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The Anatomy of Leadership, by Baimba Kamara. Jd. (Law) Paper

Words: 15599, Paragraphs: 132, Pages: 52

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Employment

By Baimba Shek Kamara, JD. (Law) Perhaps one of the most important sets of skills to possess in our rapidly changing and complex world are those of leaderships. This has become painfully obvious, as we have continued to struggle to hold dominion over our own destiny in the quickly changing landscape of our society and workplace. Perhaps, because of effective leadership, or the lack thereof, that will determine if our cities, organizations, and governments continue to succeed, prosper and move forward; or if instead, they will become stagnant and die.

The word “leadership” means, literally, to “go in advance”. 1 But what exactly is leadership and what makes someone a leader? Are you born with leadership ability or is it something you acquire and obtain during your life experiences? These questions have been posed many times before and have generated many different answers to them. Over time, various models have emerged to explain the leadership “phenomenon” during that period. The basic theories can be grouped into three distinct areas; trait, behavioral, and situational or contingency. Trait Model The trait theory concentrates on the personal characteristics of a good leader.

That is, if you were to examine the traits or characteristics of great leaders throughout history, you would notice a common group of essential qualities that all of them seem to have possessed. It is by mastering these qualities that would enable people to emerge from the rest of the population, to separate themselves from the masses and to become a great leader that others were willing to follow. Characteristics of Good Leaders: The following section focuses on the various personal characteristics generally thought to be possessed by those who have been considered to be good leaders.

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Now it doesn’t mean that a good Leader will possess all of these traits, in fact, far from it. A good leader will exhibit varying degrees of these traits, some to a greater degree than others and some not at all. As you read through the list of personal characteristics, try to think about how somebody viewing you and your interactions with others would “rate” you for each one. Although some of these characteristics may be innate, there are many that someone would be able to work on and improve upon in their life.

As others view these characteristics in you and recognize them as characteristics of a good leader, they will also come to view you as a good leader and somebody they would believe in and want to follow. Personal Ambition Under Control: Good Leaders must be able to have their personal ambitions under control. 2 Although you may make it to the top with uncontrolled ambition, you will not stay there for very long. The people that you stepped on to get there will be aiming for you and the people that witnessed your rise to the top by any means necessary will neither trust you nor want to follow you.

A good Leader will maintain his balance of right and wrong and maintains his integrity by keeping his ambition in check. There is nothing wrong with wanting to get to the top, but there is something wrong when you start to consider using shortcuts by any means necessary to get there. A good Leader helps his people grow and has a balanced perception of his people’s needs, his own needs, as well as the needs of the country as a whole; in this case in point (Sierra Leone). I strongly believe that the President of the Republic of Sierra Leone, Dr.

Ernest Bai Koroma, has many of these qualities. “Absolute power corrupts absolutely”, by Voltaire. “Don’t give power to people who can’t live without it”, by George Shultz. Education Studies show that more and more leaders have acquired advanced education. They pursue knowledge from a variety of sources. They listen. They observe. They read every chance they get. They are constantly alert to opportunities to add to their store of information regarding their profession so they are ready to draw upon it when needed.

This obviously puts them at a greater advantage when difficult situations arise. Also, the mere possession of knowledge is attractive to others. As a result, the country and associates look to the well-informed person for guidance and direction. “Genius without education is like silver in the mine”, by Ben Franklin. “ Education is not a preparation for life, education is life itself”, by John Dewey. “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance” by Derek Bok. “Don’t allow school to interfere with your education” by Mark Twain. Intelligence

Intelligence is important to being a leader because people are drawn towards and instinctively trust people who are intelligent and possesses knowledge. This does not mean that you have to have a 150 IQ, but merely an adequate level of intelligence. Remember that there are many different ways to gain intelligence. Educational achievement is sometimes a good indicator of someone’s intelligence, although it is not necessarily the only one. Good leaders can also develop skills and attain knowledge through life experiences. The intelligent leader is alert to what is going on around him and able to assimilate various information quickly.

Obviously, the more knowledge that you have acquired from education and past experiences will give you a tremendous advantage when you are confronted with difficult situations that arise. Therefore, it is important to pursue knowledge from any and all readily available sources. Reading relevant journals and newspapers, attending continuing education classes all are opportunities for the leader to increase his wealth of knowledge from which he may draw as the need arises. “I care not whether a man is good or evil, all that I care is whether he is a wise man or a fool” by William Blake. Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition fro mediocre minds” by Albert Einstein. “Any fool can criticize, condemn and complain, and most fools do”, by Ben Franklin. “Experience is a dear teacher, and only fools will learn from no other” by Ben Franklin. “I know I am Intelligent, because I know that I know nothing”, Socrates “The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance”, by Socrates. Integrity Integrity is so pervasive throughout the research on leadership that you will often see this notion intertwined with other characteristics and within various topics.

In fact, this idea is so important that it has an entire section devoted to it elsewhere in my next paper manual. However, for now, the simplified version of integrity is that when you say you are going to do something, just do it. Simply put, when you make a promise, keep it. “Integrity is keeping the promise to the customer if even it is no longer advantageous to you, or it means that you are going to lose money. Intelligence is knowing not to make that promise” “There is never a better measure of what a person is than what he does when he is absolutely free to choose”, by William M.

Bulger. “Every human being is intended to have a character of his own, to be what no others are, and to do what no others can do”, William Ellery Channing. “ On matters of style, swim with the current, but on matters of principles, stand like a rock”, Thomas Jefferson. “The time is always right to do what is right”, by Martin Luther King. “You’ve got to stand for something or you will fall for everything”, by Baimba kamara. “What is right is not always popular, and what is popular is not always Right”, by Baimba Kamara. Life is like a grindstone-whether it grinds you down or polishes you, depends on what you are made of”, by Baimba Kamara. Ability to Articulate: The ability to communicate is definitely one area that any individual can practice and improve upon. Once again, like intelligence, the ability to articulate does not have to rise to an extraordinary level, but must at least be adequate. Self-Confidence Another common personality characteristic among good leaders is that they have a positive self-regard, while at the same time not having too big of an ego.

There is a fine line that you walk between having self-confidence and having a big ego or bravado. True confidence is the belief that your ideas, goals and visions are the best ones for dealing with the problem at hand. This type of confidence can only come from having a wide base of knowledge and applying that knowledge into proven results. Self-confidence is built slowly over time through these accomplishments and by constructing a solid foundation from which to make future decisions. Up and coming leaders can gain confidence by first setting and attaining modest short-range goals.

As the number and degree of their accomplishments begin to grow, they can then start to enlarge their visions. Having a great deal of self-confidence not only helps in being able to make decisions but with other important aspects of management also. I emphasize that if you have self-confidence, then you will not have to attempt to take all of the credit for a project that went well simply because you are insecure. A good leader is someone who does not take all the credit but recognizes the parties responsible for the performance and success of the project.

It’s essential to pass on all the credit to the rest of the people in the organization and the people who have really done the work. After all, the leader is already on the top and the fact that her employees are performing at a high level will reflect upon her ability as a leader. Also, this goes along with the notion of mentoring and learning to help your people grow and reap the rewards of hard work and successes. Mentoring only flourishes in an environment where the leader is confident in his skills and abilities and does not feel threatened when others are recognized and praised for their work.

Please read my published paper on – “The Origin and Functions of a Mentor” It is also important to have a strong ego as a leader because of the verbal abuse and anger that you will sometimes incur. “Let me speak to your leader” is a battle cry that has been heard for many years and throughout many different areas of government. When things are unsatisfactory to the people or the customers and/or citizens that you serve, you will most certainly hear about it. Conversely, when things are going well and there are no major problems evident, you will not usually hear praise or thanks for a job well done.

This is the time when you have to realize the success that you have achieved and develop that self-confidence for a time in the future when you will certainly be tested (the opposition may suppress all your good performances). Another area where self-confidence helps is in your ability to be able to create an environment where creative dissent and disagreement is not only tolerated, but also welcomed and rewarded. A good leader will have a high degree of self-esteem and not feel threatened by people who are willing to speak their minds when they feel that a problem is being approached in the rong way or there is perhaps a simpler and more cost-efficient way of doing things. For in the end, it is the leader who will benefit from this new information and the people who were willing to take risks. This also applies to you as a leader and your toughness. Are you able to speak up when you know your leader is wrong? Others will have greater respect for you and be willing to work harder for you if they believe that you are able to stand up for them and not have them performing meaningless tasks because you were afraid to question your leader.

