An electronic library ( conversationally referred to as a digital library ) is a library in which aggregations are stored in electronic media formats ( as opposed to publish. microform. or other media ) and accessible via computing machines. [ 1 ] Wikipedia: VerifiabilityThe electronic content may be stored locally. or accessed remotely via computing machine webs. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system. In the context of the DELOS [ 2 ] . a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries. and DL.
org [ 3 ] . a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability.
Best Practices and Modelling Foundations. Digital Library research workers and practicians and package developer produced a Digital Library Reference Model [ 4 ] [ 5 ] which defines a digital library as: “A potentially practical administration. that comprehensively collects. manages and conserves for the long deepness of clip rich digital content. and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content. of defined quality and harmonizing to comprehensive statute policies.
“ [ 6 ] The first usage of the term digital library in print may hold been in a 1988 study to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives [ 7 ] Wikipedia: Verifiability The term digital libraries was foremost popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994.
[ 8 ] These draw to a great extent on As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945. which set out a vision non in footings of engineering. but user experience. [ 9 ] The term practical library was ab initio used interchangeably with digital library. but is now chiefly used for libraries that are practical in other senses ( such as libraries which aggregate distributed content ) .
A differentiation is frequently made between content that was created in a digital format. known as born-digital. and information that has been converted from a physical medium. e. g. paper. by digitising. It should besides be noted that non all electronic content is in digital informations format. The term intercrossed library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical aggregations and electronic aggregations. For illustration. American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some of import digital libraries besides serve as long term archives. such as arXiv and the Internet Archive.
Others. such as the Digital Public Library of America. seek to do digital information widely accessible through public libraries. [ 10 ] Academic repositories Many academic libraries are actively involved in constructing institutional depositories of the institution’s books. documents. theses. and other plants which can be digitized or were ‘born digital’ . Many of these depositories are made available to the general populace with few limitations. in conformity with the ends of unfastened entree. in contrast to the publication of research in commercial diaries. where the publishing houses frequently limit entree rights.
Institutional. genuinely free. and corporate depositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries. Digital archives Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally. archives are defined as: 1. Incorporating primary beginnings of information ( typically letters and documents straight produced by an person or organisation ) instead than the secondary beginnings found in a library ( books. periodicals. etc. ) . 2. Having their contents organized in groups instead than single points. 3.
Having alone contents. The engineering used to make digital libraries is even more radical for archives since it breaks down the 2nd and 3rd of these general regulations. In other words. “digital archives” or “online archives” will still by and large contain primary beginnings. but they are likely to be described separately instead than ( or in add-on to ) in groups or aggregations. Further. because they are digital their contents are easy consistent and may so hold been 1 Digital library reproduced from elsewhere.
The Oxford Text Archive is by and large considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary beginning stuffs. The future Large graduated table digitisation undertakings are underway at Google. the Million Book Project. and Internet Archive. With continued betterments in book handling and presentation engineerings such as optical character acknowledgment and ebooks. and development of alternate depositaries and concern theoretical accounts. digital libraries are quickly turning in popularity. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video aggregations. so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive.
Google Books undertaking late received a tribunal triumph on continuing with their book-scanning undertaking that was halted by the Authors’ club. This helped open the route for libraries to work with Google to break range frequenters who are accustomed to computerized information. One factor that gave Google an advantage is the librarie’s carnival usage statement. Harmonizing to Larry Lannom. Director of Information Management Technology at the non-profit-making Corporation should be for National Research Initiatives. “all the jobs associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving.
” He goes on to province. “If in 100 old ages people can still read your article. we’ll have solved the job. ” Daniel Akst. writer of The Webster Chronicle. proposes that “the hereafter of libraries — and of information — is digital. ” Peter Lyman and Hal Varian. information scientists at the University of California. Berkeley. estimation that “the world’s entire annual production of print. movie. optical. and magnetic content would necessitate approximately 1. 5 billion Gs of storage. ” Therefore. they believe that “soon it will be technologically possible for an mean individual to entree virtually all recorded information.
