Since ancient times, people have sought to find efficient ways of processing, recording and sharing information. Some of the notable examples of such are the papyrus of the Egyptians and the clay tablets of the Babylonians. As civilization started to grow and progress, the need for faster and better ways of transferring information slowly become important.
Villages became city-states; nations became empires and people realized that they must establish a constant stream of information for them to prosper. With the invention of paper and the printing press, life became easier but still not enough to support the growing demand for faster communication.
In today’s society, especially in business, every speck of time we have could be equivalent to a proportional amount of earning or development. And in order to handle successfully the income generating machineries of the modern world, huge sums of information must be collected from everyday operations, rocessed and stored in a data base, and accessed and analyzed by concerned users.
Managers simply need to know what the customers prefer, how much to store in the warehouse, how long should the assembly line be kept running; investors have to know whether their company’s stocks are doing well; and most people just want to keep updated about everyday events. So, clearly, there is the necessity for a technology that could make the world even smaller. And much better if all information needed by the user can be accessed easily and quickly by a device that fits right on top of the user’s palm.
Just imagine if you could join a board meeting half the globe away via high-speed videophone while being relaxed in camping or having a picnic somewhere out there in the mountains, wouldn’t that be great? Truly, we have reached the so-called information age, where every bit of information gathered, processed and shared is as important as the currency that circulates in the economy. Now, industry does not run using only electricity anymore and intellectual managers simply just won’t make decisions out of theories and experiences.
There is an ever-growing need for us to be always armed with necessary data and as time passes by, human civilization recognizes the increasing importance of information technology. Here in this paper, we will tackle one of the new breakthroughs that has captured interest in the technological world – the 4G technology. Description The Fourth Generation Wireless Technology, commonly known as 4G, is basically an extension of what has been achieved by the 3G and 2G technologies. G is used to describe not only cellular telephone systems but also wireless broadband access communications systems. This very promising mobile communications technology is expected to replace 3G system, perhaps in a span of 5 to 10 years, and at the same time provide a vast array of new services, from high-quality video streaming to high-efficiency wireless data transfer. People speak of the 4G as MAGIC – Mobile multimedia, anytime, anywhere, Global mobility support, Integrated wireless solution, and Customized personal services – because of its very advanced features.
Features Integration – this summarizes the features of the 4G systems. Flawless integrated networks, terminals and applications suitable to the increasing user demands are an overall feature of this technology. 4G technology will be able to support interactive services like Video conferencing with more than two sites and wireless internet access. When 4G ties up with mobile phones with in-built resolution cameras will result to High-definition capabilities that would support video blogs.
The bandwidth, or the amount of information that can be sent through a connection between two computers in a given amount of time, would be much wider (100 MHz) and thus data could be transferred at much faster pace. Furthermore, the cost of transferring data would be relatively cheaper and global mobility would be possible. The entire network would be packet switched and Internet protocol based. The network security would be then much tighter and the algorithms would be more efficient reducing interferences like Inter-channel interference and Co-channel interference.
Services can be delivered and be accessible to personal preferences of different users to support and to go well with the user’s traffic, air interferences, radio environment, and service quality. These are what we call application adaptability and dynamism which interests much the waiting crowd. The dominant methods of access like mobile phones, PDAs and laptops can seamlessly access the high-speed information services, voice communication and online entertainment broadcasts.
The Fourth Generation intends to integrate this all-encompassing broad range of systems – from satellite broadband to mobile communications systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless acces) to WLAN (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network), all with IP (Internet protocol) as the facilitator and integrator. And in fact, researchers are working on other interesting advanced features like speaking without using the vocal chords, knowing where calls are coming, and estimating the distances between you and your friends. G is really that promising, that when realized will truly change the way we see the world. ADVANTAGES 4G technologies allow faster, cost-efficient access to internet and enterprise applications. The 4G air interface will be based on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), which will make the use of the wireless spectrum more efficient compared to older technologies and thus, enabling higher speeds and more users per cell. Its flat architecture network also provides a considerably lower cost-per-bit than 3G systems. Low latency.