Enthusiasm and Optimism These are outward expressions of self-confidence. Just rejoice every moment of it. Happiness at a time brings longevity. Sense of Humor Although they say that laughter is contagious it does not appear that a good “Finish each day and be done with it. You have done what you could: some blunders and absurdities have crept in; forget them as soon as you can. Tomorrow is a new day; you shall begin it serenely and with too high a spirit to be encumbered with your old nonsense”, by Ralph waldo Emerson. Nothing can stop a man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; and nothing on earth can help a man with the wrong mental attitude”, by Thomas Jefferson. “ Being challenged in life is inevitable, but being defeated is optional”, by Roger Crawford. sense of humor is. Instead, it seems that you either have one or you don’t. Leaders who have a sense of humor seem to have a sense of humility that is comforting to their people. People enjoy being around them and the levity helps to keep pressure off and maintain your energy and focus over the long run.

It is irreplaceable to have a leader who is able to laugh when times get tough and things are painful. It is at this time when a good leader can step forward and diffuse a negative situation by reframing the losing situation into something that illuminates and clarifies. “To make mistakes is human; to stumble is a commonplace; to be able to laugh at yourself is maturity”, by William Arthur Ward. “If you find humor in anything-even in poverty-you can survive it”, by Bill Cosby. “The human race has one really effective weapon, and that is laughter”, Mark Twain.

Inclusive A good leader will want to share significant information and new concepts with his employees, introduce them to interesting or beneficial people and generally expand the employee’s world. A leader recognizes that his followers will benefit from this information and then follow through to make sure that it occurs. It is also a term that has come to be synonymous with the issue of diversity. A feeling that we should hear different ideas from different people and share them to create a more open atmosphere.

One of the most important things to people entering the work force today is the idea of diversity and being exposed to a greater spectrum of people and ideas and to avoid the homogeneous environment that has been prevalent for many years. Fairness A leader must always strive to be fair, and perhaps even more importantly, be perceived to be fair which sometimes can be difficult. Like most other people, leaders tend to spend more time with people they like. It is understandable, that these people may wind up with more opportunities than other workers around them.

This, in turn, could easily result in greater recognition by the leader and others and greater job advancement opportunities. Sometimes, favoritism can be very subtle and you may not even realize that it is occurring. However, others will certainly be aware of any difference in treatment among them that could lead to divisiveness as well as to legal troubles. It is therefore of the utmost importance that things not only be right, but that they appear right. Leaders have a duty to treat all his people similarly and that opportunity and rewards should be based upon merit and skills only.

Decisiveness Of course it is wonderful to attempt to gather as much knowledge as possible, whether it be reading various journals or simply asking different people for their opinions, when trying to make a decision. However there comes a time, sometimes sooner than later, when you will have to make a decision with the information at hand. A good leader knows when to stop trying to gaining feedback and simply “pull the trigger”. “People who delay action until all factors are favorable do nothing”, by William Feather. “Action is eloquence” by William Shakespeare. Do not wait to strike till the iron is hot, but make hot by striking it”, William Butler Yeats. “In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing”, by Theodore Roosevelt. Energetic: Usually, people who are considered good leaders always seem to be full of energy and on the go. They seem busy and, therefore, important. {**you are active on your feet, moving about, working long hours. You are assertive and aggressive. You seek out problems rather than let them come to you. You are not afraid to make your ideas known.

You use this energy to persevere where others might stop, to hold on to your convictions where others may be swayed to change their viewpoint. Of course, you must balance being aggressive in pursuing your goals with the resilience to change directions if you are on the wrong track. That is, you must be able to keep moving over and around obstacles, human or otherwise, occasionally backtracking, but always moving their team forward. “A man must drive his energy, not be driven by it”, by William Frederick Book. “Energy and persistence conquer all things”, Benjamin Franklin. “Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry, all things easy.

He that rises late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at right, while laziness travels so slowly that poverty soon overtakes him”, by Benjamin Franklin. Perseverance For those people who are not the smartest person or the most articulate person, hard work is a great equalizer. The individual who works the extra hour, who thinks of another way to present a persuasive argument, who, generally is willing to “go the extra mile”, will be successful. An important aspect of this is to know when to conserve valuable energy when it is not needed so that it is available when called upon.

Many leaders appear to have developed the ability to relax as soon as “the spotlight is off of them” so that they will have their batteries fully charged when it is time for the critical negotiations or meetings. “Everything comes to him who hustles while he waits”, by Thomas Edison. “I haven’t failed. I’ve found 10,000 ways that don’t work”, by Benjamin Franklin. “That which doesn’t kill me makes me stronger”, Fredrick Nietzsche. Good Judgment Good judgment is something that everybody thinks they possess, but few seldom do. People will invariably question tasks assigned or project goals and even core visions.

Whether or not the people do so openly or not, they will ask, “does what she is saying make sense”? “Is it reasonable”? If a leader exhibits good judgment from the beginning; and have a reputation for making dependable decisions; and being right much more often than wrong, the people will feel confidant in your abilities and not question your decisions. “Common sense is not so common”, by Thomas Jefferson. “Knowledge is the treasure, but judgment is the treasurer of a wise man”, by William Penn. Personality You often hear people mention that someone “has a good personality”. But what exactly does that mean?

Generally, having a good personality means those qualities in a person that cause others to be attracted and drawn to him. Although this may mean different things to different people, there does seem to be some common elements and ideas associated with this notion. First, someone with a good personality is usually the person that can find ways of getting along with many different kinds of people, even in a variety of difficult settings. Additionally, they are able to allow people with conflicting personalities to come together and work together because they are able to defuse any of the tensions created by their differences.

They are able to do this because they are sensitive to others feelings and are able to find common grounds for compromise by utilizing their markedly superior interpersonal skills. Creativity and Initiative Creativity and initiative go hand-in-hand because one without the other will not be successful. Creativity is the ability to visualize a new path or a new direction to achieve the desired goal. Initiative is having the desire and the courage to be able to break away from the prevailing mindset of the group and implement your creative ideas.

Thus, it is easy to see that if one only has creativity but is too timid to speak up or implement these ideas because they lack initiative that those ideas will remain buried and non-existent. It is possible, albeit more difficult, for the leader to be successful with initiative only. This is because the creative and best ideas do not necessarily have to come from the leader. As long as she develops and maintains a creative and open-minded atmosphere among the people, she can simply choose and implement the creative ideas flowing from the work group. I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world”, Albert Einstein. Objectivity and Balance Accordingly, you must learn to weather the stormy periods as well as the fair. You must guard against an inflated ego that often accompanies a period of uninterrupted success. Otherwise, your judgment becomes distorted. You need intellectual honesty, genuine objectivity above all. A willingness to face facts rigorously when you are wrong. Along with this objectivity, you also need emotional balance.

Few subordinates will respect you as a leader if you are smiling and cheerful one moment, angry or dejected the next. To be a successful leader you must learn to even out any emotional swings and conceal any severe disappointments from your subordinates. “Keep your fears to yourself, but share your courage with others”, by Robert Louis Stevenson. Behavioral Models One of the major problems with the trait theory was that, although there is certainly a long list of valuable personal characteristics of leaders, there are relatively few traits that emerged to conclusively differentiate leaders from non-leaders.

As Adler pointed out, “The research on trait theories of leadership has shown that many other factors are important in determining leader success, and that not everyone who possesses these traits will be a leader. ” Interest in the trait theory began to wane and researchers began to focus on the actions of the leaders rather than their characteristics. This led to the development of behavioral theories to attempt to explain what distinguished a good leader from a non-leader. Among the most prevalent of these models was the Theory X & Y, Managerial (Leadership) Grid, Likert Systems, and the Leadership Continuum.

Theory X & Y Douglas McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y [McGregor, D. (April 9, 1957). Proceedings of the Fifth Anniversary Convocation of the School of Industrial Management, “The Human Side of Enterprise. ” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ] These are two opposing views about how people envision human behavior in the workforce. Based on this paragraph, you will now conclude that researcher, Baimba Kamara, graduated from the University of Massachusetts School of Law (Southern New England School of Law) UMASS.

The researcher also has a reservoir of experience in the Workforce Developments. Theory X is the traditional view that management has taken towards the workforce that management’s role is to coerce and control the employees. Various assumptions of this theory include:
• People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible.
• People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational goals.
• People prefer to be directed, dislike responsibility, is unambiguous, and have little or no ambition. People seek security above everything.
• These assumptions are the driving force behind most organizational principles that give rise to “tough” management with strong control and punishment, as well as “soft” management that strives for cooperation and harmony.
• Both of these styles are incorrect because people need more than financial rewards for motivation, they desire the idea of fulfillment.
• Since organizations and leaders do not provide their employees with this opportunity for self-fulfillment, they behave in the expected fashion.

