Below you will find two questions for each of Chapters 9 through 15 of the Berk (2000) text chapters. One type of question requires you to connect with course content and the other requires you to apply it. Thoroughly (your answer should be more than a sentence or two) and succinctly (be clear and don’t ramble) answer ONLY one question for each chapter (No extra credit will be offered for answering more than the assigned number of questions).You may either save this document on your computer and insert your answers into it or copy/paste your chosen questions into a new document and answer them. Be sure to proofread your work. One half of one percentage point will be deducted for each grammar and spelling error. Avoid using quotes and answer questions in your own words, please. My task is to assess the extent of your comprehension, not how well you can copy/paste material you find in the book. Chapter 9 9a Application: Three-year-old Jason’s mother explained that the family would take a vacation in Miami.The next morning Jason announced, “I gotted my bags packed. When are we going to Your-ami? ” What do Jason’s errors reveal about his approach to mastering grammar? 9a. Jason’s errors in grammar would be considered over regularization. This happens when a child extends a regular grasped morphological rule. Jason understood the meaning of “my” which he knew that referred to self. When Jason’s mother explained that they were going to Miami he grasped the meaning of “my” and related this back to her by saying are we going to “yourami”.He didn’t grasp the concept of this being the place of destination they were going on their trip. He reflected back saying “yourami” because his mother explained that they were going to “Miami”, which he perceived the “my” in then made it “yourami” when asking his mother. 9b Connection: Cite examples of cognitive advances that contribute to the development of referential communication. Chapter 10 10a Connection: Explain why good emotional self-regulation is vital for empathy to result in sympathy and prosocial behavior. How can parents promote emotional self-regulation, empathy, and sympathy at the same time? 0a. It is important to have good self-regulation because empathy is an interaction of cognition and affect. One must be able to detect differences in different types of emotions, look at the emotional perspective, and respond in an emotionally similar way. A child’s temperament will play a role as whether empathy occurs, prosocial behavior, or a self-focused response. Children who are extremely sociable and have an understanding of regulating emotions are more likely to show concern and empathy to other children in distress times.Children who have poor emotion regulations, display pro-social behaviors, and no sympathetic concern. Parents can promote emotional self-regulation, empathy, and sympathy, by showing acknowledgement to their children’s emotions. Parents should teach their children different types of emotions so that this will help them have a better understanding of other’s feelings in different experiences or situations. Children learn from adults, they watch them, and pick up on feelings which help them to regulate their emotions.Parents should encourage emotional expressiveness this will also help to have good self-regulation. 10b Application: In evaluating her childhood attachment experiences, Monica recalls her mother as tense and distant. What type of infant–mother attachment is Monica likely to develop with her own child? Chapter 11 11a Application: Ten-year-old Marla is convinced that her classmate, Bernadette, who gets poor grades, is lazy. In contrast, Jane thinks Bernadette tries but can’t concentrate because her parents are getting a divorce. Why is Marla more likely than Jane to harbor social prejudices? 1b Connection: Frank and Vera worry that their 18-year-old son Jules will waste time at college because he is unsure about his major and his career goals. Explain why Jules’s uncertainty might be advantageous for his identity development. 11b. Jules is at a stage in his life where his identity development would still be considered normal. Young people our often undecided about the direction they are heading for a career or life choices. Over the course of young adulthood thru early college years many people change their majors and career path.College will give Jules the chance to explore different options, before deciding on a major or career of interest. College will also give him the opportunity to explore different types of lifestyle choices that he may consider. This process will allow progress toward a healthy identity of himself. Chapter 12 12a Connection: Describe the social-cognitive capacities fostered by inductive discipline 12a. When parenting, using inductive discipline involves making the child aware of the effects of their behaviors. Using this method it is clear that this behavior is what caused the outcome.Parents should take the time to explain why their behavior was unacceptable or inappropriate. Children learn from this to have an understanding of intentions, their perception, and how they take it all in. This discipline helps children learn problem solving skills. These social cognitive capacities are fostered by social interactions, and social communications which aid in inductive discipline. 12b Application: Parker Elementary School will give a cash reward to the classroom that sells the most raffle tickets for the school fundraiser.Children in the winning classroom will decide how to divide the award fairly. How are first through third graders likely to differ in their decision making? Chapter 13 13a Connection: Cite evidence indicating that both biological and environmental factors contribute to girls’ early advantage in verbal abilities and boys’ superior performance in mathematical reasoning. 13b Application: When 4-year-old Roger was in the hospital, he was cared for by a male nurse named Jared. After Roger recovered, he told his friends about Dr. Jared.Using gender schema theory, explain why Roger remembered Jared as a doctor, not a nurse. 13b. Roger is a young child who has learned the gender-stereotyped roles at an early age. These stereotyped roles are based off preferences and behaviors. Roger may have learned these roles from real models in his life or social media. Children at this age use prior experiences with male-female gender roles that their familiar with and interpret them as their own gender-schema experience. Roger has learned by seeing males as doctors and woman as nurses.He has labeled them in this category because this is what he has experienced. Roger has gender stereotyped the Nurse as being a doctor because he was male. Roger’s information was distorted to fit his past gender schema experiences. Using the gender schema theory children’s cognitions and environmental pressures work together to form gender-role development. Chapter 14 14a Application: Why is authoritative parenting more effective than authoritarian and permissive parenting? 14a. Authoritative parenting is more effective because these parents are accepting, attentive and patient.These types of parents are our positive influences in the development of children. These parents model care and concern of children’s feelings and decision making, and are highly involved. Authoritative parents use praise and set expectations within age appropriateness autonomy granting. Authoritative parents let children make decisions and are involved and accepting of these decisions. Authoritarian parents are not that accepting or involved as much. This type of parents may appear unaccepting, rejecting, and cold to their child. Authoritarian parents use the power more as to control their child’s behavior.These parent’s control their children by commanding, criticizing, and yelling. Authoritarian parents rate low in autonomy granting. They make decisions for their child and expect their child to accept and obey without questioning. The permissive style parenting is considered warm and accepting. Although these parents are overindulging, and inattentive in the control of their child’s behavior. Permissive parents allow their child to make a lot of their own decisions which may not be age appropriate. 14b Connection: Describe and explain changes in sibling relationships from early childhood to adolescence.How does parenting influence the quality of sibling ties? Chapter 15 15a Connection: Cite major changes in children’s peer sociability during early and middle childhood. 15b Application: Eleven-year-old Tommy spends hours each afternoon surfing the Net and playing computer games. Cite research findings that explain why his parents should intervene in both activities. 15b. Tommy’s parents should monitor and limit the amount of time that he spends using the computer and also playing video games. Many studies show these games promote hostility and aggression due to the violence in these games.These games also reduce pro-social behaviors. Many studies have shown that violent video games have similar effects to violent T. V. One study which looked at the implication of internet usage, researchers found that regardless of age the internet usage reduced the time spent communicating with family members and other influential social networks. Children who used the internet more than other children reported feeling depressed and lonely. Children, who have heavily used video games and internet, have been linked to negative effects on emotional and social adjustments.
Child Development Paper
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