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Educational Psychology Paper

Words: 1987, Paragraphs: 51, Pages: 7

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Early Childhood Education

Categories: Early Childhood Education, Psychology

Peers
People who are equal in age or status
Prosocial Behaviors
Actions that show respect and caring for others
Solitary Play
Play that occurs alone
Parallel Play
Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence
Associative Play
Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing
Cooperative Play
Play in which children join together to achieve a common goal
Self- Concept
A person’s perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values
Self-Esteem
The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilties, and behaviors
Social Comparison
The process of comparing oneself to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one’s abilities, attitudes, and conduct
Reflectivity
The tendency to analyze oneself and one’s own thoughts
Foreclosure
An adolescent’s premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, rather than his or her own desires
Identity Diffusion
Inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self
Moratorium
Experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment
Identity Achievement
A state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear-cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology
Puberty
Developmental stage at hich a person becomes capable of reproduction
Students At-Risk
Students who are subject to school failure because of their won characteristics and/or because of inadequate responses to their needs by school, family, or community
Compensatory Education
Programs designed to prevent or remediate learning problems among students from lower socioeconomics status communities
Title 1
Compensatory programs reauthorized under Title 1 of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) in 1994
Pull-Out Program
Compensatory Education programs in which students are placed in seperate classes for remediation
Early Intervention
Programs that target infants and toddlers who are at risk to prevent possible later need for remediation
Reading Recovery
A program in which specially trained teachers provide one-to-one tutoring to first graders who are not reading adequately
Success for All
A comprehensive approach to prevention and early intervention for preschool, kindergaren, and grades 1 through 8 with one-to-one tutoring, family support services, and changes in instruction designed to prevent students from falling behind
Senorimotor

Birth to 2 years

Formation of concept of “object permanence” and gradual progression from reflexive behavior to goal-directed behavior. During this stage babies and young children explore the world by using their senses and motor skills. Use of reflexes to produce more interesting and intetional patterns of behavior. Children progress from their earlier trial-and-error approach to a more planned approach to problem solving. “Thinking” appears now.

Preoperational

2-7

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Development of the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world.; Thinking remains egocentric and centered. During this stage, children have greater ability to think about things and use symbols to mentally represent objects.; Yet, much of their thinking remains primitive.; Children during this age have problems with conservation and centration.; Reversibility develops thru this stage. Children are egocentric in their thinking.;

Concrete Operational

7-11.

Improvement in ability to think logically.; New abilities include the use of operations that are reversible.; Thinking is decentered, and problem solving is less restricted by egocentrism.; Abstract thinking is not possible. Children in this stage still do not think like adults.; Children no longer have trouble with conservation because they have acquired the concept of reversibility. The older child is able to respond to inferred reality.; Children during this stage learn seriation.; Once this ability is acquired, children can master transivity.;

Formal Operation
11-to adulthood.; Abstract and purely symbolic thinking possible.; Problems can be solved through the use of systematic experiementation. Children can monitor or think about their own thinking. Children can start comparing abstract relationships to each other.;
Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory

1. A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not only its products.

2.; Recognition of the cruicial role of children’s self-initiated, active involvement in learning activties

3.  A deemphasis on practices aimed at making children adultlike in their thinking.

4.  Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress.

 

Psychosocial theory
A set of principles that relates social enviornment to psychological development
Psycholosocial crisis
According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages
Stage 1: Trust Vs. Mistrust

Birth to 18 months.

Trust as “an essential trustfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one’s own trustworthiness.”  If a mother is inconsistent or rejecting, she becomes a source of frustration for the infant rahter than a source of pleasure.  The mother’s behavior creates in the infant a sense of mistrust for his or her world that may persist throughout childhood and adulthood.

Stage 2: Autonomy Vs. Doubt

18-3 years.

Children in the terrible twos no longer want to depend totally on others.  INstead, they strive toward autonomy, the ability to do things for themselves.  The child’s desire for power and independence often clash with the wishes of the parent. CHildren have a dual desire to hold on and let go. Parents who are flexible enough to permit their children to explore freely and do things for themselves, while at the same time providing an ever-present figure encourage the sense of autonomy. Parents who are overly-resrictive and harsh give children a sense of powerlessness leading to doubt in one’s abilties.

Stage 3:  Initiative Vs. Guilt

3-6.

During this period, children’s continually maturing motor and language skills permit them to be increasingly aggressive and vigorous in the xploration of both their social and physical enviornment. Parents who severly punish children’s attempts at initiative will make the children feel guilty about their naturl urges both during this stage and later in life.

Stage 4: Industry Vs. Inferiority

6-12 Years.

Teachers and peers take on increasing importance for the child, while the influence of parents decreases.  Children now want to make things.  Success brings with it a sense of industry, a good feeling about oneself and one’s abilities. Failure creates a negative self-image, a sense of inadequacy that may hider future learning.

Stage 5: Identity Vs. Role Confusion

12-18.

