Employee engagement nowadays plays a more and more crucial role in workplace, as a powerful measurement of individual performance. Engaged employees are able to fully understand organization’s objectives and goals, align with its interest, maximize their productivity. Regardless its importance, the literature theories of employee engagement are only been developed over the past two decades. Therefore, how to better apply the theories and link them to practice In workplace gets more and more concerns.
The aim of this article is to explore different factors that are able to significantly affect employee engagement through the studies of nine long-term care (LET) facilities in Italy and the delivery business of New Zealand Post, moreover the study of FMC Company In India helps to support the arguments statistically.
Furthermore, we will seek corresponding strategies to improve employee engagement. In particular, effective leadership and developing opportunity have direct effects on increasing work engagement.
Furthermore, positive work environment and other factors also play a significant positive role in stimulating work performance.
Employee engagement Is defined as a partnership relationship twine employees and organization, which requires an Individual’s Involvement and enthusiasm for work, as well as active support from organization. The concept of employee engagement was first published by Kahn (1990) who suggesting engagement is affected by meaningfulness, safety and availability, which is in relation to Mach’s definition as ‘high levels of activation and pleasant’ (2001). Sing the available positive psychology framework, engagement was further conceptualized as ‘an individual’s involvement, satisfaction with as well as enthusiasm for work’ (Harder et al.
, 2002, p. 417). Moreover, Asks Multidimensional approach suggests that Job engagement significantly differs from the organizational engagement on various Job-related factors such as Job characteristics, organizational commitment and fairness.
Defining employee engagement still remains problematic, In the limited research on this topic these four approaches form a basic framework for the concept of work engagement from physical, emotional and cognitive aspects. As what suggested In the statistical results from FMC study, the following variables all contribute positively and significantly to employee: supervisor support, developing opportunities, positive work environment, decision authority, job characteristic. The maintenance of high level of employee engagement largely depends on effective leadership support O. Aristocrats & J. Parker, 2013).
As the models suggested, activation (Miasmal, 2001) and employee involvement (Harder, 2002) are positively associated with the degree of supervisor support. In the current workforce, the complexity for employees on meeting Job criteria and handing interpersonal relationship requires managers to manage workforce performance, deal with employee relations and deliver consistent results. This strategy was applied on the poesies successfully and got favorable results. Regular face-to-face talk with employees helps Individuals to be better Involved, activated and forming a stronger bond between Individual and organization.
Therefore, as a mean to Improve employee engagement, organization is expected to offer a range of management management. Opportunity offer plays a key role in boosting active role performances and individual motivation. Room to develop enables employees to continuously increase their own professional abilities in carrying out their work. The accumulation f skills avoids people from stress and fears to challenges, prevent exhaustion that erodes engagement (Miasmal, 2001), and boost labor productivity. Opportunity also refers to the availability of organizational resources such as budge and manpower.
So it is essential to encourage employees to make good use of provided learning resources in workplace such as structured learning on the Job, workshops, courses, library resources, etc. Positive work environment is recognized as an organizational culture that promotes individual rights, respect, fairness, trust and a balance of work and fun 0. Aristocrats & J. Parker, 2014). This is an effective means to sustain high performance. It also refers to a high degree of cognitive commitment. It is obvious that managers play a key role in the function of providing such a positive work environment.
Decision authority is considered to be one of the most important drivers in account for employee engagement. Taking employees’ perspective into consideration shows appreciation to their abilities and allows them to take ownership of their roles. This greatly stimulates employee’s motivation, activation and involvement and enthusiasm with their Jobs, as well as Job satisfaction. Differ from the statistical result from FMC, the L ETC contexts suggested ‘decision authority plays a negative role in explaining work engagement’ (Sari, 2014) due to potential Job complexity.
This expects managers to provide employees with decision-making authority when appropriate. Job characteristic refers to Job autonomy, Job pay and job definition. Job autonomy ultimately makes employee feel a sense of responsibility of their own choices, which positively brings energy, motivation and effort to work, and contributes to a higher self-efficacy. New recruitment is a mean to better match people to Jobs and help to clarify their own roles. So introduction of new rules and work design may be a good idea.
Engaged employees nowadays are increasingly needed by organizations for the purpose of better meet desired organization outcomes as an individual, at the same time ensure their own sense of well-being. In particular, engagement is two-way: individual add value to the organization and the organization helps people to realize their own potential and worth, they reinforce each other. With the great significant of maintaining a high level of employee engagement, the development of the unclear concept of engagement is now further explored and developed in HARD landscape at a fast pace.
The studies demonstrate that there is a bundle of Job resources able to explain individual’s degree of engagement in their work, particularly, the most significantly affective drivers of employee engagement are supervisor support, development and growth opportunity and work environment, decision authority and Job characteristics. Among all, effective leadership is the most essential issue to guarantee the successful implementation of other strategies.