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In this experiment, the environment of the enzyme was altered, by increasing or decreasing the temperature, pH and concentration. The purpose was to observe if and how the enzyme would react to such changes. This experiment tested whether heating or cooling a catalane would increase or decrease the rate of reaction. The temperature was increased by placing the test tube in boiling water to test if the enzyme would begin to denature and break down, causing less of a reaction. The temperature was also decreased by placing the test tube in a refrigerator to test if the enzyme would slow down and the reaction loud be minimal or it would cease.
Altering the pH would cause denaturing of the enzymes and slow its reaction rate to almost non-existent. Increasing the concentration of catalane, you will see a correlation in the increase of the reaction. Material Potato moll Beaker Four mm test tubes Mortar and Pestle Refrigerator Hydrogen Peroxide 7. 0 pH Phosphate buffer solution Thermometer Methods The potato was crushed with a mortar and pestle to make a slurry (the catalane) and poured it into a 250 ml beaker. Four 100 mm test tubes (marked at every m) were filled from the beaker with a mixture of the catalane and a 7.
PH phosphate buffer solution to the 1 CM mark on each of the test tubes. One test tube was placed in the refrigerator at ICC, one in the incubator at ICC, one in boiling water at ICC, and one was left at room temp (ICC). After 15 minutes, remove the test tubes one at a time and 2 CM of hydrogen peroxide were added to each and then swirled for approximately fifteen seconds. Twenty seconds after swirling the height of the bubble column was measured and recorded. For the second test, the concentration of the peroxide to catalane ratio was hanged, leaving the temperature and amount of hydrogen peroxide as constants.
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Three test tubes (all marked at every CM) were used. In the first tube, LLC of catalane mixture with CM of hydrogen peroxide was added. The second tube contained CM of catalane with CM of hydrogen peroxide was added and the third was added, CM of catalane with CM of hydrogen peroxide. The height of the bubble column was recorded for each. For the third test, the pH of each solution was altered, keeping the concentration and temperature constant.
Three separate test tubes (all marked at every CM) were filled, each starting with LLC of catalane. CM of hydrochloric acid was added to one tube, with a pH of 3.
Test tube two was left neutral adding CM of a 7. 0 phosphate buffer, and to the third test tube was added CM of sodium hydroxide with a pH of 1 1 . CM of hydrogen peroxide was added to all three tubes. They were swirled for approximately fifteen seconds. After that, the height of the bubble column was recorded.
Results For our first test, the height of the bubble column was recorded as a reaction to the enzyme and temperature change. The following results were obtained. The test tube that was placed in the incubator (3700 had mm of bubble height.
The test tube that was left at room temperature (ICC) had a small reaction with 5 mm of bubble height. The test tube that was in the refrigerator (ICC) had the largest reaction with 15 mm of bubble height. The test tube that was in boiling water (ICC) had no reaction. By increasing the temperature, the catalane would begin to denature and have a very minimal reaction. The cold temperature would slow down or stop the reaction.
For our second test, the amount of catalane concentration was increased. The following results were obtained. Test tube one was 1 CM to 5 CM with the bubble height measured at 50 mm.
Test tube two was 2 CM to 6 CM with the bubble height measured at 30 mm. Test tube three was 3 CM to 7 CM with the bubble height measured at 70 mm. For the third test the pH increased and decreased. The following results were obtained. With a pH of 2, test tube one had no reaction.
With a pH of 7 the height of the bubble column was measured at 30 mm. With a pH of 11 test tube three had no reaction. We concluded that the closer the pH is to neutral the more of a reaction will occur. Test one: Trial 1 Incubator (ICC) mm Fridge (ICC) mm Boiling (ICC) Mom Room Temp (220) mm Trial 2
Incubator (ICC) mm Fridge (7 DC) mm Test Two: LLC-CM mm CM-CM mm CM-CM mm Test Three: pH 3 Mom pH 7 mm pH 11 Mom [pica Figure 5. 2 (above) shows the effect temperature has on enzyme activity. The temperature is measured in Celsius and enzyme activity is measured in bubble height in millimeters (mm). The different settings of temperature were The Refrigerator at 7 degrees Celsius, Incubator at 37 degrees Celsius, in boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius and in room temperature at 22 degrees Celsius. The bubble height are as follows the refrigerator at mm, Incubator at mm,
Boiling water at 0 mm, and at room temperature activity rose to mm. Figure 5. 3 shows the amount of enzyme. We measured the amount of enzyme in centimeters (CM) and bubble height in millimeters (mm). The amount of enzyme are in ranges as follows: tube 1 LLC-CM, tube 2: CM- CM, and tube 3: CM -CM.
The bubble height follows: tube 1: mm, tube 2: mm, and tube 3: mm. Figure 5. 4 shows the effect different pH levels have on enzyme activity. We tested to see if the pH levels have any effect on the activity of enzymes. Tube 1 had a pH of 3 and there was no effect of activity.
Tube 2 had a pH of 7 and the activity in this particular on was a bubble height of 30(mm). Lastly we tested tube 3 with a pH of 11 and there is no activity going on. The graph will show these changes in activity. Overall the data tells us that neither acidic or basic pH levels cause a change, but the exception would be a moderate level would cause some change. Discussion The temperature increases or decreases the reaction of an enzyme.
PH also plays an important role in enzyme reactions. The closer the pH is to neutral, the more of a reaction will occur.
Increased temperatures increased the reaction ate until reaching higher temperatures where the rate of reaction slowed down due to the denomination of the enzyme. Enzymes only function within specific pH levels and the optimal level was found to be eight. Increased concentration of enzymes increased the rate of reaction until the concentration is higher than that of the substrate where the substrate became a limiting factor. Increased concentration of substrate increased the rate of reaction until the concentration was too high and the enzymes were at maximum velocity, which caused the rate of reaction to not increase any further.