Chapter 1 The Problem and its Background Introduction The term RFID refers to Radio Frequency Identification, a technology which uses radio waves to automatically identify items or people. Most commonly this involves the use of an RFID tag and a reader device. In general terms, Radio Frequency Identification systems consist of an RFID tag (typically many tags) and an interrogator or reader. The interrogator emits a field of electromagnetic waves from an antenna, which are absorbed by the tag. The absorbed energy is used to power the tag’s microchip and a signal that includes the tag identification number is sent back to the interrogator.
The use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. Some tags require no battery and are powered and read at short ranges via magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). Backround of the Study Tanauan Institute has already been using the Library System. Since the institution is already using such technology, these will be the first time for the institution to use Radio Frequency Identification.
The researchers thought of maximizing its use by creating a system that will track the students who borrowed books, which will be having RFID stickers for monitoring purposes, in the library. Currently, the school’s library is using the “Library System” in monitoring the books, which has a number of limitations. It is not capable of generating reports that can determine the books that are mostly borrowed which can help them decide on the number of a particular book they will be purchasing in the future. It is also using Microsoft Visual Basic for the system’s database which can only store very limited information.
On the other hand, the system that the library is using in recording the attendance of the users cannot help them in identifying the library users of the month. The librarians need to manually count the number of times each student had logged in the system. Lastly, they have also no means of reminding the library users regarding their borrowed book Statement of the Problem Not capable of generating reports that can determine the books that are mostly borrowed. No means of reminding the library users regarding about their borrowed books. Manual counting the number of times each student had logged in the system. Objectives of the Study
Generally, the researchers aim to design and develop a system that would enhance the use of the current Library System with the help of RFID in the said Institute. Specifically, the study aims to: Design and develop a system that will generate reports to determine the trend in book borrowing Use MySQL for the system’s database Determine the library users of the month in just a click of a button Remind the students and faculty members regarding their borrowed books Test and evaluate the system’s accuracy and reliability Scope and Delimitation There would be some limitations to the project that should be taken into consideration.
This study limits its coverage to the students of the Tanauan Institute only. It will be conducted for two semesters which consists of 10 months. Two low frequency ACR122U Smart Card Readers will be used for the system: one for the monitoring of books and the other one for the recording of the attendance. The system will be written in Microsoft Visual Basic 2010. The database that will be incorporated with such is Microsoft My SQL. It will execute only in platforms running Windows Operating System. The applications of the system will only cover the monitoring of books and tracking of the borrowers.
Other unavoidable circumstances, such as power interruptions and speed of access, and other more complex areas of RFID Technology, such as securing the data, are no longer part of the study. Conceptual Framework For the researchers to be able to come up with a Radio Frequency Identification Reloading System, they will need very flexible and versatile knowledge in using the VB. NET programming language and in using the MS Server 2008. They will also be needing materials such as ACS Readers, tags which should be compatible with the reader and a desktop running Windows operating system.
The related foreign and local studies and literature would also be of big aid to them because of the given information and problems with solutions of these materials. With all the knowledge, the materials to be used and the related resources, the researchers will need to carefully plan the whole study which is going to be the foundation of their research as a whole, gather and analyze data before they design and code the system. After the coding stage, the researchers need to test and evaluate their study. If necessary, modifications should be done to perfect the system. Conceptual Paradigm
Below is the figure of the conceptual paradigm of the study: NOTE:::: REVISED PARADIGM MAKE A NEW DIAGRAM.. PLACE IT HERE!!!.. Figure 2. Paradigm of the study Definition of Terms Accuracy – is a characteristic of a reliable system achieved from a number of tests and evaluation. Circulation Management – is a division in the library which is in charge of managing the borrowing and the returning of library materials. Collection Management- is a division in the library which is in charge of maintaining the collection of the library materials through adding or updating records.
Database – is an organized collection of data needed for storing, updating, retrieving and viewing information for a particular system. Library Management System – is the system which will be an aid for monitoring the books and tracking and reminding the borrowers in a certain library. Radio Frequency Identification – is one of the newest identification technologies that use electromagnetic fields to transfer and read data that will be integrated by the researchers in this study. Chapter 2 Related Literature and Studies A. Related Literature Foreign Literature
Holloway (June 2006), Microsoft EMEA Manufacturing Industry Solutions Architect, wrote a white paper which explained the components of a basic RFID system and how it works. According to him, an RFID system is composed of three important pieces of equipment such as: (1) a small radio device called a tag, or the transponder, which contains the data, (2) the reader, or the interrogator, that transmits and collects data to be downloaded from and uploaded to the tag, and (3) the host computer installed with an RFID software to process the data into valuable information.
