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Ecology Midterm 1

Characteristics of Populations
1. Distribution
2. Abundance
3. Spatial Pattern
4. Density
map of all areas where abundance is greater than zero (size, shape, location)
Three populations with the same density but different dispersion (Regular vs. Clumped vs. Random)
Regular Spatial Pattern
wants to be far away as possible from each other
Clumped Spatial Pattern
attraced to each other and common resources (ex. eusocial)
Random Spatial Pattern
Distributions limited by three forces
1. Habitat Suitability
2. History
3. Dispersal
Habitat Suitability
abiotic factors (water, heat, light)
biotic factors (predation, competition, and paristism)
Geographic Range
entire geographic range
Patchy Distribution
patchy geographic ranges on numerous scales
Life Tables
fixed fecundity and survival rates
Sexual Selection (two types)
intrasexual and intersexual selection
Intrasexual Selection
individuals of the same sex compete
(change in physical traits, increase in body size, and weapons)
Intersexual Selection
females choose males based on specific trait (therefore, an increase in a particular trait)
food is rare, widely dispersed, predator evolved by crypsis
Group Living
favored when food is abundant, clumped, evasion by mobbing and dilution
Benefits to Group Living
decrease in predation
increase in foraging efficiency
decrease searching and handling time
increase defense of territory
division of labor
access to mates and kin selection
Costs of Group Living
risks conspecific kills offspring
risks infection
exploit parental care
increase in stress with relationships

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