Theory Y is the now popular enlightened view where leadership’s role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release the potential inside of them towards common goals. General elements of this theory are:
• Work is as natural to people as eating and sleeping.
• People are not naturally lazy and will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives.
• Control and punishment are not the only means to making people work, they will work if committed to the aims of the organization.
• If the job is personally satisfying, people will develop a commitment to the organization. People, if allowed, will learn to not only accept responsibility but to seek it out.
• Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination can be widely found in the population and can be used to solve organizational problems.
• People are full of potential that can be tapped into by the organization. If you believe Theory X (autocratic) If you believe Theory Y (participative) Managerial Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton’s Managerial Grid was one of the most widely publicized behavioral theories. Their theory attempted to explain the best style of leadership by utilizing various combinations of two factors regarding a concern for tasks and people. Concern for people” is plotted on the vertical axis while “Concern for task” is plotted along the horizontal axis. Both axis’s have a range value from a low of 1 to a high of 9. High 9(1,9) – Country Club Style Team Leader Style – (9,9) 8 Concern7 for6Middle-of-the-road Style People5(5,5) 4 3 2 1(1,1) – Impoverished StyleAuthoritarian Style – (9,1) 123456789 LowConcern for TasksHigh Most people would fall around the middle of both dimensions and would be, interestingly enough, considered to be the middle-of-the-road management style.

However, by looking at the high and low extremes for both values, people could be divided into four types of leaders: Authoritarian (9 on task, 1 on people), Country Club (1 on task, 9 on people), Impoverished (1 on task, 1 on people), and Team Leader (9 on task, 9 on people). An Authoritarian leader: Has a high concern for task and a low concern for people. Generally, people with this rating are highly task oriented and exhibit an autocratic leadership style with their workers. There is no room for cooperation or contributions by team members because these leaders are intolerant of what they would see as dissent.

They are very focused on schedules and when something goes wrong they attempt to focus it on whom to blame rather than attempt to correct the situation. These types of leaders are the stereotypical military drill sergeants who give you your “orders” and expect you to carry them out without any discussion or questions. The Country Club leader: Has a low concern for production and a high concern for relationships. These leaders generally use a reward system to motivate the employees to achieve the desired goals. One major drawback is that this leader is generally limited in her means to maintain discipline.

Usually this leader will not rely on their legitimate authority or apply punitive and coercive methods because of the fear that this could destroy Likert Systems Each management style has different characteristics and different impacts on the worker and the organization’s communication. The following is a summary of Likert’s management system styles. This explanation will provide the needed background information to see the importance of communication in Likert’s model. System 1 This management style, known as exploitive-authoritative parallels earlier management theory where decisions are imposed upon subordinates.

Managers have little trust in those that they supervise. Fear and threats are motivational factors, communication is limited and the flow is downward. System 1 provides little room for interaction with superiors, decision-making comes from the top and works its way down. Likewise, goals and visions come from top management with little or no flexibility. System 2 This leadership is known as the Benevolent–Authoritative system. Foremen and superiors in this system listen to subordinates in a “condescending” form of master-servant and front-line workers do not feel free to discuss the job or job related ideas with their supervisors.

Motivations are based more upon rewards with punishment as a secondary factor. Communication in this system is limited but not to the extent as seen in System 1 and is still usually from the top down. Cooperation and teamwork is limited and not sought after by management or labor. Decisions come from the top with a framework provided to get limited input from lower level workers. Goals also come from the top though there is allowance for some comment by workers. Control in System 2 is centralized in top management with a small amount given to middle managers. System 3

This is referred to as the consultative style, which shows early signs of participative management. System 3 managers consult with employees regarding possible changes and actively solicit ideas from them although the manager still controls the final decision. Workers are motivated more through rewards and involvement in decisions and direction of the organization and on occasion by punishment. Communication is able to travel up and down between management and front-line workers. Goals are still generated at the upper level management area but decisions on specifics are collected from workers as well.

Overall, workers feel like they are part of the decision making process and take more responsibility for decisions being made. System 4 This is known as participatory – group management. Likert believes that all organizations should adopt this system because it is necessary to achieve the maximum rewards for the organization. Workers have input and management has trust and faith in the employees’ decisions. Rewards are economic as well as satisfaction on part of the worker who considers himself a full participant.

Communication is horizontal as well as vertical so those employees feel free to talk between themselves as well as to management and vice versa. Decision-making is now integrated into smaller groups and not so zealously held by upper management. Goal setting is also by group participation and control occurs at all levels of the organization, not strictly from the top or even the middle. To have effective management and convert an organization, four main features must be implemented:
• The motivation to work must be fostered by modern principles and techniques, and not by the old system of rewards and threats. Employees must be seen as people who have their own needs, desires and values and their self-worth must be maintained at a minimum and enhanced if possible.
• An organization of tightly knit and highly effective work groups must be built up which are committed to achieving the objectives of the organization.
• Supportive relationships must exist within each work group. These are characterized not by actual support, but by mutual respect. Situational/Contingency Models Eventually, the purely behavioral theories also began to fall into disillusionment and soon various situational or contingency models sprang into existence.

These theories suggested that the traits that were necessary for a leader to possess were different depending upon the varying situations. The strict situational approach stated that the traits and characteristics of a person were unimportant in determining whether or not that person was considered to be a leader. Instead, the important factors were the occurrence of outside events and the circumstances of the particular organization or group at that time. In essence, the leader could be considered to be the person who “was in the right place at the right time. ” Rather than a great man causing a great event to happen, the situational approach claims that great events are the product of historical forces that are going to happen whether specific leaders are present or not” One major problem with this theory that is evident right away is why does one member of a group emerge as a leader rather than another one when there are the same external events and the same group characteristics and dynamics for everyone involved? Additionally, why has a leader proven to be considered a better leader in certain situations as opposed to others? Soon, contingency odels began to incorporate both the characteristics of the individual as well as the situation of the group to account for who would become the leader. The contingency theories refused to decide between the nature and nurture aspect of determining a leader and found that the interaction of both was equally important. That is, great leaders are born and made. Fiedler’s Least Preferred Coworker theory of leadership theory was the first significant interactionist approach. This model related the effectiveness of the leader to aspects of the situation in which the group operated.

He suggested that various factors such as the task structure, the leaders personal relationships with members of the group, and their power basis interact with one another to determine what style of leadership would be effective for the situation. Thus, the leader could choose a task-oriented approach or a group-oriented approach similar to those discussed in the Theory X & Y. “At one extreme, is the leader who values successful interpersonal relations to the exclusion of task achievement. The leader at the other extreme, places the highest value on task accomplishment, at the expense of international relations”

To determine whether a leader was task-oriented or group-oriented, Fiedler devised a model that used the measurement of a leader’s perceptions and relations to the least preferred co-worker (LPC) as its basis. Those with a high score were those found to be group-oriented while those with a low score were deemed to be task-oriented. Fiedler’s research concluded that a task-oriented approach was more effective when conditions were either highly favorable (good leader and group relations, strong leadership position and a clear task structure) or highly unfavorable (poor leader and poor relations, weak leadership position and an ambiguous task).

Conversely, a group-oriented approach would be better suited when conditions were relatively stable so that more attention could be paid to the preservation of group relationships to avoid conflict and inefficiency, which could occur from any discord in the group setting. This theory points out that there is not necessarily good or bad leadership styles per se, but their effectiveness depends upon the appropriateness of the group setting. Path-Goal Model

This theory of leadership, by Robert House, suggests that the primary functions of a leader are to make desired awards obtainable in the workplace and to clarify for the worker the kinds of behavior that will lead to those rewards. That is, a leader’s effectiveness was based on the leader’s ability to raise satisfaction and motivation in-group members. This was accomplished by utilizing an incentive program to reward or punish those group members who were responsible for the success or failure in setting and attaining goals compatible with organizational objectives.

In order to accomplish these goals, a leader would be required to adopt differing styles of leadership behavior as the situation dictated. The path-goal proposes two classes of situational variables: those in the environment that are outside a subordinate’s control, like task structure, and those that are internal and part of a subordinate’s personality. The path-goal model illustrates that an employee’s performance and satisfaction will improve if the leader compensates for elements that are lacking in either the environment or the employee.

It is the personal characteristics of the subordinate that determine how environmental factors are interpreted. The leader must be able to gauge not only the environmental factors that are occurring in the work-group, but also how the employees will perceive these factors. These characteristics focus on an employee’s abilities, their locus of control, and need for structure. People who desire safety and security will respond positively to directive leadership. People who desire a feeling of belonging will respond positively to supportive leadership.

