Air pollution pollution affects everything from agriculture and ecosystems to human health, on a global scale. The five major air pollutants are ground- level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide (Donnelley, 2010). A majority of these pollutants are the result of human action. One example being coal power plants. These plants release greenhouse gas emissions and particle air pollution. The burning of the coal creates pollutant byproducts. Other forms of industrial pollution, exhaust fumes, burning wood, and several forms of indoor air pollutants result in air contamination.
The combination of various air contaminates can be extremely toxic. The pollutants irritate the lungs and may even cause respiratory diseases and cancer in humans (Donnelley, 2010). Ozone Layer Depletion / Global Warming The ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet B (PUB) radiation. PUB radiation damages human DNA weakens the immune system, and is the primary cause of skin cancer (Donnelley, 2010). As a result of human activity, such as burning fossil fuels, the increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have thinned the ozone layer.
It is believed that this has accelerated global warming. Melting polar ice caps, threatened CEO-systems and catastrophic weather have all been attributed to global warming. Water Pollution & Shortage Pure water is in short supply. More than half of the world population does not have access to potable (safe) water. Nearly 40 percent of the population lacks access to even the most basic sanitation, and upwards of 4,000 children die daily due to illnesses from contaminated water Donnelley, 2010). Petroleum products, industrial pollutants, lead, chemicals, and pesticides seep their way into soil, groundwater, lakes, and rivers.
Exposure to these toxins is often devastating. Many chemicals are known to cause cancer (Donnelley, 2010). Land Pollution Much of the waste that ends up polluting the water starts out polluting the land (Donnelley, 2010). A majority of the world has grown accustomed to a throw-away lifestyle, which is neither healthy nor sustainable. The amount of waste the industrialized world generates is shocking. Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste may pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health. It may also cause or contribute to an increase in mortality, or an increase in irreversible or incapacitating illness (E.
P. A. 2011). Noise pollution’s-term exposure to noise pollution reduces concentration and productivity. Long-term exposure may affect mental health and even lead to loss of hearing (Donnelley, 2010). Which of the seven environmental issues is the most damaging to the environment and why? All seven environmental problems detailed above can be attributed, either erectly or indirectly, to over population. Increasing human population is the planet’s biggest environmental problem. As our population grows, the Earth’s resources vanish.
All of Earth’s natural resources, like fertile land and clean water, are disappearing at an unbelievable rate (Donnelley, 2010). The human population ravenously consumes natural resources, pollutes the air and water, tears down natural habitats, destroys ecosystems, and causes other species to become endangered or even extinct. Several Earth’s would be needed to keep up with the current population’s consumption. The carries part about the human population, which is already living far beyond its means, is that it is expected to increase substantially.
Population growth and overcompensation must be curbed or catastrophic effects to our planet and all of its inhabitants may be right around the corner. Repair a Broken Health Care System Complete the following chart. Provide seven proposals for changing the health care system. For each proposal, complete the Pros, Cons, and Future Outlook columns. Proposal Process Future Outlook Provide clinics for basic healthcare needs to all citizens free of cost. The revise would include immunization and diagnosis of minor injections and illnesses treatable with antibiotics, etc.
This would alleviate the high costs and long waits at emergency rooms because people without insurance could be treated by PAS or nurses, which reduces costs. It would also mean people would potentially get treatment before the illness or infections spreads to others or gets worse. These clinics would need to be funded. There would be a temporary shortage in qualified practitioners in the first few years. Many local government or nonprofit agencies offer immunization clinics but hey are usually crowded. Free flu shots are often provided by companies such as Wall-mart.
Take the burden of paying for health insurance away from the employer. Instead create a national sales tax to fund health insurance for everyone. Every US citizen would get a voucher to use towards health insurance. They could take that voucher to health insurance provider for basic coverage, and purchase additional coverage if desired. Every US citizen would have minimal health insurance coverage. Everyone who purchases goods and services would be contributing through the sales tax, so all Americans would contribute towards the cost.
This would help American companies compete against foreign companies who don’t pay benefits to their employees. The potential for the government to mismanage the tax funds or under fund the liability. The coverage would be basic, so there would still be limits in coverage. The healthcare bill recently enacted has attempted to increase health coverage but at a high price to both industry and consumers. Increased coverage for preventative care. The cost to prevent illness and disease are lower than treating them. It can be difficult to determine what should be covered in preventative care.
This trend is increasing and many employers offer incentives for employee participation in preventative activities such as gym memberships. Limit punitive damages to reduce the cost of malpractice insurance and the cost of unnecessary tests. Reduce the cost of healthcare. Potential for increase in negligence. This is a controversial topic but continues to gain momentum as public awareness increases. Reward efficiency Lower costs by encouraging doctors and administrators to work towards lowering costs. Efficiency usually means modernization and automation.
This could lead to increase in privacy breaches and resistance by doctors who prefer traditional methods. Likely to be included as part of a larger initiative. Limit food programs to include only healthy food choices. Do away with debt card program. Decrease obesity rates amongst lower income population. Cheap food is often loaded with salt, fat and other unhealthy ingredients. Potential for increase in cost of food program because healthy foods are more expensive. Public schools are making healthy changes to their lunch menus and vending machines. Bring back physical education programs for adolescents.
Kids are less active which leads to obesity and heart disease. Funding has been cut for many sports and physical education programs. May be difficult to provide funding. Public awareness campaigns attempt to educate adults and kids of the importance of exercise. Seven Issues Affecting Health Care The text lists seven issues affecting health care. For each issue, explain how the issue affects health care. Health care issue How does the issue affect health care? Cost The rising cost of health care is out of control and projected to continue rowing 6. Percent each year (Donnelley, 2010).
Accessing Americans lack adequate access to health services due to insurance barriers or maladministration of providers (Donnelley, 2010). Quality The great variation in quality is a major health care concern. Mortality and complication rates are used to asses individual practitioners and facilities (Donnelley, 2010). Malpractice Annual malpractice litigation and quality control costs inflate the cost of health care. Inefficiency Inefficiency may lead to errors in prognosis, billing and recovery. This is another issue with rising costs.