Data Table 1 – Epithelial Tissue Observations
Simple Squamoussingle layer, flattened cells Simple Cuboidalsingle layered, cube shaped cells Simple Columnar (stomach)single layered, elongated cells Simple Columnar (duodenum)long columns in “S” shapes Stratified Squamous (keratinized)many layers, top cells flattened Stratified Squamous (non-keratinized)flat long strands with nucleus Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnarcells together in a column structure, single layer, elongated cells Transitionalmany layers of cube shaped and elongated cells
Stratified Cuboidal (online)2-3 layers, cube shaped cells Stratified Columnar (online)top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cubed shaped cells
A. Why is the study of histology important in the overall understanding of anatomy and physiology?Histology allows us to examine the structure and composition of all our tissues B. How are epithelial tissues named? They are categorized by the size and shapes of their cells C. Why are some epithelial tissues stratified?
It’s because the stratified epithelial tissue is multilayered, as opposed to the monolayered simple epithelial tissue.
D. Unlike squamous cells, cuboidal and columnar cells have large, open cytoplasm. Which functions of epithelial tissue are supported by having such big cells? The large round cells allow it to slide or move past each other. It also allows the tissue to stretch .
Questions A. What is the primary function of connective tissue?
It connects the epithelium to the rest of the body. It also provides structure (bone), stores energy (fat), and transports material (blood). B. What can the shape of the cells in a particular type of tissue tell about the function of that tissue? Epithelial tissue comes in different shapes and sizes, for example there is ciliated epithelial tissue, which has cilia that helps it move objects around.
This kind of tissue can be found in the respiratory tract, where it sweeps to clean dust and germs trapped in mucus. Other epithelial tissues such as stratified squamous epithelial tissue is found in areas prone to abrasion because its structure is irregular and can prevent cuts and scrapes. C. What is matrix? Why do some tissues have more matrix than others? Matrix is the extracellular fibers and ground substance of a connective tissue. Some tissues have more matrix because the cells fibers are not as tightly packed. D. What do collagen fibers provide?
Collagen is strong and flexible and resists force in one direction. It is stronger than steel when pulled. Ligaments and tendons are collagen fibers. E. Tendons, ligaments and cartilage have limited blood supply. Explain how this might affect the ability of these tissues to heal after an injury. If there is limited blood supply it means the nutrients and supplies to heal an injury in this area are not that readily available. 5. Repeat the above steps 2 through 4 for the smooth and cardiac muscle slides.
A. What kind of muscle would you find in your stomach? Smooth muscle tissue B. How is smooth muscle structure different from that of skeletal and cardiac muscle? Smooth muscle can contract on their own. Smooth muscle tissue has no striations. C. Why do we say that skeletal muscle is voluntary?
Skeletal fiber muscle do not contract unless stimulated by nerves and the nervous system provides voluntary control over their activities. D. What is unique about cardiac muscle?
These muscles are involuntary striated muscle which are only found in the wall of the heart. This is specialized muscle that can contract, cardiac muscle, like other muscles, can contract, but it can also carry an action potential (i.e. conduct electricity) like the neurons that constitute nerves. Furthermore, some of the cells have the ability to generate an action potential, known as cardiac muscle automaticity. Questions
A. What is the function of nervous tissue? Nervous tissue conducts electrical impulses. It also rapidly sense internal and external environment . they process information and control responses. B. Why are the cell bodies of neurons elongated into cell processes? Neurons are elongated because they need to transfer a signal from the periphery to the center. C. If all nerves respond to stimuli why can’t your eyes “hear” sound and your ears “see” light? All that any nerve can do when simulated if fire off electrical impulses. It’s how the brain interprets the impulses that cause us to perceive light or sound. D. How is a nerve different from a neuron?
Neurons are specialized for intercellular communication through changes in membrane potential and synaptic connections. Nerves refer to a structure made up of many neurons.
Explain the purpose of these exercises and why studying histology is important to your understanding of how the human body functions. The purpose of the exercise and studying histology is important to know because it gives us a better understanding of the branch of anatomy concerned with the study of the microscopic structures in our bodies.