People desiring self-esteem and self-actualization will respond best to participative and achievement-oriented leadership styles. Likewise, if the task is structured, stressful, or boring participative leadership behaviors will be more effective. Subordinates working on an unstructured task will want directive leadership. The Path-goal theory identified four leader behaviors that affect subordinate perceptions of paths and goals. The first of these leader styles is known as supportive leadership.

Here, the leader gives consideration to the needs of subordinates, displaying concern for their welfare, and creating a friendly atmosphere in the work unit. Another optional style of leadership is known as directive. This style lets subordinates know what they are expected to do, giving specific guidance, and asking subordinates to follow specific rules and procedures. The next style of leadership is known as achievement-oriented. Here the leader sets challenging goals yet obtainable goals for the employees and seeks improvement in job performance by showing confidence in the worker’s abilities.

The final style of leadership is that of the ever-present participative leadership style. As previously discussed elsewhere, this leadership style consults with subordinates and takes their opinions and suggestions into account. There is less of a leader-follower interaction and more of a team atmosphere. Vroom-Yetton Normative Theory This theory focused on the degree of participation a leader should allow in making any given decision and the selection of an approach that would maximize benefits while at the same time minimizing potential obstacles to the groups goals.

The theory asks a series of questions relating to quality and acceptability requirements:
• How important is the technical quality of this decision?
• How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?
• Do you have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
• Is the problem well structured?
• Would subordinates be committed to an autocratic decision?
• Do subordinates share organizational goals?
• Are subordinates likely to be in conflict about the preferred solution?
• Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?

These questions are based upon past research concerning the costs and benefits of participation. Answers to the series of questions determine which of the five styles are acceptable to use in that situation. The five styles considered by the model in determining how much participation is appropriate in any given situation is: 1. AI- Purely autocratic participation. 2. AII -Subordinates provide information, but otherwise follows autocratic participation. 3. CI -Consult with subordinates individually and then make the decision yourself. 4. CII -Consult with subordinates as a group and then make the decision yourself. . GII -Share the problem with subordinates as a group and the group makes the decision. Transactional Model From a review of the leadership theories, it is easily evident that there are many different thoughts and beliefs about what constitutes the making of a great leader. However, almost all seem to accept that the individual differences of group members, group characteristics, task structure, and the environmental and situational variables change constantly and that the leader needs to be adaptive to these changes and adjust his leadership style accordingly.

LEADERSHIP STYLES Successful executives learn to be leaders by studying, acquiring and applying proven leadership techniques. Although there are a great variety of techniques, many overlap in concept and application until there are a few identifiable styles that emerge. Remember, though, it is equally important in selecting the most appropriate situation in which to use a given technique as it is to possess the knowledge and skill. Autocratic Autocratic leadership is the traditional commanding, restrictive and forceful approach to decision making.

The tasks assigned are unequivocal and are based upon unilateral decision-making. The relationship between the supervisor and the employees is comparable to that of a parent and child. The supervisor holds a great deal of authority and employees can usually be sure to know what their supervisor expects of them. “Autocratic leadership is most suitable where position power is strong and tasks are highly structured. ” ”Bittel, Lester, (1984) Leadership, New York: Franklin Watts. , 68. It is also probably the best technique to use in an emergency or when speed is essential.

Good examples of this style in use would be exemplified by Franklin Roosevelt during the Great Depression and Winston Churchill during World War II. However, this approach is least effective in emerging, complex, or ambiguous situations. Participative At the opposite end of the spectrum from the autocratic style is the participative leadership approach, which is based upon the mutual respect between managers and workers as a result of their common understanding and relationship in the work arena. (Bittel) Subordinates are allowed maximum opportunity to negotiate goals with superiors and to choose their own methods for attaining those goals.

It is a permissive approach that is most suitable where tasks are difficult to structure. It is particularly effective in emerging, changing, and problem-solving situations. It works well with professional subordinates such as technicians, engineers, and researchers as well as for highly independent jobs such as salespeople who work without routine supervision. “It is the only leadership approach that has as its primary goal the full release of subordinates’ knowledge, skills and energies. Other approaches attempt to force, or manipulate this energy out of a subordinate. Bittel, Lester Leadership: The Key to Management Success. It is also the best approach if a long-term relationship between superior and subordinate is a desired goal. This is because it tends to survive large problems, failures and extreme differences of opinions better than the other leadership approaches. One drawback to consider is that it takes a long time and a substantial investment to establish a participative leadership relationship. This leadership style is least effective in structured situations, especially where rigid specifications must be met.

It is counterproductive in emergencies or where speed is critical. Democratic A democratic leadership style is a hybrid of autocratic and participative. The democratic leader will listen to his employees’ ideas and preferences but reserves the right to make the final decision about how things will actually be done. This style of leadership is not so democratic that the workers’ wishes will prevail, however, it is democratic in the sense that the leader takes the employees’ views and wishes into account.

Usually, the leaders who utilize this approach are the ones who are beginning to explore less autocratic techniques but who are not confident enough yet to implement a fully participative approach. Often times, an autocratic leader will use this method during periods of flux. The democratic approach helps ease the shift from loosely structured procedures to more rigid and autocratic control. Consulting employees has its advantages and disadvantages. It works because it enables a leader to get ideas from his employees and then formulate a plan of action that is supported.

Getting input from the employees makes work less stressful because the leader understands their needs better. Consulting, however, is not always the best approach because often there are many employees with each offering a different opinion. Additionally, it can be rather disheartening and a somewhat ambiguous process when the employee is consulted for his input but then sees a different result implemented. It becomes difficult to solicit opinions when the employees feel that their input will not be followed regardless.

Also, it becomes difficult to develop loyalty and faithfulness because the employees are never quite sure exactly where they stand. The democratic approach is least suitable in extreme situations for which the autocratic or participative approaches are preferable. “To ask advice when employees need and want unequivocal direction would cost the leader respect and influence. So, too, would the assumption of dictatorial authority by a leader who usually offers workers free choice of the methods of getting a job completed. (Bittel) Additionally, many employees view this style as a compromise approach and consider the leader as being somewhat weak. Task-oriented Task-oriented leadership is similar to autocratic leadership in that the manager assumes that since she is in a management position she has the best viewpoint on what needs to be done, and thus, superior decision-making ability. Her role is to make the decisions as she sees fit and then take the steps necessary to see that the subordinates carry it out, although it differs from a purely autocratic leadership style in that it is not as forceful or demanding.

This model relies on the oftentimes-faulty presumption that a financial reward or threat of punishment (discipline) is sufficient motivation for the employees. In the current work environment that is oftentimes complex and subject to rapid change, the purely task-oriented and autocratic approaches have become less favored and utilized with the trend to move away from these leadership styles. Follower-oriented Follower-oriented leadership is similar to participative leadership and its concepts. A follower-oriented manager strives to learn which kind of motivation is most attractive for the employees and then provides it.

However, this approach soon becomes manipulation, not unlike the carrot-and-stick features of autocratic leadership. It does allow the leader the show consideration for subordinates, however, it does not truly establish a climate wherein employees can use their own judgment as to how best to pursue company goals. This style is most suitable for short-term projects where relationships will not continue for long as the employees will soon begin to feel manipulated and the approach loses its influence. It is least suitable in situations that clearly favor the autocratic approach.

Considerate Considerate leadership is very closely related to the participative leadership style and, in fact, many times these styles will be used interchangeably. However, in this style, the leader’s concern for people goes beyond a wish to satisfy their immediate interests. It seeks to establish long-term, productive relationships based on a genuine concern for their immediate needs and also their personal development at work. It is not, simply, a “make everybody happy” approach. Considerate managers will make their satisfaction or dissatisfaction known to the employees.

These managers show concern not by attempting to satisfy every worker’s wish, but by confronting their subordinates with their views and by challenging them with broadening, but attainable, assignments. This approach is most suitable when used in conjunction with a task-oriented approach. The leader asks for performance improvements while showing the workers respect and consideration. This style is least suitable for managers who do not have confidence in their employees’ capabilities and trustworthiness.

Nor does it work in an environment where tasks are highly structured and limited and company-dictated procedures are required. Inductive Inductive leadership is another name for the work design technique. It is also known as “work facilitating”. In an inductive leadership approach, the manager encourages the arrangement of the work process so as to allow employees a maximum amount of self-government or self-discipline. It is directly related to the considerate approach. Inductive leadership works best in conjunction with a combination of the consideration-oriented and task-oriented approaches.

