DOUGLAS MCGREGOR FLOW
• WHY NOW ? ..
• WORKS INTRO HIS STUDY
• THEORY-Y CONCLUSION
• APPLICATIONS PROFILE-DOUGLAS MC GREGOR (1906-1964) He graduated Wayne State University PHD in Experimental Psychology(Harvard) He was Born Published his Theory of X & Y in the book “Human Side of Enterprise” Death 1906 1932 1935 1960 1964 HIS WORKS
• Douglas Mc Gregor is one of the forefathers of contemporary management thinking over 50 years ago he began investigating the importance of people to business.
In order to thrive an organization needs to harness the intelligence, enthusiasm and commitment of all the employees.
• He has worked extensively in this field and contributed through some of his works such as: 1. Human Side Of Enterprise 2. Leadership and Motivation 3. The Professional Manager (Posthumous Publication) This book had an profound influence on management practices then. In it he basically: a)Challenged the prevailing belief that workers are inherently lazy b)He formulated two models, Theory X and Theory Y, based on his examination of the way people behave at workplace.
It has changed an entire concept of Organizational man and replaced it with a new paradigm that stressed human potential and emphasized human growth. This book is perhaps the clearest statement of the managerial theory that is scientific in outlook and in approach , humanistic and democratic in spirit. The most effective and the most equitable course of leadership is to satisfy the higher needs of workers on all levels the needs of self respect, initiative and recognition of competence.
This book attempts to bring the needs of the business executive and the contributions of the behavioral sciences in to an applicable focus.
The problems in dealing with unions of government workers. Clarifies the legal and political considerations. McGregor argued that managers operate from their personal view of how employees function. He separated managers into two groups based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He related Theory X managers to lower order needs in the hierarchy and Theory Y managers to higher order needs. THEORY-X (AUTHORITARIAN MANAGEMENT STYLE) Human beings have an inherent dislike for work and will try to avoid it .
• People must be coerced controlled threatened to get the work done the average human being prefers to be directed wishes to avoid responsibility.
• People have relatively little ambition, want security above all. Management have the right to command and enforce obedience THEORY Y -( Participative Management Style)
• Assumes that people want to work and need managers to facilitate their activity not to control it.
• Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work . The average person will take responsibility under proper conditions. The need is for “LEADERSHIP” and not “management” . X theory Demands Never asks.!! Y theory More of a Leader..!
• • Distasteful, will avoid work whenever possible. Not ambitious, no desire for responsibility. Value Job security Dislike work Close supervision required.
• • Work is as natural as play if conditions are in favor. Average person accepts responsibility. Values creativity Seeks chances to be creative BUSINESS IMPLICATIONS
By applying the Mc Gregor’s model in to business we can:
• Devise a better performance management system
• Form and supervise effective management teams
• Better staff line relationships, build co-operation
• Cultivate an intrinsically motivating, value driven workplace.
• Creates employee commitment . CONCLUSION
• The X-Y theories express only the extreme positions between which most employees may or may not fall in to real life .
• In Peter Ducker’s words “With every passing year McGregor’s message becomes ever more relevant, timelier and more important.