Low latency makes 4G ideal for mobilizing real-time applications such as VoIP, video streaming and tele-presence. It can also improve reception, reduce interference and increase effective throughput with the use of Multiple Input, Multiply Output (MIMO) technology. Cell sites that are MIMO-equipped can send information instantaneously over two or more antennas. Accessibility and coverage. 4G technologies promise to provide coverage and in-building penetration at higher frequency bands to enable indoor applications more powerful and can transfer them to the wide-area 4G network when they leave the building.
DISADVANTAGES It is not new for a new technology to emerge with problems. Usually, when a new technology is being introduced, it carries its own set of problems. Let us examine some of the disadvantages associated with 4G. Delayed market acceptance. Like all other gadget advancements, gaining widespread usage of the market for 4G is a challenge for the developers. It has been seen that integrating a new gizmo in the lifestyle of consumers takes quite a time. Take for example the case of computers.
When computers first came in the scene, only a few utilize it perhaps because of non-availability to the general market. But as technological progress made computers cheaper and more versatile, more people found use for the computer. The same could hold true for 4G. It will not be surprising if we will not find a drastic shift in demand for 4G upon its introduction. Consumers simply need time. Battery usage is more. Wireless devices, like 4G, uses Electromagnetic Waves such as radio waves and microwaves to wirelessly transmit data, and these types of waves are a form of energy.
Transforming data into waves requires that the energy potential of the battery to be converted into Electromagnetic Waves in order to be able to send the files. It is logical that as the data transferring power of the device increases, so is the battery consumption. Another reason for higher battery usage is that you need to power the complex gizmos utilized in 4G. While this disadvantage implies that you would be charging your device more often, it also means that you are empowered with high-speed data transfer. Telecommunications companies could not cope up with technological innovations. G technology could enable the user to transmit data with speeds of up to 100 Mbps. To visualize this, a standard photo captured using an 8 megapixels camera has file sizes ranging from 4-10 Mb. Imagine you could send 10 high resolution pictures per second! Of course, things don’t stop here. The consumers are just one part of the circle. Equally important are the telecommunications provider. Progress in wireless communications are coming in so rapidly that wireless network providers find it difficult to keep at pace because they are not initially designed for this type of complexity.
And for this reason, and also because of the voluminous data in the air, the wireless traffic becomes saturated which means that although your device’s potential as a data transferring machine is incredible, the wireless traffic will limit this ability as more and more users resort to wireless communication. Business applications 4G wireless technology promises a variety of features and applications to the public. But in the business sense, what exactly can 4G technologies bring to the table? Who are the ones that benefit from the application of such technology? Starting with the latter question, “who exactly benefits? Put simply, everyone engaging in businesses that require data communication. Practically speaking, this involves EVERYONE. Why, you might ask? This is due to the data transmission that 4G technologies transmit. It is much faster and more accessible. This means that the owners of businesses with multiple branches can now exchange in a more reliable and more efficient manner. This allows businesses to better adapt to changes in the economic environment. And in today’s economic environment, to adapt is to survive. Another application is for people engaging in online business in their laptops or cell phones.
Although today’s wireless technology like the Iphone and Blackberry already allows them to do just that; the internet speed is still much slower than that of wired internet access. But with the 4G networks’ speed of ten times that of 3G technology used on an Iphone and Blackberry, these professionals will now be able to practice their business, practically anywhere at any given time and with the benefit of a reliably fast internet access. This brings us to the next business application, videoconferencing. Videoconferencing is just like calling, with the difference of live video feedback.
This is already being used in some fields but has not caught up in the mainstream. With the faster transmission speed of 4G wireless networks, videoconferencing would, more likely, become common. But why is videoconferencing good for business? First, it gives a more personal touch to long distance communications compared to the traditional call or e-mail. Next, it also brings in enhanced security for a business engaging in long distance ventures. A videoconference with your own man on the ground gives a company more grasp on what is actually happening compared to a call or an e-mail.