It is least suited to managers who are autocratic by nature and who are uncomfortable with participative or consideration-oriented approaches to leadership. Leadership by Objectives Leadership by objectives (LBO) is a carefully programmed form of delegation. It is appropriate only with subordinates who are fully mature. It has strong task orientation, modified slightly by consideration orientation. The techniques of Leadership by objectives vary somewhat in detail, but very little in principle. Every LBO program has three key phases: ) Mutual agreement between leader and subordinate about specific goals and objectives. Even though the focus is on task performance, there is a degree of negotiation involved that requires sensitive consideration by the top leader. The leader cannot press for objectives that are beyond the capacity of the subordinate. Also, the leader must be prepared to provide resources that are needed to achieve the objectives. b) Freedom for the subordinate to pursue the objectives in any reasonable manner. The responsibility for goal attainment is fully delegated at this point.

The subordinate’s role is wholly task oriented in this context. c) Periodic measurement of the subordinate’s progress toward the objectives. Rarely are intervals shorter than one month. Reviews each three months are more common, and many programs have only a year-end reckoning. There is some resemblance between LBO and work design (inductive) leadership techniques. While not exactly alike, both techniques remove the key leader from the subordinate’s work scene once goals have been agreed upon. LBO has been most effective in the higher echelons with functional leaders or key officers of the company.

It is not particularly suitable with first-line leaders and rarely effective for the rank-and-file employees whereas the work design orientation is most effective in those settings. Assessing Your Leadership Style Contemporary Management Theories Contemporary theories of management tend to account for and help interpret the rapidly changing nature of today’s organizational environments. Contingency Theory Basically, contingency theory asserts that when leaders make a decision, they must take into account all aspects of the current situation and act on those aspects that are key to the situation at hand.

Basically, it’s the approach that “it depends. ” For example, the continuing effort to identify the best leadership or management style might now conclude that the best style depends on the situation at hand, it could be decided that when there is crisis, an autocratic style is probably best. However, if one is the head of a hospital or university, then a more participative or facilitative style will probably be selected as the best one to utilize. Chaos Theory Chaos theory is exactly what you would expect it to be. That is, chaos theory recognizes that events are random and can rarely be controlled.

Theorists subscribing to this idea believe that systems (organizations) will naturally tend to go towards becoming more complex. As this natural complexity continues, the system in question becomes more volatile and unstable and must expend a greater amount of energy (resources) to overcome this instability and remain whole. Inevitably, however, the system (organization) will not have the energy (resources) required to maintain stability and the system will split, possibly combining with another complex system or disintegrating (closing down). Types of Leadership Skills II. The Leader as a Person of Vision A.

Definition : {Nanus} A vision is a realistic, credible, attractive future for your organization. It is your articulation of a destination toward which your organization should aim, a future that in important ways is better, more successful, or more desirable for your organization than presently. [an example is the U. S. Constitution, which is the founding fathers’ vision for America, setting a clear direction and defining values but not specifying how to get there. {8} Vision always deals with the future. Indeed, vision is where tomorrow begins, for it expresses what you and others who share the vision will be working hard to create.

Those who take the time to systematically think about the future and who base their strategies and actions on their visions will find that they have an inordinate power to shape the future. {8} A vision is only an idea or an image of a more desirable future for the organization, but the right vision is an idea so energizing that it in effect jump-starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents and resources to make it happen. Talented people and investors always want to be where the action is, and the great leaders show them where that is by providing visions of a better tomorrow. 8] Vision plays an important role not only in the start-up phase of an organization but throughout the organization’s entire life cycle. Vision is a signpost pointing the way for all that need to understand what the organization is and where it intends to go. Sooner or later, the time will come when an organization needs redirection or perhaps a complete transformation and then the first step should always be a new vision, a wake-up call to everyone involved with the organization that fundamental change is needed and is on the way. [9]

The leader as a person of vision must fulfill four roles; direction setter, change agent, spokesperson, and coach. If you are successful as a direction setter, you will have established a vision so compelling that everyone in the organization will want to help make it happen. The leader is also responsible for catalyzing changes in the internal environment—for example, in personnel, resources, and facilities —to make the vision achievable in the future. To be a good change agent, you must be able to anticipate developments in the outside world, assess their implications for your organization, create the sense of urgency and priority or changes that your vision requires in light of these developments, promote experimentation, and empower people to make the necessary changes. You must also be able to build flexibility into your organization and operations and encourage prudent risk taking. [14] The leader –as a skilled speaker, a concerned listener, and the very embodiment of the organization’s vision—is the chief advocate and negotiator for the organization and its vision. You—and your vision—must become both the medium and the message that expresses what is worthwhile, attractive, and exciting about the future of your organization. 14] [lee Iacocca example] The leader is a team builder who empowers individuals in the organization and passionately “lives the vision,” thereby serving as a mentor and example for those whose efforts are necessary to make the vision become reality. Creating a vision The Leader as a Person of Integrity Often admired and always respected, the person with integrity faces many of the same difficulties and opportunities others do, but somehow negotiates his way through life’s bends and snags on a higher plane and above the confusion that engulfs those of less solid character.

Where others stumble or fall because of character flaws, this person is able to stride more freely. {171} There is wholeness in what the person with integrity says and does. There is consistency between his actions and what he purports to honor. He pursues his aims along the high road and is uninterrupted and undiminished by temptations for quick or easy personal gain. He seems undisturbed by the opinions others hold or express about him and what he honors.

His upright conduct is made possible through steadfast adherence to unbending principles and standards, and his character is marked by an undaunted quest for important ends far larger than his own needs, comfort, and interests. {171} What he did in the past is consistent with who he is now and what he can be expected to be in the future. And because of his steady approach to life along these paths, others recognize him as being incorruptible and worthy of their confidence and respect. “Integrity” comes from the Latin term “integritas”, meaning, whole, complete. The person with integrity is undivided.

His standards and actions are sound, and they are one. This person is consistent in what he says and what he does. {171} Character is the guide rails you place on your day-to-day decisions, the lines you draw in the sand, which you will not cross – no matter what. Most people remember the major decisions in their lives, the ones that appear to have the greatest risk, and judge and justify their lives on the basis and outcome of such decisions. But it is in the minor decisions, the day-to-day decisions you make as a leader that truly determine how others judge you and how you can truly judge yourself. misc} Major decisions involving ethical behavior are easy. The magnitude of the problem strips away the myriad of issues surrounding the decision and raises your core values quickly to the surface. For example, assuming you value your marriage and find yourself having to make a decision to leave work on time because your spouse threatened to file for divorce if you don’t. However, making such a decision on your own without threats because you decide early on in life that your marriage is more important than your job is a true sign of inner strength and character. misc} Fail to keep information told to you in confidence and you will be viewed as untrustworthy. Make a promise to follow up on an issue important to one of you subordinates but forget it and you diminish the value of your word. Such an individual may have been given the title of leadership by the people but will never earn the respect of their subordinates. True leaders define the parameters by which they choose to live their lives and then ensure every decision they make stays within the lines. {misc} {Bennis} The third basic ingredient of leadership is integrity.

There are three essential parts of integrity: (1) self-knowledge, (2) candor, and (3) maturity. Self-knowledge – This is perhaps the most difficult task any of us can undertake. It is, however, the most important. Until you truly know yourself, your strengths and weaknesses, know what you want to do and why you want to do it, you will be unable to truly succeed. The leader never lies to himself, especially about himself. He knows his flaws and his assets and confronts them directly. When you know what you are made of and what you want to be, you can then begin to reinvent yourself into that mold.

This is how true change is accomplished. “It is not only the most difficult thing to know oneself, but the most inconvenient one too”, by John Billings. Candor – The key to self-knowledge. Candor is based in honesty of thought and action, a steadfast devotion to principle, and a fundamental soundness and wholeness. Maturity – Is important because, leading is not simply issuing orders or showing the way to do something. Every leader needs to have learned to be dedicated, observant, capable of working with and learning from others, never servile, always truthful.

Once realizing and mastering these qualities in him, the leader can than encourage them in others. There are four ingredients leaders have to generate and sustain trust: 1) consistency – whatever surprises leaders themselves may face, they don’t create any for the group. Leaders are all of a piece, they stay the course. 2) Congruity Leaders walk their talk. In true leaders, there is no gap between the theories they espouse and the life they practice. (3) Reliability Leaders are there when it counts, they are ready to support their co-workers in the moments that matter. (4)Integrity. Leaders honor their commitments and promises.

Trust makes and satisfying relationships possible; business could not flourish without it. Virtually every move made in business— every decision, every deal, and every action— rests on trust. If employees don’t trust the organization, they really aren’t going to give their best. And they are going to look around and feel that they would really rather work someplace else. If the clients or consumers don’t trust the organization, the product or the service, they are going to buy something else or from someone else. {215} Integrity is the basis of trust, which is not necessarily an ingredient of leadership but a product.

