Chapter 2 Review of Related Litirature OREGANO Researcher does not only say that it works on the beetles but also Oregano oil as insectiside has no side effect on the enviroment because of its natural components. Oregano, a member of Lamiaceae family of plants has been known to be a natural insecticide by preventing egg laying and larval development. Chahrazed BoutekedJiret and his colleagues from Algeria’s National Polytechnic school established 18 components in oregano oil that combat pest and found greater focus of the oil used, and the more effective it was.
Oregano oil works as well as synthetic insecticides to combat infestation by a common beetle found in stored cereals( Algerian scientists). The researchers say not only does oregano oil work well in fighting infestations of the beetle Rhizoppertha dominica, but it has none of the associated side effects of synthetic insecticides on the environment. Oregano, a member of the Lamiaceae family of plants, has been known to be a natural insecticide by apparently inhibiting egg laying and larval development.
Chahrazed BoutekedJiret and colleagues from Algeria’s National Polytechnic School identified 18 omponents in oregano oil that combat pests and found the greater the concentration of the oil used, the more effective it was. The History of Oregano The word, oregano, is translated from Greek to mean “The Joy of the mountain”. In ancient Grecian societies, wreaths of oregano were used in marriage ceremonies to bless the happy couple and used in funeral services to impart peace to the deceased. As The Romans conquered Greece, they integrated a large portion of Grecian culture into their own.
It was these conquering Romans who were responsible for the widespread use of oregano throughout Europe and abroad. As this versatile, pungent spice wound its way down the “spice road”, a trading route between the Middle East and Asia, oregano finally arrived in China where it was used almost exclusively for medicinal purposes. Oregano was a rare find in the United States up until World War II when soldiers and an influx of foreign immigrants introduced it along with other spices to American culture.
Medicinal Uses for Oregano Used both internally and externally, oregano oil has been found to possess remarkable antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic and even though he did not understand the exact nature of infection, he understood that using oregano could prevent and treat one. As well as purportedly being the most effective natural treatment for yeast infections, oregano oil is used for respiratory health, strengthening the immune system and is a safe and effective treatment for ear infections in children and adults.
The active ingredients in oregano oil are thymol and carvacrol. These key compounds grocery stores and health food stores. It is important to note that, although safe, the oncentrated form of oregano oil should be diluted to a 50/50 concentration with olive oil to avoid the sometimes uncomfortable warming sensation that occurs when applying oregano oil topically or when taking it orally. Oregano oil is highly effective as a topical agent. Bug bites, rashes, even poison i’vy will respond to a topical application of oregano oil that has been diluted with olive oil.
As an antibacterial solution, a drop of oregano oil on a toothbrush will help immensely to eradicate bacteria associated with gum disease and tooth decay. Coupled with its pain killing roperties, oregano oil becomes a good home remedy for toothaches as well. This ancient herb holds much promise in the medical community. Having anti-oxidant properties that rival apples or blueberries, oregano oil is being researched for its possible future role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Today, oregano oil is sold and used for a variety of conditions.
Oregano oil is becoming more popular among homeopaths and naturalists seeking safe and effective alternatives to traditional drugs. http://voices. yahoo. com/healing-herbs-history-health-benefits- CITRUS Pests and diseases Citrus plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly and scale insects (e. g. California red scale). Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus which when unchecked by proper methods of control is devastating to citrine plantations.
The newest threat to citrus groves in the United States is the Asian Citrus Psyllid. The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like plants – but the real danger lies in that it an carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease. In June 2008, the psyllid was spotted dangerously close to California – right across the international border in Tijuana, Mexico.
Only a few months later, it was detected in San Diego and Imperial counties, and has since spread to Riverside, San Bernardino, Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura counties sparking quarantines in those areas. The Asian citrus psyllid has also been intercepted coming into California in packages of fruit and plants, including citrus, rnamentals, herbs and bouquets of cut flowers, shipped from other states and countries. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Citrus Medical Citrus Juice also has medical uses; lemon Juice is used to relieve the pain of bee stings. ranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of itrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of plants.
They extract of it from citrus fruits is used in medicine such as Tylenol for the gelling effect of it when broken down.  Limes and lemons as well as oranges and grapefruits are among the highest in this level. or orange is commonly used as a means to moisten medical cannabis when stored with it. Before the development of fermentation-based processes, lemons were the rimary commercial source of citric acid. Citrus fruit Juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk factors for specific types of kidney stones.
Grapefruit is another fruit Juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of stone formation. Citrus fruits have been observed to be used by Capuchin (Cebus capucinus) monkeys in Costa Rica as topical alms to protect against insects as well as an astringent and anti-fungal agent. http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Citrus CHILI History Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them “peppers” because they, like black and white pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy hot taste unlike other foodstuffs. Upon their introduction into Europe, chills were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries. But the monks experimented with the chili culinary potential and discovered that their pungency offered a substitute or black peppercorns, which at the time were so costly that they were used as legal currency in some countries.
Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Columbus. Diego ?…lvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus’ second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/chili_pepper The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related hemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids.
Capsaicin is also the primary component in pepper spray, a less-than-lethal weapon. When consumed, capsaicinoids bind with pain receptors in the mouth and throat that are responsible for sensing heat. Once activated by the capsaicinoids, these receptors send a message to the brain that the person has consumed something hot. The brain responds to the burning sensation by raising the heart rate, increasing perspiration and release of endorphins. A 2008 study reports that capsaicin alters how the body’s cells use energy produced by hydrolysis of ATP.
In the normal hydrolysis the SERCA protein uses this energy to move calcium ions into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. When capsaicin is present, it alters the conformation of the SERCA, and thus reduces the ion movement; as a result the ATP energy (which would have been used to pump the ions) is instead released as thermal energy. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/chili_pepper Capsaicin is a safe and effective topical analgesic agent in the management of arthritis pain, herpes zoster-related pain, diabetic neuropathy, mastectomy pain, and headaches. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/chili_pepper