is concerned with treating sick patients. With all saying, clinical psychology is the teaching about, researching about, or the treatment of a patient with mental health disorders.
Lightner Witmer Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology continued to grow and became influenced by psychoanalysis that focuses on the unconscious functions. The different forms of clinical treatment that was brought out in the mid 20th century with associations and reactions against psychoanalysis, which is now called psychotherapy (Richmond, 2009). In December 1896, the American Psychological Association had a plan of practical work in psychology. The plan of organization consisted of: •The investigation of the belief that mental development in school children has shown more in mental and moral retardation, by the means of statistical and clinical methods. A psychological clinic, with help from a training school in the nature of a hospital school treats all classes of children who suffer from retardation or physical defects that interfere with school progress. •The offering of practical work to those that work in the field of teaching and medicine, and those who are interested in social work, in the observation, and training of normal and retarded children. •New students who are interested in the field of psychological work with the school system, through the examination and treatment of mentally and morally retarded children, or who are connected to the practice of medicine (Green, Unknown).
In 1897, the department of psychology in the university of Pennsylvania put a four week course together that was given daily under the auspices of the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching. A course in child psychology was given to show the different methods of child psychology especially the clinical method, in addition to lectures and laboratory courses in experimental and physiological psychology. Children who came to the clinic suffered from defects of the ear, eye, motor ability, or in attention, and memory (Green, Unknown).
With clinical psychology, the psychologist’s are employed in settings such as business, government, industry, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conducting researches, designing organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology. Clinical psychologist’s formulated hypotheses and gather their data to test the validity of the research. The research methods vary with what observation is studied. Some psychologists gather information from controlled laboratory experiments or by administering personality, aptitude, intelligence, or performance tests.
Psychologists also have methods that include observations, questionnaires, clinical studies, interviews, and surveys. A psychologist will apply his or her knowledge to a wide range of topics, including human and health services, management, law, education, and sports. Usually psychologists specialize in many different areas (United States Department of Labor, 2009). With knowing that clinical psychology is one of the most studied areas in psychology, one should know there is a large amount of information available in that field.
Clinical psychology was studied in early years and has expanded to several other fields in the line of clinical psychology. If one chooses work in this field of study, research is important because new techniques may evolve and should be used in order to produce effective work with clients. References American Psychological Association, Division 12. (2009). Society of clinical Psychology. About clinical Psychology. Retrieved on November 29, 2009, from http://www. apa. org/divisions/div12/aboutcp. html Green, C. D. (Unknown). Classics in the History of Psychology. Clinical Psychology.
York University, Toronto, Ontario Retrieved on November 29, 2009, from http://psychclassics. yorku. ca/Witmer/clinical. htm Plante, T. G. (2005). Contemporary Clinical Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Richmond, R. L. (2009). A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Psychology: Clinical and counseling – and Licensure. Retrieved on November 29, 2009, from Http://www. guidetopsychology. com/cln_cns. htm United States Department of Labor. (2009). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition. Retrieved on November 29, 2009, from http://www. bls. gov/oco/ocos056. htm