Daniel (2004) summarizes the operation in a basic RFID system as discussed below: First, the tag will enter the RF field of the Reader then, the RF signal will power the Tag that will transmit the ID with other data which, on the other hand, will be sent to the computer by the Reader. Then, the computer will be the one sending data to the Reader which will be transmitted to the tag. In a paper published by Mitrokotsa and Douligeri (2009), “Integrated RFID and Sensor Networks: Architectures and Applications”, they discussed and differentiate RFID and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Technologies.
They also discussed why these technologies should be implemented to various fields of business and their requirements. Since the proponents will be using RFID, the tips, which are proven effective, given in this study on how to have better RFID-based systems will be of big help in conducting their study. Soldatos (2010) formulated a study entitled Rich Client Application for RFID EPCIS Repository wherein he created software which intended to provide a UML-like graphical representation of the business locations, and read points of an enterprise with a more user friendly RFID-based software system.
Dhanalakshmi and Mamatha (n. d. ) wrote a paper wherein they discussed the project that they created entitled “RFID Based Library Management System” which is very similar to the study being conducted by the proponents. In their study’s conclusion, they have indicated and proven that RFID in the library speeds up its transactions such as book borrowing, returning, searching thus enables staff to do more of its responsibilities. Mutigwe and Aghdasi (n. d. also conducted a study entitled “Research Trends in RFID Technology” wherein they have given attention at continuing research activities in the field of RFID and talked about the possible major burdens that RFID Technology is facing today such as privacy, high costs, and social and legal concerns. Local Literature Garcia (2009) made a study, “Student Recognition Using Radio Frequency Identification for Tarlac State University”, which was undertaken to develop a system that would support and improve the current way of identifying students at Tarlac State University.
The system is capable of importing excel files to update student records. Through the images and the information displayed by the system, security officers find it easy to identify the students entering the school campus. Reports can be generated for administration and filing purposes. The concern of security was also addressed because the system can control users and produce integral records. Similar to the study of the proponents, the system that they will create can also generate reports for monitoring and inventory purposes.
Another study which also focused on the record keeping of students who enter and exit the school premises is the “Design of RFID Interface System: A Prototype” conducted by Engr. Dellosa (2007). He designed a circuitry capable of indicating the arrival and departure of the students in such a way that the students can also be notified. He also developed software capable of capturing and recording the student’s names together with their time of arrival and departure within the school premises. B. Related Studies Foreign Studies
A study of Botterman and Oranje (May 2009) entitled “Study on The Requirements and Options For RFID Application in Healthcare” proved that RFID Technology is versatile and can also bring improvements in the field of healthcare. It also proved that the speed of access and speed of processing of transactions, the inventory of equipment, and the monitoring of the patience and employees can be improved by RFID. Lastly, Zherdev (2011) performed a study, “Storing and Reading Sensor Data from Battery Assisted Passive RFID”, which dealt with tags of battery assisted passive-type and ISO 18000-6C standard.
His study evaluated and improved a system designed to transmit information about the bearings status of railway wagons. It is related to this study being conducted by the proponents since they will also be using the passive type of RFID tags. Shariff of Longitude Consultancy Services made a proposal for schools to implement systems incorporated with RFID Technology for attendance monitoring, library management, and logging in school buses. He reasoned out the needs for such advancement which made the proponents more eager in pursuing this study.
Local Studies Studies were not only done in other countries but also in the Philippines as well. Filipinos also hunger for knowledge and improvements in the field of Technology. One of the pioneers in using RFID Technology to make its transactions faster and more efficient is the Mapua Institute of Technology with its Cardinal Plus Model which made many transactions convenient ever since it was introduced to the Institute such as securing student identification upon entering the campus and online grade access of students.
This study is somehow related because both implementation targets are in universities. A study conducted by Balbacal (2005) entitled “Automated Bus Fare System” is related to the system that the researchers is planning to create. In Balbacal’s system, she used reloadable cards which used barcodes in riding a bus and paying for the fare. The amount to be reloaded on a card depends on the user’s capability to pay. However, Aquino et. al’s (October 2009) “Automation of the Movie Theater
Charging Procedures Through the Use of RFID” proved that RFID Technology can also improve the field of entertainment. Their system was able to eliminate queuing problems & improve charging operations of the system implied on improvement in the efficiency, reliability & accuracy of the operation. Even though the field of implementations of their study and the researchers’ are not the same, the purposes of both are identical. The researchers want to eliminate the redundancy in recording the attendance of the students which the existing system is not capable of.
