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Elements of Poetry- Figurative Language

narrative
a long story told in verse form

lyric
a brief personal poem that uses many sound devices, as well as rhythm and meter; and is filled with emotion

ballad
a type of poem that is actually meant to be sung and is BOTH lyric and narrative in nature

simile
two dissimilar things that are compared using words such as “like,” “than,” “as,” or “resembles.”

metaphor
makes a comparison between two unlike things

direct metaphor
the literal term and the figurative term are both named

implied metaphor
the literal term is named and the figurative term is implied

extended metaphor
a metaphor – direct or implied – that is developed over more than one line of poetry

personification
giving human or animate qualities to an animal, an object or a concept

apostrophe
addressing someone absent or dead or something nonhuman as if it were alive and present and could reply

literary allusion
a reference to a person, place or thing from previous literature

hyperbole
using exaggeration for emphasis; overstatement

irony
meaning the opposite of what is said (verbal irony)

antithesis
a strong contrast of words, clauses, sentences or ideas that shows opposing ideas through opposing grammatical structures

synecdoche
using a part of something to represent the whole thing

metonymy
the substitution of one word for another closely associated word

paradox
a statement that although seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true (similar to an oxymoron)

symbol
something (object, person, situation or action) that means more than what it is

alliteration
the repetition at close intervals of the initial consonant sounds of certain words

consonance
the repetition at close intervals of middle or end consonant sounds of certain words

assonance
the similarity and repetition of vowel sounds of certain words at close intervals

onomatopoeia
the use of words that mimic their meaning in their sound

repetition
repeating a word or a phrase within a poem in order to emphasize an important idea, gives the poem structure and rhythm and makes it easier to remember

refrain
repetition of a word or phrase or line(s) at definite intervals in a poem

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