The question “Who am I” becomes important during adolescence.  Adolescents increasingly turn away from parents and toward peer groups.  Individual’s rapidly changing physiology, coupled with pressures to make decisions about future education and career, creates the need to question and redefine the psychosocial identity established during the earlier stages. Teenagers experiment with various sexual, occupational, and education roles as they try to find out woh they are and who they can be.

Stave 6: Intimacy Vs. Isolation

 

Young Adulthood

ONce young people know who they are and where they are going, the stage is set for the sharing of their life with another.  The young adult is now ready to form a new relationship of tust and intimacy with another individual, a “partner in friendship, sex, competition, and cooperation.” The young adult who does not seek out such intimacy or whose repeated tries fail may retreat into isolation.

Stage 7: Generativity Vs. Self-Absorption

Middle Adulthood

Generativity is “the interest in establishing and guiding the next generation”  People attain this through raising their own children.  People should continue to grow through this stage; if they don’t, a sense of “stagnation and interpersonal impoverishment” develops.

Stage 8: Integreity Vs. Despair

Late Adulthood

People look back over their lifetime and resolve their final identity crisis.  Acceptance of accomplishments, failures, and ultimate limitations brings with it a sense of integrity, or wholeness, and a realization that one’s life has been one’s own responsibility.  The finality of death must also be faced and accepted.  Despair can occur in those who regret the way they have led their lives or how their lives have turned out.

Heteronomous Morality

Younger

Based on relations of constraint; for example, the complete acceptance by the child of adult presriptions. Reflected in attitudes of moral realis; Rules are seen as inflexible requirements, exernal in origin and authority, not open to negotiation; and right is a matter of literal obedience to adults and rules. Badness is judged in terms of the objective form and consequences of actions; fairness is equated with the content of adult decisions; arbitrary and severe punishments are seen as fair.  Punishment is seen as an automatic consequence of the offense, and justice is seen as inherent.

Autonomous Morality

Older.

Based on relations of cooperation and mutual recognition of equality among autonomous individuals, as in relations between people who are equals.  Reflected in rational moral attitudes: rules are viewed as products of mutual agreement, open to renegotiation, made legitimate by personal acceptance and common consent, and right is a matter of acting in accordance with the requirements of cooperation and mutual respect.  Badness is viewed as relative to the actor’s intentions; fairness is defined as equal treatment or taking acount of individual needs; fairness of punishment is defined by appropriateness to the offense. Punishment is seen as affected by human intention.

Moral Dilemmas
Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.
Preconventional Level
People obey authoriy figures to avoid being punished. Rules are set down by others.
Preconventioanl Level Stage 1

Punishment and Obedience Orientation. 

Physical consequences of action determine its goodness or badness.

Preconventional Level Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
What is right is whatever satisfies one’s own needs and occasionally the needs of others.  Elements of fairness and reciprocity are present, but they are mostly interpreted in a “you scratch my back, ill scratch yours” fashion
Conventional Level
People make moral judgements in consideration of others.  Individual adopts rules and will sometimes subordinate own needs to those of the group.  Expectations of family, group, or nation seen as valuable in own right, regardless of immediate and obvious consequences.
Conventional Level Stage 3: Good Boy- Good Girl
Good behavior is whatever pleases or helps others and is approved by them.  One earns approval by being “nice”
Conventional Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Right is doing one’s duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining the given social order for its own sake.
Postconventional Level
People define own values in terms of ethical prinicples they have choosen to follow
Postconventional Level Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
What is righ tis defined in terms of genral individual rights and terms of standards that have been agreed on by the whole society.  In contrast to stage 4, laws are not frozen- they can be changed for the good of society.
Postconventional Level Stage 6: Universal Ethnical Principle Orientation
What is right is defined by decision of conscience according to self-chosen ethical principles.  THese principles are abstract and ethical (such as Golden Rule), not specific moral prescriptions (such as ten commandments)
Prosocial Behaviors
Actions that show respect and caring for others
Parallel Play
Play in which children engage in the same acitivity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influences
Associative Play
Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levles of interaction in the form of sharing, turn taking, and general interest in what others are doing
Cooperative Play
Play in which children join togerher to achieve a common goal
Self -Concept
A person’s perception of his or her own strenghts, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values
Self-Esteem
The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors
Modeling
Children who observe models learning positive social interaction skills improve in their own skills
Coaching
You can demonstrate positive social skills, explain why these skills are important, provide opportunities for practice, and give follow up feedback.
Puberty
Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction
Reflectivity
The tendency to analyze oneself and one’s own thoughts
Foreclosure
An adolescent’s premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, rather than his or her own decisions
Identity diffusion
Inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self
Moratorium
Experimentation with occupationl an ideological choices without definite commitment
Identity Achievement
A state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology

About the author

This sample paper is done by Joseph, whose major is Psychology at Arizona State University. All the content of this work is his research and thoughts on Educational Psychology and can be used only as a source of ideas for a similar topic.

Here are other papers written by Joseph:

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Educational Psychology. (2018, Jan 30). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-educational-psychology-2/

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