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English Language Arts 11 – All Questions/Answers ( Introduction to Early American Literature – Sentence Fluency)

What is the most important idea of the second paragraph of Of Plymouth Plantation?
The Pilgrims and ship’s officers discussed the damage to the ship and decided to continue the voyage.

To whom would Of Plymouth Plantation be most useful?
someone looking for information about how early immigrants traveled to Cape Cod

Of Plymouth Plantation suggests that one of the strongest values of the Plymouth colonists was
Godliness.

What is the central idea of the fourth paragraph of Of Plymouth Plantation?
The ship was unable to sail south to Hudson’s River, so it returned to Cape Cod instead.

What does Of Plymouth Plantation reveal about the Pilgrims’ readiness to establish a new colony where they landed?
They were not prepared for the harshness of the environment or the hostility of the American Indians, and they had little food if the ship left before spring.

According to Of Plymouth Plantation, which statement best describes the Pilgrims’ attitude toward the American Indians they encountered after landing at Cape Cod?
They thought the American Indians were both violent and hostile.

The book Stories the Iroquois Tell Their Children, by Mabel Powers, most likely includes
versions of traditional Iroquois myths.

What is the central idea of paragraph six of Of Plymouth Plantation?
The land was cold, desolate, and dangerous, and the Pilgrims could not rely on the ship or their friends in Europe for survival.

Read this quotation from the introduction of the book The Pilgrims of New England by Mrs. J. B. Webb.

All the principal incidents that are woven into the narrative are strictly historical, and are derived from authentic sources, which give an impartial picture both of the virtues and the failings of these remarkable emigrants.

Based on the introduction, this book most likely includes

excerpts from primary source documents.

Based on Of Plymouth Plantation, which aspect of the Pilgrims’ culture and society was most important to them?
their religious beliefs

Which best states the central idea of the first paragraph of Of Plymouth Plantation?
Bradford believed God punished a sailor who mistreated the Puritans.

Look at the table of contents from The Iroquois Book of Rites by Horatio Hale.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: THE HURON-IROQUOIS NATIONS
Chapter 2: THE LEAGUE AND ITS FOUNDERS
Chapter 3: THE BOOK OF RITES
Chapter 4: THE CONDOLING COUNCIL—CLANS AND CLASSES
Chapter 5: THE CONDOLENCE AND THE INSTALLATION
Chapter 6: THE LAWS OF THE LEAGUE
Chapter 7: HISTORICAL TRADITIONS
Chapter 8: THE IROQUOIS CHARACTER
Chapter 9: THE IROQUOIS POLICY
Chapter 10: THE IROQUOIS LANGUAGE

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Which chapter most likely contains information about the rules and regulations of the Iroquois Nation?

Chapter 6: THE LAWS OF THE LEAGUE

What is the main idea of paragraph three of Of Plymouth Plantation?
A sailor who fell overboard was spared by God to become a member of the church.

According to Of Plymouth Plantation, which statement best describes the relationship between colonists and American Indians?
It was difficult, tense, and violent as soon as the settlers arrived.

An article entitled “American Indian Oral Literatures” most likely focuses on
American Indian stories passed down through spoken word.

In the beginning of “The World on Turtle’s Back,” why did the husband become “terrified”?
He was terrified that he would be punished for marring a sacred tree.

According to “The World on Turtle’s Back,” which best demonstrates the Iroquois view of women?
Women were respected because they helped create and sustain the world.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

The right-handed twin accused his brother of murdering their mother and their quarrels continued until it was time to bury their mother. With the help of their grandmother, they made her a grave. From her head grew the three sister plants, corn, beans, and squash. From her heart grew tobacco, which people still use to give thanks in ceremony. She is called “our mother” and the people dance and sing to her to make the plants grow.

The excerpt suggests that the Iroquois believed that

sometimes good can come from tragedy.

Read this quotation from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

The woman placed the dirt on Turtle’s back and performed a ritual to create the earth. She walked around the dirt in the direction of the sun until the earth grew large enough. Then she planted the roots from the Great Tree and continued her ritual to keep the earth growing. Like the sun she kept moving around the earth, in the same direction the people still do in dance rituals today.

