The environmental pollution affect the health of more than 100 million people worldwide. Pollution is the contaminant into a natural environment, usually by humans. The specific types of pollution are Land pollution, Air Pollution, Water pollution (Oceans, rivers, ground water) , Plastic pollution, Noise pollution, Light pollution, space Ozone layer and many more. In India the increasing economic development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one lion people today is putting a strain on the environment, infrastructure, and the country’s natural resources. Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization, arbitration, and land degradation are all worsening problems. Overexploitation Of the country’s resources be it land or water and the industrialization process has resulted environmental degradation of resources. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems facing humanity and other life forms on our planet today. Indian’s per capita carbon dioxide emissions were roughly 3,000 pounds (1 ,360 kilograms) in 2007, according to the study. That’s small compared to China and the U. S. , with 10,500 pounds (4,763 kilograms) and 42,500 pounds (19,278 kilograms) respectively that year. The study said that the European Union and Russia also have more emissions than India. India is among the world’s worst performers when it comes to the overall environment. We rank 125 of 132 countries. Even Pakistan and Bangladesh are less polluted than we are. A study released earlier this year by the environmental research centers of Columbia and Yale showed that India was at the bottom of the heap when it came to air pollution. I Air pollution kills ore people than AIDS and malaria combined A recent study by the World Health Organization found that air pollution is a huge killer (a silent killer), probably bigger than we suspected. More… Internet emits 830 million tones of carbon dioxide Internet and other components of information communication and technology (CIT) industry annually produces more than 830 million tones of carbon dioxide (CA), the main greenhouse gas, and is expected to double by 2020, a new study has found. The skies over North India The skies over North India are seasonally filled With a thick soup of aerosol articles all along the southern edge of the Himalayas, Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. – NASA research findings. Space Shuttle view of haze and pollution over Northern India swept in from Tibet. Credit: NASA I India and US clean energy pact: India and the U. S. On November 8, 2010 inked an agreement to establish a bilateral energy cooperation programmer to promote clean and energy-efficient businesses, Indian and U. S. Companies inked joint venture deals worth $175 million in the renewable energy sector. The US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Ammonia Sings announced the setting up of Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Centre. The proposed centre is part of the Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE), which forms the core of the “green partnership”. Funding for the centre is expected from national budgets and the private sector. Each government proposes to commit $25 million over the next five years.. “Now the Indian consumer is increasingly conscious of the benefits of environmentally friendly and sustainable practices… 86% Indian consumers surveyed, place faith in energy efficient products and appliances, followed by recyclable packaging (79%),” Global Online Environment and Sustainability Survey by Nielsen said on August 29, 201 1. Air Pollution India has the worst air pollution in the entire world, beating China, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, according to a study released during this years World Economic Forum in Davis. Of 1 32 countries whose environments were surveyed, India ranks dead last in the ‘Air (effects on human health)’ ranking. The annual study, the Environmental Performance Index, is conducted and written by environmental research centers at Yale and Columbia universities with assistance from dozens of outside scientists. The study uses satellite data to measure air pollution concentrations. The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of Air pollution , while many more suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infections and even cancer. Fine particles or microscopic dust from coal or wood fires and unfiltered diesel engines are rated as one of the most lethal forms or air pollution caused by industry, transport, household heating, cooking and ageing coal or oil-fired power stations. There are four reasons of air pollution are – emissions from vehicles, thermal power plants, industries and refineries. The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has increased. CNN is not without environmental drawbacks says a new Central Pollution Control Board study on January 05, 201 1. The study says burning CNN has the highest rates of potentially hazardous carbonyl emissions. The study also made a case for regulating CNN and other fuels for methane emissions. Methane, a greenhouse gas, is a key contributor decimate Change. Among the stud’s finds were that retrofitted CNN car engines emit 30% more methane than original CNN engines. Almost all CNN car engines in India are retrofitted. One major study in September 2011 found that components of diesel exhaust including particulate matter can cause biologic responses that are related to Asthma this exposure is associated with