As the saying goes, “a picture says a thousand words,” what more of a video composed of a continuous transmission of pictures? With all that said, 4G technology brings with it a lot of business applications. It improves current internet applications with faster speed, allows better videoconferencing and a practically everywhere high speed internet access. With the advent of 4G technology, businesses will now have more tools to conduct their trade. Other insights & Conclusions As, 4G takes its place on the mainstream, some might wonder: what exactly is its advantage over other forms of wireless broadband technology?
The following table show comparisons to its predecessor, 3G: Technology| 3G| 4G| Frequency band| 1. 8 – 2. 5GHz| 2 – 8GHz| Bandwidth| 5-20MHz| 5-20MHz| Data rate| Up to 2Mbps| 100Mbps moving – 1Gbps stationary| Access| W-CDMA| VSF-OFCDM and VSF-CDMA| FEC| Turbo-codes| Concatenated codes| Switching| Circuit/Packet| Packet| With download speeds of up to 14. 0 Mbps and upload speeds of up to 5. 8 Mbps, 3G is certainly fast enough for mobile devices, but whether or not it is fast enough to provide wireless broadband to consumers and businesses is another matter entirely.
Individuals and small households looking for wireless data access may find the various 3G standards acceptable, but larger businesses looking into a backup data service to ensure smooth operations may find current 3G services insufficient for high-volume data needs. As with the 3G family of standards, 4G is also not a single unified standard but rather a set of fourth generation standards. Again, some of the standards that comprise the 4G wireless standards are evolutionary or revolutionary extensions of 3G standards which are often extensions of 2G standards. G systems using cellular technologies offer bandwidth of around 1 Gbps for fixed location devices and approximately 10% of that. For home users, 4G networks are likely to be split by neighborhood, meaning that network architects can reduce projected overhead by reducing the need for cabling; simply set up cabling in each neighborhood to be serviced and a single mini-4G tower to communicate with other portions of the network without the need to install and bury wiring. As explained throughout the technical report, 4G maintains its technological advantage over other forms of wireless technologies.
But why hasn’t it been implemented yet? Facts remain that 3G still has dominance over the wireless market. Why? 3G, though past its prime, was believed to be a breakthrough technology at that time; thus, allowing a variety of companies to greatly invest in this technology. But with the emergence of 4G, which has been proven to be superior to 3G, companies find themselves at a standstill. The implementation of 4G technology and the foregoing of the past investments on any of its predecessor (1G, 2G, & 3G) would be a crucial decision on the part of business owners because there is the assurance of incurring additional costs. G also gives way to the possibility of more technological advantages, probably what we will encounter as the 5G (fifth generation) technology. But it is too early to comment on that. It is an experimental phase and features have yet to be explained to the public. 4G, however, is still starting its run through the market and has made good progress in breaching it. The Republic of the Philippines itself has just started to adapt this emerging technology. Currently, the only 4G wireless technology provider is a company known as Wi-tribe, which has just recently started its campaign for the promotion of 4G.
Sadly, 4G will not be available on a large scale for a few years as standardizations are made and more companies combine their efforts to define it. In conclusion, ever since the advent of technologies that allow its users to transfer data and communicate in a more efficient manner, technologies such as video-conferencing, cybertronics, wi-fi, and the like, have been brought to the table. These technologies show great promise and potential for more advancement in industry and in technical aspects. The emergence of 4G technology is no exception.
Yet ultimately, it all comes down to the consumer whether 4G will dominate the wireless technology or whether 3G will linger a bit longer. Executive summary The so-called information age had dawned upon us all. Every bit of data or information that has been gathered, processed and shared is considered to be crucial. There is an ever-growing need for us to be always armed with necessary data and as time passes by, human civilization recognizes the increasing importance of information technology; Hence, the emergence of a technology such as 4G. G, as mentioned, is an extension of its predecessors: the 3G and 2G technologies. 4G is used to describe not only cellular telephone systems but also wireless broadband access communications systems. This very promising mobile communications technology is expected to replace 3G system, perhaps in a span of 5 to 10 years, and at the same time provide a vast array of new services, from high-quality video streaming to high-efficiency wireless data transfer.