“ [ 11 ] Searching Most digital libraries provide a hunt interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web ( or unseeable web ) resources since they often can non be located by hunt engine sycophants. Some digital libraries create particular pages or sitemaps to let hunt engines to happen all their resources. Digital libraries often use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting ( OAI-PMH ) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries. and search engines like Google Scholar. Yokel!
and Scirus can besides utilize OAI-PMH to happen these deep web resources. [ 12 ] There are two general schemes for seeking a federation of digital libraries: 1. distributed searching. and 2. seeking antecedently harvested metadata. Distributed seeking typically involves a client directing multiple hunt petitions in analogue to a figure of waiters in the federation. The consequences are gathered. extras are eliminated or clustered. and the staying points are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39. 50 are often used in distributed searching.
A benefit to this attack is that the resource-intensive undertakings of indexing and storage are left to the several waiters in the federation. A drawback to this attack is that the hunt mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capablenesss of each database. doing it hard to piece a combined consequence consisting of the most relevant found points. Searching over antecedently harvested metadata involves seeking a locally stored index of information that has antecedently been collected from the libraries in the federation.
When a hunt is performed. the hunt mechanism does non necessitate to do connexions with the digital libraries it is seeking – it already has a local representation of the information. This attack requires the creative activity of an indexing and harvest home mechanism which operates on a regular basis. linking to all the digital libraries and questioning the whole aggregation in order to detect new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is often used by digital libraries for leting metadata to be harvested.
A benefit to this attack is that the hunt mechanism has full control over indexing and superior algorithms. perchance 2 Digital library leting more consistent consequences. A drawback is that reaping and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and hence expensive. Frameworks The formal mention theoretical accounts include the DELOS Digital Library Reference Model [ 13 ] and the Streams. Structures. Spaces. Scenarios. Societies ( 5S ) formal model. [ 14 ] The Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System ( OAIS ) provides a model to turn to digital saving.
[ 15 ] Construction and organisation See besides Digital Collections Selection Criteria. Software There are a figure of package bundles for usage in general digital libraries. for noteworthy 1s see Digital library package. Institutional depository package. which focuses chiefly on ingest. saving and entree of locally produced paperss. peculiarly locally produced academic end products. can be found in Institutional depository package. This package may be proprietary. as is the instance with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to pull off digital content.
Digitization In the past few old ages. processs for digitising books at high velocity and relatively low cost have improved well with the consequence that it is now possible to digitise 1000000s of books per twelvemonth. [ 16 ] Google book-scanning undertaking [ 17 ] is besides working with libraries to offer digitise books forcing frontward on the digitize book kingdom. Advantages The advantages of digital libraries as a agency of easy and quickly accessing books. archives and images of assorted types are now widely recognized by commercial involvements and public organic structures likewise.
[ 18 ] Traditional libraries are limited by storage infinite ; digital libraries have the possible to hive away much more information. merely because digital information requires really small physical infinite to incorporate it. As such. the cost of keeping a digital library can be much lower than that of a traditional library. A physical library must pass big amounts of money paying for staff. book care. rent. and extra books. Digital libraries may cut down or. in some cases. make off with these fees.
Both types of library require cataloguing input to let users to turn up and recover stuff. Digital libraries may be more willing to follow inventions in engineering supplying users with betterments in electronic and audio book engineering every bit good as showing new signifiers of communicating such as wikis and web logs ; conventional libraries may see that supplying on-line entree to their OPAC catalogue is sufficient. An of import advantage to digital transition is increased handiness to users.
They besides increase handiness to persons who may non be traditional frequenters of a library. due to geographic location or organisational association.
• No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need non to travel to the library physically ; people from all over the universe can derive entree to the same information. every bit long as an Internet connexion is available.
• Round the clock handiness A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can derive entree 24/7 to the information.