The main purpose of this quotation is to

describe the Iroquois belief of how the Earth was created.

The Iroquois perform rituals to honor the twins in “The World on Turtle’s Back,” illustrating the Iroquoian belief that
the twins are gods and it is important to show them devotion.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

The animals thought that perhaps there was dirt at the depths of the ocean, but they had never tried to reach the bottom before. One by one they tried to swim down, but their attempts were futile. Finally, the muskrat disappeared into the cold depth of the ocean. After a lengthy amount of time, he drifted to the surface with a tiny speck of earth in his hand. He appeared to be dead, but the animals prayed and chanted, and finally he stirred. The Earth-Diver was successful in bringing forth the soil to make the earth grow.

Which sentences from the excerpt best support the idea that the Iroquois valued sacrifice by one for the good of all?

After a lengthy amount of time, he drifted to the surface with a tiny speck of earth in his hand. He appeared to be dead. . . .

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

The conflict between the twins continued, and for some reason, the grandmother favored the left-handed twin. The right-handed twin became angry and resentful. He was the truthful twin who always did the right thing. The left-handed twin was deceitful and did everything backward. You could never trust him.

The twins represented the two ways of the world which are in all people. The Indians did not call these good and evil. They called them the straight mind and the crooked mind, the righteous man and the devious man, the right and the left.

The main purpose of this excerpt is to

clarify what the Iroquois considered the two different sides of human nature.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

Without knowing it, the right and left-handed twins built balance into the world. The plant-eating animals created by the right-handed twin balanced out the meat-eating animals created by the left-handed twin. And so the world thrived, and this was good.

Which statement best describes the purpose of this excerpt?

to explain how balance came to exist in the natural world

Based on “The World on Turtle’s Back,” which statement best describes the Iroquois attitude toward nature and the environment?
The Iroquois revered nature and valued the plants and animals that sustained them.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

One day, when the girl had become a woman, a man appeared. No one knows where this man came from. Perhaps he was sent from the Gods above. The girl was so filled with wonder to see this strange man, she lost her senses and fainted. The man yielded two very different arrows, and laid them across the body of the girl in opposite directions, then he disappeared.

Which statement best describes the significance of the arrows?

They represent the twins that the woman will bear.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

The birds of the sea joined together to save the woman and they broke her fall. The great sea turtle floated in the ocean and received the woman on his back without harm. The frightened woman looked around and all she could see was water and sky. She felt helpless, but the animals were determined to save her. She told them that if they could find some soil, she could plant the roots from the Great Tree that were still tangled in her hands.

Based on the animals’ behavior toward the woman, it is reasonable to conclude that the animals

felt compassion for the woman because she was scared.

“The World on Turtle’s Back” is a creation myth because it
explains how the Iroquois believe that the earth was created.

The conflict between the right-handed brother and left-handed brother described in
“The World on Turtle’s Back” shows that the Iroquois most likely believed
there is an eternal battle between good and evil.

Read this excerpt from “The World on Turtle’s Back.”

With the deer antler, the right-handed twin demolished his brother. The left-handed twin died, but he didn’t die. He was hurled off the edge of the earth by his brother. In this dark world below the earth, the left-handed twin still lives and reigns.

The right-handed twin lives in the Sky-World and he is content with the world he helped to create. The left-handed twin lives in the world below. He, too, is content with the world of men. He delights in the sounds of warfare and suffering. These two beings rule the world and look after the affairs of men. During the day people have rituals to honor the right-handed twin. At night they dance and sing for the left-handed twin.

Based on this excerpt, it is reasonable to conclude that

neither twin could die because they were immortal gods.

Read the excerpt from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”

The devil is waiting for them, hell is gaping for them, the flames gather and flash about them, and would fain lay hold on them, and swallow them up; the fire pent up in their own hearts is struggling to break out; and they have no interest in any Mediator, there are no means within reach that can be any security to them. In short, they have no refuge, nothing to take hold of.

Which word has a similar connotation to the word “swallow” in this excerpt?

devour

Read the excerpt from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”

Is it not a reasonable thing to fright a person out of a house on fire?

What is the purpose of this sentence in Edwards’s sermon?

It justifies Edwards’s strategy of scaring people into accepting God.