The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously), Wireless Internet, etc. The bandwidth would be much wider (100 MHz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. Also the security features will be much better. G allows a faster, cost-efficient access to internet and enterprise applications with its data transfer speeds that range up to 100Mbps outdoor and 1Gbps indoor. Accessibility is also not a hindrance to the 4G technology because coverage and in-building penetration is at a higher frequency band that enables indoor applications and be more powerful and can transfer packet data to the wide-area 4G network when they leave the building. Low latency also makes 4G ideal for mobilizing real-time applications such as VoIP, video streaming and tele-presence.
It can also improve reception, reduce interference and increase effective throughput. But 4G also comes with a few setbacks. Widespread usage of the market for 4G is a challenge for the developers. This is due to the uncertainty of matching supply with the demand on the global market. Wireless devices, like 4G, also use Electromagnetic Waves such as radio waves and microwaves to wirelessly transmit data, and these types of waves are a form of energy, thus incurring additional energy costs. And lastly, Telecommunications companies could possibly not cope up with technological innovations.
This, on the other hand, is because of the progress in wireless communications are coming in so rapidly that wireless network providers find it difficult to keep at pace because they are not initially designed for this type of complexity. Applied in a business sense, it improves current internet applications with faster download speeds, allows better videoconferencing and a convenient high speed internet access. With the advent of 4G technology, businesses will now have more tools to conduct their trade. G paves the way to other technologies such as the 5G (or fifth generation) technology. But this has yet to be expounded on. Currently, the Philippines plays host to only one 4G provider: “Wi-tribe. ” One thing though is clear: it matters little whether 4G dominates the future of wireless broadband, or if 3G manages to stick around a little bit longer, this will ultimately rely on its consumers. Those who find 3G acceptable are likely to find that 3G prices will decline perceptibly as 4G becomes more common.
Consumers who are constantly mobile may prefer 4G. 4G has the potential to be a defining breakthrough in the technological world. appendix
Sources: * Introduction: * http://www. insidecrm. com/features/4G-technology-1G-service-020409/ * http://www. 3gamericas. org/documents/3GPP_Rel-9_Beyond%20Feb%202010. pdf * http://www. researchandmarkets. com/research/0924cd/its_a_mad_mad_mad * http://4g. co. uk/index. php? option=com_content&view=category&id=31%3Ageneral&layout=blog&Itemid=173&limitstart=5 * http://in. nswers. yahoo. com/question/index? qid=20090226120330AA1kOK6 * Description & Features: * http://wikipedia. org/wiki/4G * http://www. 3g4g. co. uk/4G/faq. html * Advantages: * http://www. it-executive. nl/images/downloads/2008-10-014G_Ahead_WP. pdf * Disadvantages: * http://www. moratmarit. com/2010/01/history-fourth-generation-4g-technology. html * Business Applications * http://www. safecomprogram. gov/NR/rdonlyres/3CBCEA82-9C05-4CF5-B8E7-DBBA0DC6199E/0/4GApplications_Services. pdf * http://communication. howstuffworks. om/convergence/4g-networks1. htm * http://communication. howstuffworks. com/convergence/4g-networks. htm * http://www. articlealley. com/article_1121979_10. html * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/4G * Other Insights & Conclusions: * http://mobileinsight. blogspot. com/2008/01/3g-vs-4g. html * http://www. wi-tribe. com/en/region/wi-tribe-worldwide/wi-tribe-philippines. html * http://www. highspeedexperts. com/3g-vs-4g-vs-wimax/ * http://www. 3g4g. co. uk/4G/Links/ * http://www. 3g4g. co. uk/4G/News/