• Multiple entree. The same resources can be used at the same time by a figure of establishments and frequenters.
This may non be the instance for copyrighted stuff: a library may hold a licence for “lending out” merely one transcript at a clip ; this is achieved with a system of digital rights direction where a resource can go unaccessible after termination of the loaning period or after the loaner chooses to do it unaccessible ( tantamount to returning the 3 Digital library
• resource ) . Information retrieval. The user is able to utilize any search term ( word. phrase. rubric. name. topic ) to seek the full aggregation.
Digital libraries can supply really user-friendly interfaces. giving clickable entree to its resources. Preservation and preservation. Digitization is non a long-run saving solution for physical aggregations. but does win in supplying entree transcripts for stuffs that would otherwise autumn to debasement from repeated usage. Digitized aggregations and born-digital objects pose many saving and preservation concerns that analog stuffs do non. Please see the undermentioned “Problems” subdivision of this page for illustrations. Space.
Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage infinite. digital libraries have the possible to hive away much more information. merely because digital information requires really small physical infinite to incorporate them and media storage engineerings are more low-cost than of all time before. Added value. Certain features of objects. chiefly the quality of images. may be improved. Digitization can heighten discernability and take seeable defects such as discolorations and stain. [ 19 ] Easily accessible. Challenges Digital saving.
Digital saving aims to guarantee that digital media and information systems are still explainable into the indefinite hereafter. Each necessary constituent of this must be migrated. preserved or emulated. [ 20 ] Typically lower degrees of systems ( floppy discs for illustration ) are emulated. bit-streams ( the existent files stored in the discs ) are preserved and runing systems are emulated as a practical machine. Merely where the significance and content of digital media and information systems are good understood is migration possible. as is the instance for office paperss.
[ 21 ] [ 22 ] However. at least one organisation. the WiderNet Project. has created an offline digital library. the eGranary. by reproducing stuffs on a 4 TB difficult thrust. Alternatively of a bit-stream environment. the digital library contains a constitutional placeholder waiter and hunt engine so the digital stuffs can be accessed utilizing an Internet browser. Besides. the stuffs are non preserved for the hereafter. The eGranary is intended for usage in topographic points or state of affairss where Internet connectivity is really slow. non-existent. undependable. unsuitable or excessively expensive.
Copyright and licencing Digital libraries are hampered by right of first publication jurisprudence because. unlike with traditional printed plants. the Torahs of digital right of first publication are still being formed. The republication of stuff on the web by libraries may necessitate permission from rights holders. and there is a struggle of involvement between libraries and the publishing houses who may wish to make on-line versions of their acquired content for commercial intents. In 2010. it was estimated that 23 per centum of books in being were created before 1923 and therefore out of right of first publication.
Of those printed after this day of the month. merely five per centum were still in print as of 2010. Therefore. about 72 per centum of books were non available to the populace. [ 23 ] There is a dilution of duty that occurs as a consequence of the distributed nature of digital resources. Complex rational belongings affairs may go involved since digital stuff is non ever owned by a library. [ 24 ] The content is. in many instances. public sphere or spontaneous content merely. Some digital libraries. such as Project Gutenberg. work to digitise out-of-copyright plants and do them freely available to the populace.
An estimation of the figure of distinguishable books still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960. has been made. [ 25 ] The Fair Use Provisions ( 17 USC § 107 ) under the Copyright Act of 1976 provide specific guidelines under which fortunes libraries are allowed to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute just usage are “Purpose of the usage. Nature of the work. Amount or substantialness used and Market impact. “ [ 26 ] 4 Digital library Some digital libraries get a licence to impart their resources.
This may affect the limitation of imparting out merely one transcript at a clip for each licence. and using a system of digital rights direction for this intent ( see besides above ) . The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 was an act created in the United States to try to cover with the debut of digital plants. This Act incorporates two pacts from the twelvemonth 1996.
