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Elements of Poetry- Figurative Language

a long story told in verse form

a brief personal poem that uses many sound devices, as well as rhythm and meter; and is filled with emotion

a type of poem that is actually meant to be sung and is BOTH lyric and narrative in nature

two dissimilar things that are compared using words such as “like,” “than,” “as,” or “resembles.”

makes a comparison between two unlike things

direct metaphor
the literal term and the figurative term are both named

implied metaphor
the literal term is named and the figurative term is implied

extended metaphor
a metaphor – direct or implied – that is developed over more than one line of poetry

giving human or animate qualities to an animal, an object or a concept

addressing someone absent or dead or something nonhuman as if it were alive and present and could reply

literary allusion
a reference to a person, place or thing from previous literature

using exaggeration for emphasis; overstatement

meaning the opposite of what is said (verbal irony)

a strong contrast of words, clauses, sentences or ideas that shows opposing ideas through opposing grammatical structures

using a part of something to represent the whole thing

the substitution of one word for another closely associated word

a statement that although seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true (similar to an oxymoron)

something (object, person, situation or action) that means more than what it is

the repetition at close intervals of the initial consonant sounds of certain words

the repetition at close intervals of middle or end consonant sounds of certain words

the similarity and repetition of vowel sounds of certain words at close intervals

the use of words that mimic their meaning in their sound

repeating a word or a phrase within a poem in order to emphasize an important idea, gives the poem structure and rhythm and makes it easier to remember

repetition of a word or phrase or line(s) at definite intervals in a poem


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