the inflammatory and immune responses involved in asthma. Studies conducted in various parts of the world have revealed a strong link between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and continuous exposure to ultra fine particulate matter present in the air. Particulate matter in the air which is very fine and is less than 2. Microns in size is called PM. 5 and has been known to cause diabetes and articulators diseases. Indian air pollution has been blamed for its dry monsoon season, but a scientist has revealed that European pollution may also play a part in it. The volume of the summer monsoon has been weakening since the 1 sass. And Y Mining of Princeton University in New Jersey claimed his experimental models suggest that the effect of European aerosol pollution accounts for about half the drop in the volume Of monsoon rainfall – the other half is down to pollution over south Asia. I Arctic sea ice set to hit record low Arctic sea ice is set to hit a record low by the end of the month, latest titillate data has shown. Scientists at the IIS National Snow and Ice Data Center said that the sea ice extent was tracking below the previous record low, set in 2007. The latest figures show that on August 13 ice extent was 483,000 sq km below the previous record low for the same date five years ago. The ice is expected to continue melting until mid-to late September, the ‘BBC News’ reported. More.. Himalayan glaciers are melting says EPIC research The Himalayan glaciers are melting after all, according to new research released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PICO on December 5, 2011. The research was released in an effort to draw a line under the embarrassing mistakes made about the effects of Global Warming on the region in the past. The reports, presented at the UN climate change talks in Durban were brought together by the the Katmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (COSMIC). Plant that suck up pollutants from soil Chinese experts have successfully used a plant to clean arsenic pollution from the soil. The Chinese fern, whose scientific name is Peters vitiate L, has a “strong capacity” to extract arsenic from the soil, a researcher said on May 31, 201 2. Plants reduce indoor air pollution Coal pollution: Indian’s environmental problems are exacerbated by its heavy reliance on coal for power generation. “More than 80 per cent of energy is produced from coal, a fuel that emits a high amount of carbon and greenhouse gases. Said Bias. According to MIFF chief Christine Laggard on July 10, 2012 said pollution from coal generation plants causes about 70,000 premature deaths every year in India. Andorra Pradesh, the coastal state of eastern India is experiencing a coal-plant construction boom, including the 4,000-MM Chairmanships Ultra Mega Power Project, one of nine such sieve projects in planning or under construction in country. On August 23, 201 1 the Shorthand State Pollution Control Board has ordered the closure of 22 BCC mines in the underground fire zone of Shari. BCC had taken over most of the 103 mines from private owners. Hence, none fathom had got environmental clearances. Most of the coal mines under the Scab’s scanner were located in Shari. The 2,640-MM Compete plant proposed by Nicaragua Construction Company and the 2,640-MM Vanadium plant proposed by East Coast Energy have both provoked large nonviolent protests hat have ended in police attacks, including four deaths of local residents. As of May 2011 the Compete plant had been cancelled and the Vanadium plant had been placed on hold by officials, with corruption investigations continuing. On April 12, 2011 the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOVE) has tightened pollution monitoring norms for power projects with a generation capacity of 500 Mm and above, integrated steel plants with a capacity of 1 million tones per annum and cement plants with a capacity of 3 million tones per annum. Polluting industrial units: On May 26, 201 1 the Harlan State Pollution Control Board has ordered closure of 639 polluting industrial units in 2010-1 1 and directed the highly polluting industries to set up continuous online monitoring stations to ensure compliance of standards of air emissions. The Government has launched prosecution against 151 polluting units in the Special Environment Courts in Abridged and Usherette, and made 9,239 units install pollution control devices. Brick kilns are noxious sources of pollution: Indian’s 100,000 brick kilns are noxious sources of pollution, particularly soot, and working them means a life that is always nasty, frequently brutish and often short. But on top of this social evil is an environmental one. The exhaust from the kilns mixes with diesel emissions and other fumes to form a vast brown smog, known as an atmospheric brown cloud, which is up to km thick and thousands of kilometers long. Two of its main ingredients, the small carbon particles which the soot is composed of, and ozone, a traumatic form of oxygen, are important contributors to the greenhouse effect, and thus to climate change. Among other negative effects, the cloud is therefore thought to be accelerating the retreat of Himalayan glaciers, which are found at a similar altitude. Aircraft pollutants: According to a study published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology (EST) in the first week of October 201 0, almost 8,000 people will die due to aircraft pollutants this year, and 3,500 of them would be from India and