Sermons such as “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” were written largely in response to
the rejection of religion in favor of rationalism by some colonists.

The fact that “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” was popular suggests that the colonists
were interested in Edwards’s ideas about religion.

Read the excerpt from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”

And now you have an extraordinary opportunity, a day wherein Christ has thrown the door of mercy wide open, and stands in the door calling and crying with a loud voice to poor sinners; a day wherein many are flocking to him, and pressing into the kingdom of God. Many are daily coming from the east, west, north and south; many that were very lately in the same miserable condition that you are in, are now in a happy state, with their hearts filled with love to him that has loved them and washed them from their sins in his own blood, and rejoicing in hope of the glory of God. How awful is it to be left behind at such a day! To see so many others feasting, while you are pining and perishing! To see so many rejoicing and singing for joy of heart, while you have cause to mourn for sorrow of heart, and howl for vexation of spirit! How can you rest one moment in such a condition?

In this excerpt, Edwards is attempting to convince readers that they

could miss an invaluable opportunity.

Based on “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” which best describes Edwards’s feelings toward his congregation?
compassionate

Which image is used throughout “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” to provoke fear in the audience?
fire

Read the excerpt from “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”

It would be dreadful to suffer this fierceness and wrath of Almighty God one moment; but you must suffer it to all eternity.

In this excerpt, what is the denotation of the word “fierceness”?

aggression

Enlightenment thinking placed value on scientific knowledge and thought. Based on “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” which best describes the relationship between Enlightenment thinking and the thinking of Edwards’s followers?
The beliefs of the two groups directly opposed each other.

Which statement best describes Edwards’s views in “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”?
People who were “born again” in Christ would be spared.

Which statement best describes the rhyme schemes of “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty”?
Both poets use couplets for rhyme scheme and structure, inverting sentences when needed to maintain the rhyme.

Read the quotation from “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty.”

“May George, beloved by all the nations round,
Live with heav’ns choicest constant blessings crown’d!”

Wheatley uses the word crown’d to express the idea that the king

deserves reward for his goodness.

Read the quotation from “To My Dear Loving Husband.”

“I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold,
Or all the riches that the East doth hold.”

These lines contain an example of

hyperbole.

Read the excerpt from “To My Dear Loving Husband.”

“If ever two were one, then surely we.
If ever man were lov’d by wife, then thee;
If ever wife was happy in a man,
Compare with me ye women if you can.”

What is the rhyme scheme in these lines?

A, A, B, B

How does Bradstreet use figurative language throughout “To My Dear Loving Husband” to develop the theme?
Her comparisons emphasize her undying love for her husband.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes both “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty”?
The speaker celebrates an important figure in her life.

Which statement best describes the tones of “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty”?
Bradstreet’s poem has a soft and loving tone, while Wheatley’s poem has an energetic and excited tone.

How does each poet’s use of figurative language contribute to the overall meaning of “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty”?
Wheatley’s use of hyperbole accentuates her respect for the king; Bradstreet’s use of hyperbole shows how greatly the speaker values her husband’s love.

The theme best expressed in “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty” is
respect and adoration

Which rhyming couplet from Phillis Wheatley’s “On Imagination” contains an inverted sentence?
“Whose silken fetters all the senses bind,
And soft captivity involves the mind.”

Read the quotation from “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty.”

“And may each clime with equal gladness see
A monarch’s smile can set his subjects free!”

Wheatley uses the word free in these lines to suggest that

the king has the potential to make his subjects happy.

What is the effect of the couplets in “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty”?
They allow a poet to link lines of poetry together using sound.

Which statement best describes how Wheatley’s word choice in “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty” expresses her colonial values?
Using hyperbole, it stresses admiration and praise for the king.

A theme expressed in both “To My Dear Loving Husband” and “To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty” is .
gratitude and loyalty

Thomas Jefferson organized his argument in the body of the Declaration of Independence by listing the .
ways in which the King of England oppressed the colonists

Which of the following best describes Thomas Jefferson’s purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence?
to unite the colonists against the British government

How does Jefferson support his major premise in the body of the Declaration of Independence?
He lists the abuses the colonies have suffered under British rule.