It criminalizes the effort to circumvent steps which limit entree to copyrighted stuffs. It besides criminalizes the act of trying to besiege entree control. [ 27 ] This act provides an freedom for non-profit-making libraries and archives which allows up to three transcripts to be made. one of which may be digital.
This may non be made public or distributed on the web. nevertheless. Further. it allows libraries and archives to copy a work if its format becomes disused. [ 28 ] Copyright issues persist. As such. proposals have been put frontward proposing that digital libraries be exempt from copyright jurisprudence. Although this would be really good to the populace. it may hold a negative economic consequence and writers may be less inclined to make new plants. [ 29 ] Another issue that complicates affairs is the desire of some publication houses to curtail the usage of digit stuffs such as e-books purchased by libraries.
Whereas with printed books. the library owns the book until it can no longer be circulated. publishing houses want to restrict the figure of times an e-book can be checked out before the library would necessitate to buy back that book. “ [ HarperCollins ] began licencing usage of each e-book transcript for a upper limit of 26 loans. This affects merely the most popular rubrics and has no practical consequence on others. After the bound is reached. the library can buy back entree rights at a lower cost than the original monetary value.
” [ 30 ] While from a publication position. this sounds like a good balance of library loaning and protecting themselves from a feared lessening in book gross revenues. libraries are non set up to supervise their aggregations as such. They acknowledge the increased demand of digital stuffs available to frequenters and the desire of a digital library to go expanded to include best Sellerss. but publisher licensing may impede the process… Metadata creative activity In traditional libraries. the ability to happen plants of involvement is straight related to how good they were cataloged.
While cataloging electronic plants digitized from a library’s bing retention may be every bit simple as copying or traveling a record from the print to the electronic signifier. complex and born-digital plants require well more attempt. To manage the turning volume of electronic publications. new tools and engineerings have to be designed to let effectual automated semantic categorization and seeking. While full text hunt can be used for some points. there are many common catalog hunts which can non be performed utilizing full text. including:
• happening texts which are interlingual renditions of other texts.
• associating texts published under anonym to the existent writers ( Samuel Clemens and Mark Twain. for illustration )
• distinguishing non-fiction from lampoon ( The Onion from The New York Times. for illustration ) . References [ 1 ] Greenstein. Daniel I. . Thorin. Suzanne Elizabeth. The Digital Library: A Biography ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. clir. org/ PUBS/ reports/ pub109/ pub109. pdf ) . Digital Library Federation ( 2002 ) ISBN 1-933645-18-0. Accessed June 25. 2007. [ 2 ] hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. delos. info [ 3 ] hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. dlorg. eu [ 4 ] L. Candela. G. Athanasopoulos. D. Castelli. K. El Raheb. P. Innocenti. Y.
Ioannidis. A. Katifori. A. Nika. G. Vullo. S. Ross: The Digital Library Reference Model. April 2011 ( PDF ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / bscw. research-infrastructures. eu/ pub/ bscw. cgi/ d222816/ D3. 2b Digital Library Reference Model. pdf ) ) [ 5 ] L. Candela et Al. : The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model – Foundations for Digital Libraries. Version 0. 98. February 2008 ( PDF ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. delos. info/ files/ pdf/ ReferenceModel/ DELOS_DLReferenceModel_0. 98. pdf ) ) [ 6 ] L. Candela. G. Athanasopoulos. D. Castelli. K. El Raheb. P. Innocenti. Y. Ioannidis. A. Katifori. A. Nika. G. Vullo. S.
Ross: The Digital Library Reference Model. April 2011. 17. ( PDF ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / bscw. research-infrastructures. eu/ pub/ bscw. cgi/ d222816/ D3. 2b Digital Library Reference Model. pdf ) ) 5 Digital library [ 7 ] Kahn. R. E. . & A ; Cerf. V. G. ( 1988 ) . The Digital Library Project Volume I: The World of Knowbots. ( DRAFT ) : An Open Architecture For a Digital Library System and a Plan For Its Development ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / high-density lipoprotein. grip. net/ 4263537/ 2091 ) . Reston. Virginia: Corporation for National Research Initiatives. [ 8 ] Edward A. Fox. The Digital Libraries Initiative – Update and Discussion.
( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. asis. org/ Bulletin/ Oct-99/ fox. hypertext markup language ) . Bulletin of the America Society of Information Science. Vol. 26. No 1. October/November 1999. [ 9 ] Candela. L. ; Castelli. D. & A ; Pagano. History. Development and Impact of Digital Libraries ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. igi-global. com/ viewtitle. aspx? titleid=47467 & A ; sender=4dcefe4d-ef33-4836-8eea-f02af2cc374d ) . In P. Iglezakis. I. ; Synodinou. T. & A ; Kapidakis. S. ( ed. ) E-Publishing and Digital Libraries: Legal and Organizational Issues. IGI Global. 2011. 1- 30 [ 10 ] Yi. Esther. Inside the Quest to Put the World’s Libraries Online ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. theatlantic.
com/ entertainment/ archive/ 2012/ 07/ inside-the-quest-to-put-the-worlds-libraries-online/ 259967/ ) . The Atlantic. July 26. 2012. [ 11 ] Akst. D. ( 2003 ) . The Digital Library: Its Future Has Arrived. Carnegie Reporter. 2 ( 3 ) . 4-8. [ 12 ] Koehler. AEC. Some Ideas on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services Serials Review Vol. 32. 1. 2006. p. 17 [ 13 ] Agosti. M. . Candela. L. . Castelli. D. . Ferro. N. . Ioannidis. Y. . Koutrika. G. . Meghini. C. . Pagano. P. . Ross. S. . Schek. H. -J. . & A ; Schuldt. H. ( 2006 ) . A Reference Model for DLMSs Interim Report. In L. Candela. & A ; D.
Castelli ( Eds. ) . Deliverable D1. 4. 2 – Reference Model for Digital Library Management Systems [ Draft 1 ] . DELOS. A Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries — IST-2002-2. 3. 1. 12. Technology-enhanced Learning and Access to Cultural Heritage. Online at: hypertext transfer protocol: / / 146. 48. 87. 122:8003/ OLP/ Repository/ 1. 0/ Disseminate/ delos/ 2006_WP1_D142/ content/ pdf? version=1 [ 14 ] Goncalves. M. A. . Fox. E. A. . Watson. L. T. . & A ; Kipp. N. A. ( 2004 ) . Streams. Structures. Spaces. Scenarios. Societies ( 5S ) : A Formal Model for Digital Libraries. ACM Transactions on Information Systems ( TOIS ) . 22 ( 2 ) . 270-312.
[ 15 ] “The DSpace squad recognized the value of the OAIS model and recast the repository’s architecture to suit this archival framework” [ 16 ] Committee on Institutional Cooperation: Partnership announced between CIC and Google ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. cic. uiuc. edu/ programs/ CenterForLibraryInitiatives/ Archive/ PressRelease/ LibraryDigitization/ index. shtml ) . 6 June 2007. Retrieved 7. [ 17 ] hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. Google. com/ googlebooks/ library. hypertext markup language [ 18 ] European Commission steps up attempts to set Europe’s memory ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / Europa. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. make?
reference=IP/ 06/ 253 & A ; type=HTML & A ; aged=0 & A ; language=EN & A ; guiLanguage=en ) on the Web via a “European Digital Library” Europa imperativeness release. 2 March 2006 [ 19 ] Gertz. Janet. “Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age. ” Library Resources & A ; Technical Services. 44 ( 2 ) ( 2000 ) :97-104. [ 20 ] Cain. Mark. “Managing Technology: Bing a Library of Record in a Digital Age” . Journal of Academic Librarianship 29:6 ( 2003 ) . [ 21 ] Breeding. Marshall. “Preserving Digital Information. ” . Information Today 19:5 ( 2002 ) . [ 22 ] Teper. Thomas H. “Where Next? Long-run Considerations for Digital Initiatives.