China. A recent report by MIT researchers says that the harmful pollutants emitted by an aircraft at an altitude of 35,oft are fatal for people. The report says that nitrogen and sulfur oxides emitted by aircraft at 35,oft combine with other gases in the atmosphere to create noxious particulate matter. Vehicle emissions are expansible for 70% of the country’s air pollution. The major problem with government efforts to safeguard the environment has been enforcement at the local level, not with a lack of laws. Air pollution from vehicle exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India. Exhaust from vehicles has increased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago; industrial pollution has risen four times over the same period. The economy has grown two and a half times over the past TV decades but pollution control and civil services have not kept pace. Air quality is worst in big cities like Kola, Delhi, Iambi, Achaean, etc. According to the Society Of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, Indian’s auto production has doubled from 7 million units in fiscal year 2004 to over 14 million units in year 2010 largely on the back of a buoyant domestic market. Bangor holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Air pollution in the city continues to rise due to vehicular emissions and dust from construction activities, according to the “Environment Report Card of Bangor 2012”. It says the number of vehicles on the city roads have exceeded 3. 7 million and there has been a consistent increase in the number vehicles at an average of 8% per year. ACHAEAN: Exhaust from vehicles, dust from construction debris, industrial waste, burning of municipal and garden waste are all on the rise in the city. So are respiratory diseases, including asthma. At least six of the 10 top causes Of death are related to respiratory disease, says Dry D Rangelands, director (in- charge), Institute of Thoracic Medicine. Iambi: Not only are levels of Suspended Particulate Matter above permissible limits in Iambi, but the worst pollutant after vehicular emissions has grown at an alarming rate. The levels of Resalable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSVP), or dust, in Mamba’s air have continued to increase over the past three years. The air pollution in Iambi is so high that Iambi authorities have purchased 42,000 liters of perfume to spray on the city’s enormous waste dumps at Deanna and Mulled landfill sites after people living near the landfill sites complained of the stench. The Deanna landfill site, one of Indian’s largest, was first used by the British in 1927. Today, the festering pile covers more than 120 hectares and is eight story high. Opal: Opal gas tragedy was the greatest industrial disaster in the world that took place at a Union Carbide suicide plant in the Indian city of Opal, Madhya Pradesh. At midnight on 3 December 1984, the plant accidentally released methyl assassinate (MIMIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000 people to MIMIC and other chemicals. The first official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release Others estimate died within 72 hours and 25,000 have since died from gas-related diseases, making it the deadliest man-made environmental disaster in history. The effects of air pollution are obvious: rice crop yields in outworn India are falling as brown clouds block out more and more sunlight. The brilliant white of the famous Tax Mall is slowly fading to a sickly yellow. In the “Tasmania Case” a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to save the Tasmania being polluted by fumes and more than 200 factories were closed down. Birds and species affected: Studies conducted by the high altitude zoology field station of the Zoological Survey of India (SSI) based in Solar town of Himalaya Pradesh have recorded a drastic fall in butterfly numbers in the western Himalayas, famous for their biodiversity. The population of 50 percent of the 288 species recorded in the western Himalayas, Himalaya Pradesh and Jam and Kashmir, have declined more than half in just 1 0 years according to World Environment Day 2012. Diesel exhaust fumes can cause cancer: WHO Diesel engine exhaust fumes can cause cancer in humans and belong in the same potentially deadly category as asbestos, arsenic and mustard gas, World Health Organization (WHO) experts said on June 15, 2012. Outside of Europe and India, diesel engines are almost entirely confined to commercial vehicles. German carmakers are trying to raise awareness for diesels in the United States, where the long distances traveled on highways suit diesel engines. U. S. Reposes tighter rules on soot pollution The Obama administration proposed stricter standards to control harmful soot from heavy industry on June 15, 201 2, a move expected to save lives Diesel exhaust from trains and ships, as well as construction operations, have made soot a problem. Also high air pollution may rise due to power generation from coal, considering the sheer scale of the capacity addition; Ozone exposure could trigger heart attacks Pollutants from vehicles, power plants, industry, chemical solvents and nonuser products create ground level ozone by reacting in the presence of sunlight. Recent studies have linked acute exposure to ozone and death but little is known about the underlying pathways responsible, the journal Circulation reports on June 26, 2012. International Ozone Day The brilliant white of the Tax Mall is slowly fading to a sickly yellow. In the famous “Tasmania Case” a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to save the Tax Mall Tax being polluted by fumes and more than 200 factories were closed down. Multi-stormed residential buildings stand behind an expanse of slums in Iambi Indian Coast Guard: The green crusaders also play the role of environmental crusaders I Indoor air pollution: Indoor air pollution is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COOP) in India, says a prevalence study conducted by Rune-based Chest Research Foundation (CRY) and the Imperial College, London in November 2010. Over 700 million people in India suffer from high levels of indoor air pollution affecting women and young children as 75 per cent homes use biomass fuel like wood, crop residue and dung cakes. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NICHES) s working to understand how exposures to environmental agents trigger diseases such as Asthma, and these diseases can be prevented, diagnosed and treated. Additionally, the NICHES is developing and testing new technologies to help determine environmental triggers and reduce asthma symptoms. River water Pollution Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of violence including wars, according to a United Nations report released on March 22, 201 0 on World Water Day that calls for turning unsanitary wastewater into an environmentally safe economic resource. According to the report titled “Sick Water? 90 percent of wastewater discharged daily in developing countries is untreated, contributing to the deaths of some 2. 2 million people a year from diarrhea diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor hygiene. At least 1. 8 million children youngest 5 die every year from water-related diseases. Fully 80 percent of urban waste in India ends up in the country’s rivers, and unchecked urban growth across the country combined with poor government oversight means the problem is only getting worse. A growing number of bodies of water in India are unfit for human use, and in the River Gang, holy o the country’s 82 percent Hindu majority, is dying slowly due to unchecked pollution. New Dell xi’s body of water is little more than a flowing garbage dump, with fully 57 percent of the city’s waste finding its way to the Yamaha. It is that three billion liters of waste are pumped into Deli’s Yamaha (River Yamaha)each day. Only 55 percent of the 15 million Delhi residents are connected to the city’s sewage system. The remainder flush their bath water, waste water and just about everything else down pipes and into drains, most of them empty into the Yamaha. According to the Centre for Science and Environment, between 75 and 80 percent of the river’s pollution is the result of raw sewage. Combined with industrial runoff, the garbage thrown into the river and it totals over 3 billion liters of waste per day. Nearly 20 billion rupees, or almost US $500 million, has been spent on various clean up efforts. The frothy brew is so glaring that it can be viewed on Google Earth. Much of the river pollution problem in India comes from untreated sewage. Samples taken recently from the Ganges River near Varnish show that levels of fecal chloroform, a dangerous bacterium that comes from untreated sewage, ere some 3,000 percent higher than what is considered safe for bathing. I Pollution by Bricks of clay Indian’s brick kilns are noxious sources of pollution, particularly soot, There are 100,000 kilns which turn out the 200 billion bricks made each year in India. The exhaust from the kilns mixes with diesel emissions and other fumes to form a vast brown smog, known as an atmospheric brown cloud, which is up to km thick and thousands of km. Eng. Metal Pollution On Lakes Indian researchers say that heavy metal pollution of lakes has a significant detrimental impact on people and ecosystems that rely on such bodies of eater. Opal gas tragedy The greatest industrial disaster in the world Groundwater exploitation Groundwater exploitation is a serious matter of concern today and legislations and policy measures taken till date, by the state governments (water is a state subject) have not had the desired effect on the situation. Groundwater Quality and Pollution is most alarming pollution hazards in India. On April 01 , 2010 at least 18 babies in several hamlets of Briar’s Phosphor district have been born blind in the past three months because their families consume groundwater containing alarming evils of arsenic, confirmed by Briar’s Health Minister And Shore Hydra on Wednesday, 31st March 201 0 confirmed the cases of blindness in newborns in arsenic- affected blocks of the district. According to the World Health Organization on World Water Day 2012, on March 22 each year, an estimated four billion people get sick with diarrhea as a result of drinking unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene. Nearly two million people die from diarrhea each year, and many of them children under the age of five, poor, and living in the developing world. Improper disposal of solid waste, both by he public and Abrupt Bangor Managers Apelike (BUMP) is causing direct contamination of groundwater, according to Dry M A Froufrou, scientist, Central Ground Water Board (CUB). Plastic Pollution Plastic bags, plastic thin sheets and plastic waste is also a major source of pollution. A division bench of Allahabad High Court, comprising Justice Ashes Babushka and Justice Run Tendon, in May 03, 2010 had directed the Gang Basin Authority and