Trust is one quality that cannot be acquired and, instead, must be earned. It is what is given to the leader from co-workers and followers, and without it, the leader simply cannot function. Trust is achieved through a clear commitment to high ethical standards, thorough and consistent honesty and honest dealings, consistency in actions and steadiness in living up to promises and commitments made. B. Accountable Accountability implies superior-subordinate relationships and the exercise of authority from the top down to maintain the flow of work toward the achievement of mandated goals.

Accountability if the means for ensuring the fulfillment of obligation in a hierarchical structure. {60} First, leaders are most immediately responsible to their people for carrying out their directives, or mutually agreed-upon goals, and for the conduct of their actions. They must be able to explain their conduct, and allocation of time and other resources, as consistent with the work plan and objectives of the country, whether this result from orders originated in a strict hierarchical fashion, or from some collaborative decision-making process. 60} Leaders must direct the activities of those under their leadership, provide resources for accomplishing the work, delegate adequate authority for assigned duties, and monitor performance. They in turn are held accountable for how their subordinate’s use the resources provided and exercise their delegated authority towards completion of the project. {60} It is also important to remember that accountability includes not only the practical but the ethical as well.

In fact, although the responsible leader must be prepared to answer for conduct from both perspectives, it is the ethical accountability that must finally prevail. Generally, we should assume that a leader will be expected to explain actions from a practical perspective in terms such as cost effectiveness, efficiency, economy, feasibility, and productivity, and from an ethical perpesctive according to values and principles such as equity, equality, freedom, truthfulness, beneficence, human dignity, privacy, and democracy.

The practicality of conduct is never sufficient in and of itself. Unless a course of action can be adequately explained on ethical grounds, it is not a responsible act. The full meaning of responsibility requires this ethical as well as practical accountability. {62} The Leader as a Recruiter “Our greatest resource is our people” After years of glossing over the importance of the “people factor” as a primary determinant of organizational success, employers are finally recognizing the value of employees as a crucial resource. 1} Recruiting is a complex process involving compromise among numerous competing goals, which may include: (1) attracting high-quality applicants, (2) recruiting candidates who eventually will be promotable, (3) attracting individuals who will remain with the organization for a reasonable period of time, (4) conducting a recruitment process that is legally sound, (5) fulfilling affirmative action obligations, (6) filling positions quickly, (7) minimizing recruitment costs. {13} The best hiring decisions and ultimately the best employment relationships begin with a thorough, well-designed recruitment process.

It should be reflective of the population of the community, the organizational culture, and the needs of the department. {misc} This human resource planning enables an employer to systematically (1) analyze plans to establish future human resource requirements, (2) estimate future human resource availabilities, (3) reconcile requirements and availabilities, and (4) formulate action plans that will, if properly implemented, contribute to the achievement of business plans” [Heneman et al. 1989, p. 204] The first human resource planning function is projecting staffing needs.

In order to accomplish this, an organization simply must be able to estimate the types of positions it will need at various points in the future and the number and type of individuals it will need in those positions. Although this can be found utilizing complex statistical techniques, most employers have relied on the intuitive judgment of managers. {24} In addition to projecting staffing needs, the human resource planning process also requires that an organization estimate the number of employees who will be available for each of the positions at the point or points in time under consideration.

In making such predictions, those involved must consider both the organization’s current labor force and its external labor market. There are several steps involved in making an accurate forecast of human resource availability for a given position. First, an accurate count must be made of the number of employees in the position at the start of the planning period. Next, anticipated losses from this employee group during the course of the planning period must be considered. Among the common causes of staff losses are retirements, transfers, voluntary turnover, terminations, and promotions.

Following this, an employer must forecast staff gains during the planning period as a result of such factors as lateral transfers, promotions, demotions, and normal hiring from outside the organization. Incorporating information about current staffing levels with predicted staff losses and gains enable an organization to develop an estimate of staff availability for a given position at some future point in time. {24} Once information concerning projected staffing needs and availability has been gathered, it should be systematically analyzed to determine projected discrepancies and the reasons underlying such discrepancies.

For some positions, an employer may discover that an employee shortage is predicted, for others, a surplus of employees may be predicted. {25} If an organization discovers a sizable discrepancy between its projected personnel needs and personnel availability for a given position, it may be able to gain insight into possible actions it could take by studying the various factors (turnover rates, increased staffing needs, etc. ) that entered into its forecasts.

For example, if an organization forecasts a shortage of twenty employees in a given position four years from now, it could try to reduce the number of people leaving the position (by, say, improving working conditions to lessen voluntary turnover), or attempt to increase the flow of individuals into the job (by encouraging job retraining and offering lateral transfers) or both. The organization could also try to reduce the number of individuals it will require in the future by relying more heavily on automation, improving the productivity of its current work force, and so on. 25} By carefully considering the relative influence of each factor that affects staff availability, an organization might determine that only a small number of factors are expected to have much impact. Once these factors are identified, the organization is better able to formulate a sound action plan for reducing or eliminating the forecasted discrepancy. {25} C. Internal versus external recruitment to fill job vacancies. In attempting to fill vacant positions that are above the entry level, a fundamental decision must be made as to whether to recruit internally or externally. 28} the decision an organization makes will affect various aspects of recruitment planning and strategy development. Not surprisingly, there are relative advantages and disadvantages to both recruitment orientations. {30} One of the first obvious advantages of internal recruitment over external recruitment is the fact that it is easier to evaluate the qualifications and relevant job skills of internal candidates simply because there is more information available on internal candidates such as job reviews and other performance comments.

Additionally, internal job candidates are generally more familiar with organizational policies, procedures, norms, logistics, products, and key decision makers; thus, they need less transition time to become effective in the position(s) being filled. Another strong advantage is that internal recruitment is generally less expensive due to the limited advertisement of the position and manpower expended for job fairs and recruiting trips. Most surveys published regarding hiring indicate that it costs roughly $5,000 to hire for a professional position. SH – 52} Further, job openings can generally be filled much more quickly with internal recruitment. Finally, by promoting deserving individuals from within can motivate other employees by convincing them that hard work is indeed rewarded. {30} Among the potential advantages of an external recruiting orientation is that an employee from “outside” can expose an organization to new ideas or innovations. Also, by recruiting external job candidates, an employer may be able to reduce the need for expensive development and training activities.

Bringing an external candidate from the outside may eliminate the need to upset (or disrupt) a well-functioning organizational hierarchy. On some occasions, there simply are no viable internal candidates. {30} When deciding how to go about filling positions, an employer should carefully weigh the relative advantages of relying on any particular recruitment philosophy. While in some instances, it may be best to rely heavily on external recruitment (a small company that cannot afford the developmental activities a promote-from-within philosophy may require).

In other cases, a strong internal recruitment strategy may be best (large company that wants to develop in its employees a particular set of corporate values). For some organizations, a strategy that combines both approaches to recruitment may be the best. [recruit for areas that you don’t develop well in and others do]. {34} D. Recruitment Planning: Recruitment planning is taking the general information from the human resource planning process (such as the number of likely vacancies, information about the general nature of these openings) and turning it into specific recruitment objectives.

Although there is no exact way to determine optimum strategies for recruiting, you should develop a plan to approaching applicant pools. {SH – 49} Now although it is possible for an organization to move directly from the human resource planning stage to the recruitment planning stage, the benefits of a careful consideration of the organization’s recruitment philosophy cannot be easily overlooked. {34} The recruitment planning process should address at least two key issues: the basic job specifications for the position to be filled and approximately how many contacts will need to be made to fill all vacancies. 35} In order to develop and effective recruitment strategy, the recruiters must have a clear understanding of the knowledge, skills, abilities, experience, credentials, certifications, and/or personal characteristics such as race or sex that are required for an individual to be considered for a job vacancy. This type of information can be important for such basic recruitment decisions as determining what information to communicate in a job advertisement and deciding where to look for employees, as well as for choosing which of the resumes submitted by applicants should be passed along to a hiring manager. 35} -Estimated number of contacts needed- When attempting to fill job vacancies, organizations typically find that some job candidates are unqualified while others lose interest in the positions for which they applied or are hired by other companies or into other vacancies. Thus, an employer will most likely need many more employee prospects than it has positions to fill. Failure to accurately predict the ration of the number of applicants to the number of hires can result in problems for the organization.