Which best describes how Jefferson organizes his argument in the body of the Declaration of Independence?
by listing the ways in which the King of England has oppressed the colonists

Jefferson begins the introduction to the Declaration of Independence by stating his major premise and giving examples, and then explains
the relationship between the colonies and Britain.

Which statement best explains why the Declaration of Independence does not directly address the issue of slavery?
Some of the colonies were in favor of slavery and others were opposed to it.

Read the statement.

When a government fails to protect the unalienable rights of its citizens, it is the duty and right of citizens to create another form of government.

This statement is the Declaration of Independence’s

major premise.

Read this excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

“Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.”

Which statement best describes the excerpt?

This is the minor premise of the Declaration of Independence.

Read the excerpt from the conclusion of the Declaration of Independence.

“And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.”

Why does Jefferson conclude with this statement?

to show colonial support for the document and the willingness to fight for independence

Read the quotation from the Declaration of Independence.

“[The king] has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.”

Which best describes the colonists’ attitude toward American Indians?

fearful and mistrusting

Which of the following is a central idea in the conclusion of the Declaration of Independence?
The colonists have the right to separate from Britain’s oppressive rule.

Jefferson aimed to unite the colonists in writing the Declaration of Independence. How does the structure of the document support his purpose?
He concludes by stating that representatives from all thirteen colonies support the document.

Which best describes the structure of the Declaration of Independence?
introduction and thesis › list of reasons why the British government is oppressive › conclusion that the colonies must separate

In the introduction of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson explains the way a government should function. In the body of the document,
he illustrates how the king of England is not living up to these expectations.

Read the sentence.

A tray of fresh watermelon slices was provided by the booster club.

How should the writer revise the sentence to use active voice?

The booster club provided a tray of fresh watermelon slices.

Which sentence best creates emphasis specifically on water safety through the use of a split infinitive?
You will have to really watch the children at the beach because the current is very strong.

Read the sentence.

Mr. Richardson is shopping for the perfect shelf on which to display his bowling trophy.

How could a writer best revise this sentence to avoid overly formal language?

by choosing to end the sentence in a preposition

Which sentence contains a split infinitive?
Young children seem to thoroughly enjoy playing with soap bubbles and shaving cream.

Which sentence uses passive voice?
We were given new toothbrushes by the hygienist.

Which sentence contains an infinitive?
It is normal to make mistakes.

When a sentence uses , the subject of the sentence performs the action of the verb.
active voice

Which sentence best uses a split infinitive to create emphasis?
Young drivers must remember to always turn off cell phones before getting behind the wheel.

Read the sentence.

Someone sang a solo during the holiday concert.

The best reason to revise this sentence using the passive voice is that

the name of the singer is unknown.

Which sentence must be revised to eliminate the preposition at the end?
Where are Katelyn and Ella walking to?

Which sentence requires no revision?
Which bench will you be sitting on?

Read the sentence.

When she arrived at the concert hall, the singer walked through a crowd of cheering fans.

Which word is a preposition?

at

Read the sentence.

Jameson dropped and broke the cookie jar while his parents were on vacation.

What is the best explanation for why the writer would revise this sentence to use passive voice?

The writer wants to conceal the identity of the person who broke the jar.

Check all that apply.

Which words are prepositions?

at, under, near, from

Check all that apply.

Writers should avoid splitting an infinitive when

the sentence is already clear.
it sounds awkward to split the infinitive.
too much information is inserted between the two parts of the infinitive.

Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
Barack Obama, who won the presidential election in 2008 and was inaugurated in 2009.

Read the paragraph.

[1] Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. [2] Jefferson began writing in early June of 1776, and he took three weeks to finish the first draft. [3] The delegates of the Second Continental Congress reviewed the document during the last week of June.

Which is the best way to revise sentence 2 to improve sentence variety in the paragraph?

In early June 1776, Jefferson began writing, and he took three weeks to finish the first draft.

Read the paragraph.

Salvador Dalí, born Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí y Domenech. In Figueras, Spain in 1904. He was a Surrealist painter and printmaker; some of his most notable works explore subconscious imagery. In fact, he was profoundly influenced by the writings of Sigmund Freud. An Austrian neurologist who created psychoanalysis.