the state government to take appropriate action to ban the use of polythene in the vicinity of Gang in the entire state. Also Plastic Bag Pollution in the entry is the biggest hazards. On August 2, 201 0, seeking to know whether a fine should be imposed on pan miasmal or caught packet manufacturers for polluting and choking the drainage systems, the Supreme Court has directed the Union government to file its reply in six weeks. From January 20, 2011 sale of plastic or polythene bags has been banned in the vicinity of rivers or any other water body after Attar Pradesh Governor B L Josh gave his assent to an ordinance in this regard. The Governor has given his assent to UP Plastic and Bio-Degradable Garbage and Waste (Use and Disposal) Ordinance which makes areas around river and Water bodies no-polythene zone,” he said. Municipal solid waste Indian’s urban population slated to increase from the current 330 million to about 600 million by 2030, the challenge of managing municipal solid waste (MS) in an environmentally and economically sustainable manner is bound to assume gigantic proportions . The country has over 5,000 cities and towns, which generate about 40 million tones of MS per year today. Going by estimates of The Energy Research Institute (TERM), this could well touch 260 million tones per year by 2047. Municipal solid waste is solid waste generated by households, commercial establishments and offices and does not include the industrial or agricultural waste. Municipal solid waste management is more of an administrative and institutional mechanism failure problem rather than a technological one. Until now, MS management has been considered to be almost the sole responsibility of urban governments, without the participation of citizens and other stakeholders. The Centre and the Supreme Court, however, have urged that this issue be addressed with multiple stakeholder participation. Cities in India spend approximately of the city budget on solid waste services. Pollution due to Mining New Delhi-based Center for Science and Environment (CASE) on December 29, 2007 said mining was causing displacement, pollution, forest degradation and social unrest. According to the Centre for Science and Environment ( CASE) report the top 50 mineral producing districts, as many as 34 fall under the 150 most backward districts identified in the country. The CASE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining, wherein it has said, in 2005-06 alone 1. Billion tones Of waste and overburden from coal, iron ore, limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. With the annual growth of mining at 10. Per cent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre, the pollution would increase manifold in the coming years. The mines of Mohammad Coal Fields and NNTP draw about 25 Cry liters of water per day from the River Brahmins and in return they release thousands of gallons of waste water, which contains obnoxious substances like Ash, Oil, Heavy Metals, Grease, Fluorides, Phosphorus, Ammonia, Urea and Sulfuric Acid, into the River Nadir (A tributary of River Brahmins). The effluents from chlorine plant cause chloride and sodium toxicity to the river Rustically – the lifeline of southern Arioso. The Phosphoric Fertilizer Industry discharges effluent containing Nitric, Sulfuric and Phosphoric acids into river Mohammad. Toll reported on March 2, 2012 that in Ago the open cast extraction of iron ore has created a degraded environment with several resultant ills of air and ground water pollution and severe social impacts. Environmentalists say that severe damage to the state’s verdant landscape in the form of deforestation, ground and surface water pollution and damage to agricultural land and beaches in a worrisome area of concern. The Supreme Court on February 25, 201 1 ordered a probe by its committee into alleged illegal mining in Bellary and other forest areas of Karakas. A bench headed by Sufficient S. H. Sapid asked the apex court- appointed Central Empowered Committee to conduct the probe and file its report within six weeks. The explosive report of Lockhart on July 28, 201 1 uncovered major violations and systemic corruption in mining in Bellary Environmental degradation in this region in terms of plundering forest land and complete location of air and water pollution standards have been devastating . Due to illegal mining in Bellary tanks and natural streams are polluted. There is evidence of perennial rivers drying up and complete devastation of roads and other infrastructure due to transportation of iron ore. Despite stone mining links to several occupational diseases such as pneumonia’s, silicosis, tuberculosis, asbestosis and asthma, abject poverty keeps driving villagers in many parts of the Restaurants state to illegal mining. Restaurants is the largest producer of dimensional stones in the country. The state produces 5 core tones a year. An aluminum refinery in Arioso blithely continues to pollute the surrounding villages, despite the recommendations of the Supreme Court’s Central Empowered Committee that it be closed since it poses environmental and health hazards. Reinstalling in the east and west cells of the Red Mud pond built for the refinery’s alkaline waste disposal. Red Mud, which is the final waste product from bauxite. In the currently operational west cell, a ton of toxic waste is dumped for every ton of alumina produced in the refinery.
Environmental Pollution Paper
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