For example, if an employer underestimates the number of applicants who must be recruited, it may end up not being able to fill all of its job openings in the time frame desired, or it may be forced to hire individuals who are seen as less than fully qualified for the vacant positions. On the other end, if the organization overestimates the number of applicants needed, it will waste both time and money in recruiting more candidates than were needed. {35} E. Recruitment Strategy:

Once an organization has completed the recruitment planning process, it now should have a clear idea of how many and what type of recruits it requires. With this basic information in hand, the employer next needs to develop a strategy for recruiting the required number and types of job candidates that have been identified. To develop a well-thought-out recruitment strategy, there are six key considerations: where to recruit, whom to recruit, how to recruit, when to recruit, who recruits, and what information will be presented to the recruits. {39} where} Unfortunately, there is relatively little data for an organization to use when deciding where to recruit. In some cases, an employer may be able to use its own past recruitment experiences in making decisions. For example, if in the past an organization has place job advertisements in newspapers in several major cities, it can examine the applicant yield from each newspaper advertisement. In other cases, an organization may be able to make sound recruitment judgements by staying abreast of the employment trends in other areas of the county.

For example, during the late 1970s several companies in the Southwestern United States successfully recruited in midwestern states suffering from the economic recession in the auto industry. {40} {whom}In order to translate its recruitment philosophy into a concrete recruitment strategy for filling a given job opening, an organization should make a conscious decision about what specific groups to target. The failure of an organization to systematically determine from which group or groups it will try to recruit can lead to wasted recruitment efforts (for example, placing advertisements in more outlets than is necessary). 41} Many of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various sources of recruits are obvious, as in targeting members of protected groups to reduce affirmative action pressure. In selecting a source of recruits, an organization’s choice should be consistent with its recruitment philosophy whenever possible although there may be cases where inconsistency is necessary. For example, in attempting to fill a given position, an employer that has a strong internal recruitment orientation may be unable to find an internal candidate with the appropriate level of qualifications. 41} {How} Once an employer has determined from what source or sources it will recruit, it next needs to decide how it will attempt to reach the prospective employees in the given labor market segment(s). Among the many recruitment tools available to the employer are advertising, employee referrals, and special events, recruiting at schools, employment agencies, executive search firms, job postings and direct applications. {42} Newspaper advertising is one of the most common means of informing potential candidates of job vacancies and can be used in filling a wide range of jobs.

There are also professional magazines and technical journals that can be utilized for publicizing job openings that may require somewhat specialized expertise. However, as competition to fill certain types of positions has increased, organizations will have to utilize less traditional types of advertising such as radio, television, direct mail campaigns and the internet in advertising job opportunities. {42} {SH – 75} Another method commonly relied upon by employers as a source for qualified job candidates is referrals made by current employees.

Some organizations even offer cash incentives for referring someone who is eventually hired. Although employee referral programs have several positive attributes in that they are generally an inexpensive and quick way to fill vacant positions, there is the possible downside that minorities and women may be underrepresented in the applicant pool. {42} Recruiting at schools, like many other things, has its definite advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, employers can interview for a wide variety of positions from office and clerical positions to white-collar positions.

Additionally, a large number of potential employees can be quickly screened and interviewed within a small time frame at little cost. However, these interviews may tend to be too quick with time restrictions built into the schedule. Additionally, most will not have much, if any, experience that limits their effectiveness to only that of entry-level positions. An employer can take several steps to improve the yield of applicants from school visits. Of particular importance is an examination of its past recruitment experience at an institution.

Such an analysis may make an employer aware that few job candidates have resulted from a given school or that those candidates recruited were not effective employees. {42} An organization can also use public and private employment agencies in attempting to fill vacancies. Most public employment agencies are operated under the auspices of the United States Training and Employment Service (USTES). These organizations generally serve as a clearinghouse for recruiting clerical and blue-collar employees.

Private agencies not only can provide candidates for lower-level jobs, but can also be a source for lower- and mid-level management candidates. However, in contrast to most public agencies, which provide referrals at no cost to the employer, private agencies generally charge the employer if any of the individuals they refer are hired. On the plus side, both agencies typically have a backlog of individuals seeking employment, which means that they can supply an employer with a list of job candidates rather quickly.

Additionally, these candidates usually have been at least minimally screened so that the candidates should have at least the necessary qualifications for the position being offered. {43} Executive search firms are geared toward providing employers with upper-level managers. Generally, it is the executive search firm that contacts the targeted professionals who can be lured away to a more challenging and lucrative position. {43} for most companies, the use of an executive search firm should strictly limited to filling senior-level positions.

Although not as commonly used as the other recruitment methods, organizations have begun to experiment with special event recruiting methods to fill positions including job fairs, career days, and open houses. Special event recruiting can be effective for publicizing the organization as a place of employment and can be an effective method of stimulating interest from groups of people who may otherwise be difficult to attract. {city example} {43} Organizations have relied heavily on direct applications for almost every type of position offered within the company.

An obvious advantage of direct applications is that they involve very little expense on the part of the employer. Although unsolicited applications may seem like a burden when no job vacancies exist, given their benefits with almost no downside, most organizations should welcome such applications. To generate a consistent flow of direct applications, an organization’s visibility and reputation are crucial – it is not enough to be known; an employer also must have a positive image. {44} It is difficult to attract applications when those in the targeted groups are not aware the company exists.

It is even more difficult when they have a negative perception of what it is like to work for your organization. {SH – 57} when The resource planning process should have established a time frame for filling job openings. In terms of developing a recruitment strategy, a key issue is when to start recruiting so that positions are filled timely. If the organization delays in the recruitment process, it may find that it is unable to fill openings with qualified individuals by the desired date.

Thus, the organization may be forced to decide between leaving positions vacant for a while and hiring applicants who are less than fully qualified. Conversely, if the organization starts the recruiting process too early, it may find that it has to hire candidates before they are actually needed or risk losing desirable candidates due to the time delay in making the hiring decisions. {44} To help make informed decisions about when to begin the recruitment process, a careful analysis of prior recruitment experiences can prove to be very useful.

That is, by examining the average time that elapsed between the various decision points in filling a position in the past, an organization may be able to derive a reasonable estimate of how much time it should allow for filling a similar position in the future. For example, if after reviewing past data an employer may find that the average time between a job being advertised and the accumulation of a sufficient number of responses from qualified individuals is fourteen days.

Additionally, the organization determines that interviews for all of the individuals can be completed within ten days. Finally, an organization could determine that it took 14 days from the time an offer was made for it to be accepted and have the employee report to work. By adding up the average amount of time between each stage of the recruitment process, this organization could determine that, on average, it needed roughly 38 days to begin the recruitment activities. {45} who

Since a key function of a recruiter is to provide a job candidate with information relevant to making a job-choice decision, it should be obvious that those involved in recruiting should be quite knowledgeable concerning both the job under consideration and the organization as a whole. However, it is not enough that the recruiter be knowledgeable. The recruiter must also be able to communicate the information effectively. {personable, etc} {46} what Another factor to consider in developing a recruitment strategy is exactly what information the organization is going to communicate to prospective employees.

At least four important issues warrant consideration in regards to the information to be communicated to those being recruited. These include: what topics to cover; how much information to present on each topic; should the information be presented in a broad format or should the information be custom-tailored to the specific position being filled; and, whether the information conveyed should be presented realistically or sugarcoated to present a flattering view of the job vacancy. Writing a job notice is like writing an advertisement.

The description must sell the job in the best light possible. At the same time it must be honest and accurate. {SH – 76} By knowing both the amount and type of information it wants to convey, those involved in recruiting should be able to improve the quality of the job advertisements, the recruitment literature, the job fair presentations and the recruitment interviews. {47} The Leader as a Motivator Effective coaches use problems and opportunities that crop up on the job as chances to work with people to build added skills and motivation.

They don’t just solve today’s work problems, they use them as opportunities to develop greater strengths in their people for the future. {1} A major difference between highly effective leaders and merely adequate leaders and managers is the importance they attach to coaching and developing people in tough situations. Good leaders are highly sought after for one simple reason: they get more done with the same or fewer resources. For some leaders, it is enough to merely point out performance discrepancies to employees and urge them to shape up. Good leaders go far beyond that. 2} Leaders and managers who coach well consciously get their employees to examine their own performance and then get them to plan for ways to work smarter. Coaches make good use of informal work progress discussions, formal performance reviews, and the numerous impromptu “coachable” moments that occur regularly in the course of a workday, to collaborate with employees in developing their potential. They stress the importance of analyzing personal performance and taking steps to make it better. At the same time, in the way they work with their employees they model exactly how to go about improving performance. 2} When you take a coaching approach to being a frontline leader, you continually build up the skill and motivation base of your employees. The result is more highly skilled and multiskilled employees who can provide the flexibility and built-in extra resources your team needs. Not only do your employees become more willing and capable, but also your time is freed up to devote to other leadership activities. {2} In addition, by working to integrate the needs of the country with the development needs of your people, you tap into their inherent, self-driven motivation to personally succeed.

