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English Civil War and French Revolution Essay Paper

The English Civil War and the Gallic Revolution are characterized by a alteration in power that took topographic point within their existing authoritiess in a comparatively short period of clip. In add-on. the English Civil War and the Gallic Revolution were both initiated from the citizen’s sadness with the king’s regulation. These were caused by a battalion of political. societal. and economic jobs shacking in the English and Gallic monarchies. In England. the civil war was a rebellion by parliament against the male monarch. There was a direct struggle and battle in finding each of their functions in regulating the state.

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After the Tudor dynasty ended with the decease of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 ; her cousin. King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England and therefore began the Stuart line of descent. Though he was influential in his fatherland. he knew small about the English Torahs. establishments. and imposts. James believed in Godhead right and accordingly alienated the parliament who were accustomed to the Tudor’s “balanced polity” . Parliament did nevertheless manage to maintain the power of the bag and expressed their sadness by declining the king’s money petitions.

King James’ extra failure was stemmed from spiritual associations. The Puritans in the state wanted James to extinguish the Episcopal system of the church organisation in which bishops or episcopos held a major function in the disposal and replace it with the Presbyterian theoretical account. This theoretical account was used in Scotland. replicated after Calvin’s church in Geneva where curates and seniors played an of import government function. However. their supplications were pushed off by James’ refusal because he realized in the Anglican Church. the bishops were appointed by the Crown.

This gave the monarchy supreme authorization over church and province. At this clip there was a turning resistance of the male monarch and now the Puritans joined in with other English aristocracy. Conditionss continued to decline under the reign of James’ boy. Charles I. He went as far to disregard parliament wholly from 1629 to 1640 after abjuring his old understanding to the Petition of Right. The papers prohibited revenue enhancement without parliament consent. arbitrary imprisonment. billeting soldiers in private places. and declaration of soldierly jurisprudence in peacetime.

Charles collected revenue enhancements for his inordinate disbursement without Parliament’s consent. Estranging himself farther. Charles’ matrimony to Henrietta Maria aroused intuitions about the king’s religion. She was the Catholic sister of Louis XIII of France and this upset the English Puritans. Charles attempted to present more ritual patterns with the archbishop of Canterbury. William Laud. This smitten Puritans as an attempt to return to Catholicism. Charles’ fatal mistake was seeking to enforce the Anglican Book of Common Prayer to the Scots Presbyterian Church. which caused many Scots to arise.

Without the fiscal backup needed to raise military personnels. Charles was forced to name the disbanded parliament. From November 1640 to September 1641. the new Long Parliament created a series of Torahs to restrict royal authorization such as get rid ofing arbitrary tribunals. revoking the revenue enhancements the male monarch collected without their consent and the transition of the Triennial Act. which made certain Parliament met at least every three old ages. Some were satisfied with these reforms while groups pushed for even more alteration.

Charles tried to take advantage of this division by collaring some groups including a big group led by John Pym. This concluding act made it clear that the male monarch had gone excessively far which resulted in the English Civil War. Unlike the English Civil War. the Gallic Revolution was closer to an rebellion against the power of the monarchy and rich aristocracy by the provincials and in-between category. Fifty old ages before the clip the war broke out in 1789. France experienced a period of economic growing due to enlargement of foreign trade and an addition in industrial production.

France was broken up into three imbalanced estates. The first and 2nd estates were made up of the clergy and Lords. which dominated society and led munificent lives and paid small revenue enhancements. The 3rd estate was made up of provincials who were non included in the nation’s prosperity. The revenue enhancements necessary to keep and pay for the first and 2nd estate’s luxuries to a great extent burdened the provincials. They constituted 75-80 % of the population but accordingly merely owned 35-40 % of the land. Their discontent and battle for survival played a critical function in the class of the revolution.

The consumer monetary values rose faster than their rewards. which resulted in urban groups unable to buy necessities to populate. A hard-boiled bitterness grew from both the lower and in-between categories. Even the middle class were excluded from the societal and political privileges dominated by Lords. At the same clip. new critical thoughts of the Enlightenment deemed attractive to groups aggravated by the monarchial system. The bulk of Gallic society was fed up with the old. stiff order based on estates and privileges and responded by taking drastic action against the government.

Crisis struck in 1787 and 1788 with bad crops and the beginning of a fabrication depression. This led to nutrient deficits. lifting monetary values and unemployment. One-third of the full Gallic population was hapless. These people saw the munificent lives of the first and 2nd estates. which led to increased unfavorable judgment of their existing privileges. The parlements gained new strength and Judgess took on the function of “defenders of liberty” against the arbitrary power of sovereign. However. these attempts failed when they pushed their ain involvements and frequently blocked new revenue enhancements.

The immediate cause of the revolution was the full prostration of authorities fundss. The court’s luxuries and dearly-won wars took a toll and their outgo grew to new highs. The authorities reacted by borrowing money. which created a immense involvement on the debt they already owed. Charles de Calonne. accountant general of finance. proposed a complete Reconstruction of the financial and administrative system of the province. He convened an “assembly of notables” to derive support. but they refused to collaborate and one time once more their attempts at reform failed wholly.

The Gallic male monarch. Louis XVI was forced to name a meeting of the Gallic Parliamentary organic structure. known as the Estates-General. At this point. the authorities was fundamentally squealing that the consent of the state was required to raise revenue enhancements. Louis ab initio thought this would be merely a manner to work out the immediate fiscal issues of the monarchy but really ended up reforming the authorities wholly and destructing the old government. The revolution was officially initiated on July 14. 1789. when several starvation. working people of Paris stormed into the palace of Bastille. demanding alteration.

Despite their differences. the Gallic Revolution and English Civil War root from agitation of their citizens and their desire to transform and better society. Clearly the chief job ballad within the corruptness and greed of people with authorization. The powerful have influence over the political. societal. and economic aspects of society. However. in these cases. each monarchy failed to compromise by disregarding their ain citizen’s defeats and battles. This left the civilians no other pick but to get down a revolution.

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