In Villame’s (2010) research entitled “Carrier Suppression Locked Loop Mechanism for UHF RFID Readers”, he made an improvement on the front-end architecture of UHF RFID readers to address the problem of having the performance of the reader limited as the active components in the receiver become saturated due to having the readers being exposed to strong carrier leakage signals because of the antenna reflections and limited isolation of circulators and directional couplers.
This would be of great help but the researchers indicated that other complex aspects of RFID such as isolation of signals will not be covered by this study. Chapter 3 Methodology Research Design In every study, the method of research to be used is very important. The whole study somehow depends on such method because it will determine how the data collected will be handled. The goal is of this method is to acquire accurate and systematic data which are based on facts that can be used in averages, frequencies and similar statistical calculations.
It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. The researchers are also taking into consideration the use of developmental research. In a paper published by James D. Klein et. al, (n. d. ) they define it as studies that involve the production of information with the goal to improve the development of instructional design, development, and evaluation. Such research is based on either situation-speci? c problem solving or generalized inquiry actions. Sampling
The researching process will take place at the Tanauan Institute, a institute located at J. V. Gonzales St. Pagaspas Tanauan City. The researchers have chosen this institution because it is where they are currently studying and it was the first time the school will use the RFID system. Instruments/Tools The primary tools that will be used in gathering the needed information for this study are researching and browsing from the net. The secondary tools will be the related foreign and local literature and studies that the researchers have gathered.
Gathering Data The process of the data we gathered is divided into five phases namely: Identify and Analyze the Requirements. In this phase, the proponents will gather all possible requirements that the end user expects from the system to be developed. These requirements will dictate the functions that will be integrated in the system. Design the System. Upon gathering and analyzing the requirements of the end user, the designing of the system will follow. This phase is important because the system’s design will dictate the overall system architecture.
If the proponents have inquiries about the system, they can gather and analyze the requirements again. Code the System. After designing what the system will look like, the proponents will start the actual coding of the system. This design of the system will be the basis of how the system will look like. Test the System. To ensure that the system is efficient and reliable, several tests will be conducted. If the system fails the testing phase, the proponents will go back to the second phase which is designing of the system. 5. Acceptance of the System.
After having proven that the system is functioning well, it will be deployed to the end user and they will be trained on how to use it. They will evaluate if their requirements and expectations have been met. If not, the proponents have to go back to the first phase again and start all over. Software Specification |Operating System |Microsoft Windows XP or higher | |Microsoft SQL Sever |2008 or higher | |Microsoft .
Net Framework |4. 0 or higher | |Windows Internet Explorer |7 or higher | |ACS CCID Driver | | Hardware Specification |Memory |2 GB or higher | |Processor |2. GHz or faster | |Hard Disk |At least 3GB of available space | |Monitor |1024×768 or higher resolution | |Printer | | |ACR122U NFC Reader | | Gantt Chart ILAGAY DITO… Chapter4 The Proposed System
User and Needs of the Study Proposed system is the Tanauan Institute New College Library Management System. Through our software user can add books, update books, search books, update information, edit information, record the attendance of the borrowers, borrow and return books in quick time. Our proposed system has the following advantages. ? User friendly interface ? Fast access to database ? Less error ? More Storage Capacity ? Search facility ? Look and Feel Environment ? Quick transaction All the manual difficulties in managing the Library have been rectified by implementing computerization.
Analysis General Features of the System RFID technology has been applied in libraries just over a decade, though the technology is not yet mature but its rapid development allows more and more functions to be achieved. RFID is still in its developing stage in libraries, the technology originally can only simply achieve the self-check-in and check-out function, but till now, the effectively inventory, logistics and sorting the returned books are all able to be achieved. The library can adopt RFID technology aim of improving the self-service.
