Not to be confused with the author. The persona, can either be participant (first person) or an observer (third person).
The reader or listener of poetry.
Poetry whose main function is to tell a story.
A long narrative poem about the exploits of a hero.
Work originally intended for public recitation and existed in oral form for a long time. Example: the Iliad
Product of known authors who wrote their poems for publication. Example: Dante’s Inferno
Shorter narratives with song-like qualities which often include rhyme and repeated refrains.
Focuses on sounds, images, or a specific subject rather than telling a narrative story.
A lyrical poem on the occasion of a death.
A long lyric in elevated language on a serious theme.
Sensory details denoting specific physical experiences.
Sensory details denoting sight.
Sensory details denoting sound.
Sensory details denoting touch.
Sensory details denoting smell.
Sensory details denoting taste.
Direct comparison between two unlike things (usually uses the “to be” verb).
Comparing two unlike things without directly stating what you are relating the object to.
Metaphor using the words “like,” “as,” or “than.”
Word whose meanings are closely related to their sounds, like “splash” or “thud”
Repetition of initial consonant sounds.
The repetition of similar vowel sounds in a line.
The repetition of similar consonant sounds in a line.
An overstatement, an extreme exaggeration
The opposite of hyperbole
Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects, nonhuman things, or abstractions
The speaker’s implied attitude towards the words he or she said.
Element of tone by which a poet may imply an attitude that is contrary to what his or her words appear to say. The simplest form is sarcasm.
Actual attitude is opposite of what is said.
The setting of the poem contains a built-in incongruity.
The persona is less aware of something than the reader
Free verse poetry
Verse with no consistent metrical pattern
A poem in the shape of something
The first letters of the lines spell a message.
Forms based on meter
Lines of iambic pentameter that do not rhyme
Traditional Japanese form; three lines long, 17 total syllables; five-seven-five
14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
Two stanzas; an octative rhyming ABBA ABBA and a sestet with a variable rhyme scheme: CDCDCD, CDECDE, etc.)
Single stanza; ABABCDCDEFEFGG
How lines are grouped in a poem
Paired rhyming lines
Four line stanza
A repeated line or group of lines in a poem
A pause in the middle of a line
Punctuation at the end of a line
Line running on to the next line before a punctuation mark