Over the next four days, the body is completely remodeled to give the adult winged form, which then hatches from the papal case and is fertile within about 12 hours. Fruit fly has four pairs of chromosomes: the WY sex chromosomes and the outcomes 2, 3, and 4. The fourth chromosome is very tiny and rarely heard from. The size of the genome is about 165 million bases and contains and estimated 14,000 genes (by comparison, the human genome has 3,400 million bases and may have about 22,500 genes; yeast has about 5800 genes in 13. 5 million base bases). The gnome has been completely sequenced and analysis of the data is now mostly complete.
Fruit fly is a most commonly used model organism in studies such as genetics, biology, physiology and life history evolution. It is so useful because it is very small and easy to grow in the laboratory. It has a short generation time about two weeks and a high productivity. The mature larvae show giant chromosomes in the salivary glands. Drosophila has been used as a model organism for research for almost a century, and today. Part of the reason people work on it is because it is a small animal, with a short life cycle of just two weeks, ND is cheap and easy to keep large numbers.
Mutant flies, with defects in any of several thousand genes are available, and the entire genome has recently been sequenced. Fruit flies are normally somewhat difficult for students to handle. They often escape by flying away if not properly stored or if not carefully transferred and anesthetized during study. This may result in losses that can be detrimental to the results of the study. Purpose The fruit fly experiment was conducted to understand chromosomal basis of inheritance. The source of genetic variation. To understand gene expression the efferent progeny that will be produce.
The principle of sex linked gene for white eyes and separates wings.. Hypothesis The inheritance of the White-eyed mutation is sex-linked and recessive. The predicted phenotype distribution for IF debris cross ratio is 9:3;3:1 Materials and methods Materials White eye male flies Patterns female flies Flyway Flyway wand Microscope Drosophila Media, formula 4-24 Yeast Water Clean media vials Non-absorbent cotton tops Labels (Tapes) Paint brush Linden treated shelf paper Tweezers The sets and kits were provided by the university of Houston downtown lecturer.
Methods First characteristics of our fruit flies were chosen: white eyes and separates wings. Then it was made sure that the vials were cleared and well labeled. 6 vials stock were created by setting up vials containing males and females of the same traits the flies had mated and stock was available to create the parental generation. But three vials of the flies had died, they were stuck to the media, and not sufficient flies were alive to reproduce number of pupa needed. New parental vials were created and allowed to mate.
A total of 2 weeks was required for parental vials to start reproducing. Flies were transferred to different vial only leaving the pupa from the patterns vials, flies that had hatched from the pupa, the females were isolated and placed in a different media vial in an attempt to obtain virgin females After no larva formed in the vial containing female patterns flies only, it was determined they were virgins. Nine media vials were set up to create the Fl cross. Five patterns females and five white eye males where placed in each vial.
Some larva containing vials had hatched into flies. Counting of the flies began at this point. As flies started to grow, at different rates for each vial, tit in the first seven days after all larva had hatched the flies were counted. The procedure was done according to drosophila manual (45-2620) Results Fl Predictions For our first generation (Fl) of flies we chose to cross patterns (+) females and white-eye (w) males. We predicted that the mutation would be sex linked recessive.
So if the female was the sex with the mutation then all females would be wild type heterozygous. Heterozygous is a term used when the two genes for a trait are opposite. The males would all be white eye since they only have one X chromosome. If the males were the sex that had the mutation then all the flies loud be wild type but the females would be heterozygous. Fl Outcomes From the cross white eye males with wild females, our results were we got both phenotypes in the males as well as the females to be wild type.