Patrons can borrow and return the items using automatic lending machines, which require a library card and a PIN. Self-service becomes much easier with this new technology as it does not require line of sight and max. 3 items can be borrowed at a time. So far, the frequency of self-service is nearly 100%. Besides, sorting the returned books greatly reduces the library staffs manual work. As RFID label has anti-theft function, there is no need for an extra alarm strip to be attached to the item, which makes the borrowing and tagging tasks a lot easier accordingly. Chapter 5 Implementation
Program Testing We the researchers have come up to test the system with different specifications to know the compatibility of it to the system. The researcher make sure that they will not have any problem during implementation and also we asked the end user to see and to test the system, if they had any wanted to changed or add on the system. To ensured that the system is efficient. Documentation Plan The documentation has seven chapters. The first three chapters were made during the first part of the study, these three chapters guide the researcher to create a system what look alike.
The last four chapters were made at the second part together with the system proposal. Data Management Plan We the researchers gathered data by acquiring information on some schools, browsing the net, getting some ideas with the old system, library research, asking personal questions and getting information through handouts. Resource Management Plan The development of the software would not be possible without the following components: A. Computer – an electronic device uses to manipulate data. B. USB Flash Drive – is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface.
C. Hard Disk – wherein the system is stored and the soft copy of the documentation is saved. D. Ballpen & Paper – use for writing down the documentation and other important information. E. Internet – the primary tool of the researchers that used to gathered the needed information or data. F. Printed Materials – used for additional reference. G. Printer – used to provide hard copy of the program code and documentation. All the data which were manipulated throughout the process of the study were stored in the computer hard disk drive with back up on several flash drives.
Quality Assurance Plan The researchers ensure the most precise and direct method of providing the software with highest regard on procedures thereby providing easy access for end user. Accuracy and efficiency of the software is likewise ensured thereby providing the end users guaranteed reliable software. Security Plan The researchers ensure that all data, documentation, codes and system were provided sets of back up. And though the system, the researchers put a login form on the system to ensure that no one can access or view, only the end user can use it.
Training Plan Formal training on how to use the program for end users will be provided by the researcher, if needed. The system is intended to use by an end-user acting as the administrator and could add another administrator that will do the same task to facilitate all their activities. Chapter 6 Maintenance Upon the implementation of the system, that is downloading and debugging the entire system, the researchers assures extension of services for future modifications or updates of information already published responsibilities: 1.
Provided with the necessary updates on information, the researchers will plan the necessary layout modification, if needed. 2. According to the layout planned, necessary changes in the codes follows. 3. Appropriate testing of the modified code is to be done to ensure efficiency and accuracy. 4. Updating other details is provided by the system 5. Providing back-up of the modified code 6. Providing updated documentation 7. Entrusting all the used resources to the appropriate authorities. Hardware maintenance is beyond the duty of the researcher. Chapter 7 The Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendation
Summary Library Management, particularly Circulation and Collection, in Tanauan Institute uses a semi-automated system which has a number of limitations such as incapability of automatically generating reports and statistics, and loss, inconsistency, and in accuracy of data. Since this institution is already using RFID Technology in monitoring the attendance of its students, the researchers attempted to resolve such issues by creating an RFID-Based Library Management System using Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 with the students and the librarians as the target beneficiaries in mind.
Modified waterfall was the research model used by the researchers which helped them in the distribution of the tasks they need to accomplish. Descriptive method of research was also utilized in order to gather data more accurately and systematically with the use of data gathering tools such as surveys with open and close ended questions, interviews, and time motion study represented by graphs and tables to test and evaluate the system’s reliability and the user’s acceptance. Conclusion
Through months of conducting this study, starting from the data-gathering-phase up to the deployment-phase, with the aid of the surveys, interviews, and time motion study analyzed, the researchers concluded the following statements about their Tanauan Institute New Library RFID-Based Library Management System:
• The system was able to generate statistics and reports by just a click of a button which can help them in forecasting and identifying the library users of the month.
They can now finally be assured regarding the accuracy and reliability of the data generated.
• The system can cater larger amount of data which is what the library practically needed at this time that they are upgrading the amount of their collection. Data loss will now be finally eliminated.
• The system was able to track whom librarian is accountable for the loss of a returned material.
• The system was able to help them in reminding the students regarding their unreturned materials. Recommendations
For the future researchers to improve, the researchers suggest the following:
• Module for printing of a receipt-like for library users as a confirmation of the material that they have returned or borrowed
• Module for printing of a book-card-like after adding or updating a particular library material so that librarians can now generate it with just a click of a button
• Module to Include visitors who don’t have RFIDs LAGYAN PA NG RECOMMENDATION YUNG NDI NYO NAGAWA..