Which is the best way to improve this paragraph’s sentence fluency?

Correct the sentence fragments.

Read the paragraph.

Dekanawidah wrote the Iroquois Constitution. The document included rules and regulations that related to all different areas of Iroquois life. It described important rituals. Leaders from the Five Nations signed the Constitution. A sixth nation later joined the Confederacy in the early 1700s.

Which statement best describes this paragraph?

The sentences in the paragraph are structured similarly.

Which of the following is a run-on sentence?
On April 19, 1783, the US Congress ratified a preliminary peace treaty and five months later, the US and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris and British troops left New York City in November.

Read the information below.

ØErin enjoys dancing
ØErin’s favorite dance is the Lindy Hop

Which is the best way to combine this information into a grammatically correct sentence?

Erin enjoys dancing, and her favorite dance is the Lindy Hop.

Which of the following is written correctly?
In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, and it was formally adopted by Congress on July 4 of that year.

Read the sentences.

[1] Sameer took a deep breath, straightened his tie, and turned the doorknob. [2] Despite his nerves he was ready for his first interview and had thought through each potential question.

Which is the best way to rewrite sentence 2?

Despite his nerves, he was ready for his first interview; he had thought through each potential question.

Read the excerpt from The Crisis, Number XIII, by Thomas Paine.

“Never, I say, had a country so many openings to happiness as this. Her setting out in life, like the rising of a fair morning, was unclouded and promising. Her cause was good. Her principles just and liberal. Her temper serene and firm. Her conduct regulated by the nicest steps, and everything about her wore the mark of honor.”

Which statement best describes this excerpt?

Most of the sentences have a similar structure.

Read the paragraph.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) was born in Hyde Park, New York. He was the thirty-second president of the United States. He was the only president ever to be elected four times. FDR was the president during the Great Depression and World War II. He was the architect of the New Deal. The New Deal was a domestic program that provided economic relief and significant reforms in industry, finance, and housing.

Which is the best way to improve this paragraph’s sentence fluency?

Vary the sentence patterns.

Read the excerpt from The Crisis, Number II, by Thomas Paine.

“The character you appear to us in, is truly ridiculous. Your friends, the Tories, announced your coming, with high descriptions of your unlimited powers; but your proclamation has given them the lie, by showing you to be a commissioner without authority. Had your powers been ever so great they were nothing to us, further than we pleased; because we had the same right which other nations had, to do what we thought was best. ‘The UNITED STATES of AMERICA,’ will sound as pompously in the world or in history, as ‘the kingdom of Great Britain’; the character of General Washington will fill a page with as much lustre as that of Lord Howe: and the Congress have as much right to command the king and Parliament in London to desist from legislation, as they or you have to command the Congress. Only suppose how laughable such an edict would appear from us, and then, in that merry mood, do but turn the tables upon yourself, and you will see how your proclamation is received here.”

Which statement best describes this excerpt?

It contains sentences with varied structures.

Read the paragraph.

[1] Russell really enjoys baking. [2] He makes the most delicious plum tarts. [3] His tarts always have a perfect flaky crust. [4] Learning how to bake from a master chef in Paris is one of his dreams.

Which sentence in the paragraph is structured differently than the others?

sentence 4

Read the sentences.

[1] Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was published in 1776. [2] The Revolutionary war began that same year.

Which is the best way to combine sentences 1 and 2?

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was published in 1776, and the Revolutionary War began that same year.

Read the paragraph, which is a summary of a slave narrative by Olaudah Equiano.

[1] While he was working for Thomas Farmer, he began to buy fruits and other goods and sell them himself. [2] He faced insults and difficulties doing this; however, he was determined to continue making money, which he did. [3] He wanted to obtain enough savings to buy his freedom, which Robert King had promised him he could do for the same amount that King had paid for him. [4] When he had saved enough money, he bought his freedom from King and lived the rest of his life as a free man.

Which sentence in the paragraph is structured differently than the others?

sentence 2

Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
Marina, an excellent basketball player.

Which sentence contains a comma splice?
Marco rode to school on his bicycle this morning, he arrived an hour early.

A has two or more independent clauses without any punctuation between.
fused sentence

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