The work you assign will start becoming as important to your people as it is to you. Ultimately, the consequences of not coaching are that the non-coaches and their organizations suffer because their players are not as skilled or motivated as they could be. People are underutilized and simply do just enough to get by. {2} Coaching is an ongoing effort on your part to help your people reach their full potential. This can mean helping a poor performer improve, helping your best performer being even better, or helping others acquire skills that will give them increased opportunities. 9} No leader who is truthful will say that coaching people is an easy job. All the conflicting demands on your time can combine to make it easy to put off developing your people until tomorrow. However, the most effective leaders and managers see developing people as a key leadership responsibility. The best leaders view coaching people as a central measure of their own performance. {9} Ironically, the leader is the most dependent person on the team. The higher one’s position, the more people a person needs to hold him or her up. Leaders are dependent upon those whom they lead.

The leader’s success is based on the performance of those he or she leads. When the teammates are motivated to work together to achieve the team’s goals, the leader becomes successful. However, when the members of the team are immersed in conflict, miscommunication, or misunderstanding, a different type of motivation exists – negative motivation. Negative motivation is seen in a selfish, narrow-minded desire to prove someone wrong and a feeling of personal martyrdom. These misdirected motivations waste energies that could be used constructively instead of in destructive directions.

Both the team and the leader lose. By default, the leader is the most likely candidate to take the responsibility for initiating plans to resolve the differences among people. The leader has the most to lose. Differences result from the “private logic” held by each member. The task of the leader is to bring together the private logic of many to form a common sense. {56} Even the most highly motivated leader is cognizant of the fact that resolving differences of private logic is no easy task. The job is especially formidable when you consider the natural disagreements that tend to occur.

In larger developed countries, the private logic of individuals snowballs into a limited group logic that makes the issue even more complex. Unfortunately, the energy that is diverted to build stronger arguments in support of one’s own private logic or the limited group logic is energy that could be used to achieve common team goals. {56} Encourage participation and creativity Encourage creativity and innovation. Give credit for suggestions; your recognition promotes pride, which is the key to quality performance. —————–empowerment to people ————–sets goals and standards —————provides employee performance evaluations ————–provides incentive and rewards program Recognize and reward employees’ achievements, both individually and total team efforts. Schedule regular recognition meetings to commend employees. Recognize outstanding performance, read commendation letters from customers, allow time for people to say thanks to someone who went out of their way to help another employee. Praise your employees for they’re outside achievements as well. {Weiss} {4}

Designate a bulletin board to post your team’s achievements, both in exceeding organization commitments and in recognizing outstanding individual performance. If the budget allows, you can offer compensation to reward employees such as with a small bonus or extra time off with pay. If the budget or time constraints are limited, you can do something smaller like treat the employee to lunch or give them a movie or restaurant certificate. Encourages professional development: One of the most effective ways to improve employees’ performance is to raise their skill level.

This can be accomplished through a comprehensive training program ensuring each employee is knowledgeable and capable of efficiently performing the job. A continuous education program should be a major part of a program designed to also improve the company’s performance. You must first determine the existing knowledge and skill of each employee and then identify their specific training needs. It pays to also develop a method for continual evaluation of skill levels along with establishing training standards. A standard lists the training requirements as behavioral or performance objectives for each position in the organization.

The best training programs require both development of general and specific courses; qualified trainers should present them. Training materials include texts, workbooks, manuals, reference materials, transparencies and video or audiotapes. Usually, classroom training alone is not enough to ensure employees acquire the usable skills needed on their jobs. Therefore, classroom training should be augmented with practical or hands-on training. Practical training consists of workshop and on-the-job instruction conducted by the applicable department with assistance from the training department.

The training departments should give hands-on training, an extension of the classroom training,; this training normally proceeds at the trainee’s own rate of learning. Training efforts should focus on mastery of the job. Be careful of training courses that result in only short-term retention of information and procedures. What frequently happens with these programs is many of the trainees will pass the course, but few will retain the knowledge long enough to apply it on the job. Conflict Manager – Few people enjoy dealing with conflict.

In fact, most of us try to avoid it, but ignoring conflict will not make it go away. Although many people and organizations view conflict as an activity that is usually negative and should be avoided, conflict is a natural result of people working together. Just because people are members of the same team at work does not mean they will get along with one another or they will agree with one another in specific situations. Conflict in teams can be caused by a difference in values, attitudes, needs, expectations, perception, personalities and resources. {capozzoli – 15}

Without conflict, complacency in teams can occur and the development of the team and/or the team member can be seriously impeded. The fact is, everyone in your organization should know how to effectively deal with conflict when it erupts in the workplace – because most likely it will. {misc} However, many people who work in teams have never been taught how to deal with conflict and controversy effectively. Appropriate skills in dealing with conflict can help teams and anyone else in the organization to deal with and effectively resolve disagreements that ultimately will lead to an overall more productive organization as a whole. Capozzoli –14} Boulding (1962) defines conflict as, “a situation of competition in which the parties are aware of the incompatibility of potential future positions and in which each party wishes to occupy a position which is incompatible with the wishes of the other. ” Theoretically, conflict is neither good nor bad. Conflict is not something that is a tangible product but it lies in the minds of the people who are parties to it. However, it does become tangible when it manifests itself in bitter arguments, lowered morale, and a decline in productivity.

The problem lies with the inability for people to manage and resolve it effectively. {Capozzoli – 14} If managed effectively, you can learn to make conflict work toward your advantage and be a constructive force rather than a destructive force. The mainstream culture of most American organizations is based on individualism and competition. These two ingredients do not make for an easy method to resolve conflicts, which occurs in teams. However, productive conflict resolution involves learning how to disagree over issues and situations and coming up with a solution that can benefit the entire team. Cap – 15} Leader as a Mentor, read my paper on mentor Leader as a Disciplinarian A. Ensures achievement of organizational goals B. Follows a progressive employee discipline procedure The progressive discipline process is designed to allow the leader to communicate the behavioral or performance deficiency to the employee when the problem occurs, to remind them about their responsibilities, and reiterate expectations for successful job performance. In a progressive discipline system, the severity of the penalty increases with each occurrence of a performance or behavioral deficiency.

This process allows the employee every opportunity to choose to take personal responsibility for correcting their deficiencies and to meet the clear expectations of their job or face further progressive disciplinary measures, which can include termination of employment. {misc} A progressive discipline policy provides the organization with a system that is fair and easily defensible against a third party challenge and protects the organization’s investment in its employees to a reasonable extent.

It also requires that all supervisors be trained, fully knowledgeable of the policy, and willing to assume responsibility for administering the discipline steps consistently and fairly. The employee is given a clear explanation regarding the concern or issue and adequate time to improve or change behavior. {misc} Another benefit of a consistent discipline system is its effect on other members of the staff. Employees will see the action that has been taken with the poor performer as a signal to them that the organization does not tolerate unacceptable behavior or shoddy work.

And the more important message to them is that supervisors will confront these unpleasant facts and situations of organizational life, and employees who do not carry their fair share of the work load will not be allowed to slough it off on their more committed and effective co-workers. {misc} It is vitally important that a leader document every aspect of all employees’ job performance for which they are responsible. The documentation may consist of a memo describing a meeting or even handwritten notes and dates of discussions. The employee should receive a copy of all performance documentation such as progress reviews and annual evaluations.

The file must clearly show and reflect that an employee deserved to be disciplined or terminated. {misc} In determining whether to take a corrective or disciplinary action, the leader should: 1) consider whether the action is consistent with what they have done with other employees and with their previous treatment of the employee; 2) make sure they apply the same standards and that they are not letting someone else with the same type of problem “get away with it”; and (3) be consistent with the same employee, do not file corrective actions one week and give the employee and acceptable annual performance rating the following week. misc} Make sure the employee knows, or had the opportunity to know that a given action or behavior was inappropriate. Make sure departmental rules and standards are available to the employee in writing and are made available to all employees in the unit. {misc} It is the clarification of high standards and expectations of employee work behavior and performance that ultimately contribute to achieving the organizational goals, improving employee performance, and rehabilitating or removing poor performers.

Employee productivity directly effects the organizations effectiveness, and it is the leader’s responsibility to seek constant improvement in thee performance of all employees and to identify poor performers for appropriate action when necessary. {misc} Guidelines (B-2) Of course, some behaviors may be so flagrant and serious (i. e. , criminal or violent acts) that immediate drastic action is necessary. However, in the majority of cases progressive discipline works the best in handling problem employees. The usual steps in a sequential disciplinary process are: 1) an oral reprimand; 2) a written reprimand; 3) suspension; and, 4) termination.

The Anatomy of Leadership, by Baimba Kamara. Jd. (Law)

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