” Kentucky Libraries 65 ( 2 ) ( 2001 ) :12-18. [ 23 ] Van Le. Christopher. “Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act. ” Case Western Reserve Journal of Law. Technology & A ; The Internet. 1. 2 ( Spring 2010 ) . 135. [ 24 ] Pymm. Bob. “Building Collections for All Time: The Issue of Significance. ” Australian Academic & A ; Research Libraries. 37 ( 1 ) ( 2006 ) :61-73. [ 25 ] Antique Books ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. antiquebooks. net/ datatop. hypertext markup language ) [ 26 ] Hirtle. Peter B. . “Digital Preservation and Copyright. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / fairuse. Stanford. edu/ commentary_and_analysis/ 2003_11_hirtle.
hypertext markup language ) Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved October 24. 2011. [ 27 ] United States Copyright Office. “The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 – U. S. Copyright Office Summary” ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. right of first publication. gov/ legislation/ dmca. pdf ) 1998. 2. [ 28 ] United States Copyright Office. “The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 – U. S. Copyright Office Summary” ( hypertext transfer protocol: / / World Wide Web. right of first publication. gov/ legislation/ dmca. pdf ) 1998. 15. [ 29 ] Van Le. Christopher. “Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act. ” Case Western Reserve Journal of Law. Technology & A ; The Internet. 1.
2 ( Spring 2010 ) . 145. [ 30 ] STROSS. RANDALL. “For Libraries and Publishers. an E-Book Tug of War – NYTimes. com. ” The New York Times – Breaking News. World News & A ; Multimedia. N. p. . n. d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. 6 Digital library External links
• CNRI-DARPA: D-Lib Magazine ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. dlib. org/ ) Electronic publication that chiefly focuses on digital library research and development
• hypertext transfer protocol: //www. librittio. com – World’s Most Advanced Professional Digital Library System
• / Democratization of Literature: The Rise of the Digital Libraries on the Internet ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. reflectionedu. com/ attachments/File/Barnolipi/EngT_8_11. pdf ) by Tarun Tapas Mukherjee ] .
From BARNOLIPI: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Volume I. Issue II. 2011. [ hypertext transfer protocol: //fbc. pionier. cyberspace. pl/ Search Engine of Free Resources. available online in Polish Digital Libraries ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. barnolipi. com/ ) Conferences
• TPDL ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. tpdl. eu/ ) – International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries ECDL ( hypertext transfer protocol: //ecdlconference. isti. cnr. it/ ) – European Conference on Digital Libraries ICADL ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. icadl. org/ ) – International Conference on Asiatic Digital Libraries JCDL ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. jcdl.
org/ ) – ACM and IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries ICSD ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. icsd-conference. org/ ) – International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web 7 Article Sources and Contributors Article Sources and Contributors Digital library Beginning:
hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? oldid=570781509 Subscribers: — April. 24fan24. 2A00:1620: C0:50: C8B0:1C9B:27C1:7990. A. B. . Aap3030. Aarontay. Abdullah Albluchi. Acc60. Adoniscik. Afl2784. Aladin p. Alain Caraco. Alaniaris. Alexius08. Alf7e. Andrejj. Andy Dingley. Andyjsmith. Aragor. Arctic Kangaroo. Artdhtml. Ashenfelder. Ata. Ata. rehman. Azpayel. BadBull. Badan bartender. Baileycw. Beetstra.
BlindWanderer. Bob103051. Bomzhik. Bonadea. Bujar. Buridan. CVCE. Candela. Catfoo. Cej10. Ceyockey. Charivari. Chhotu372. Choukimath. Coldmachine. CommonsDelinker. Conversion book. Creationlaw. Curious1i. CutOffTies. Cwconservation. DGG. DaGizza. DabMachine. Dalf. Danny lost. Dawnseeker2000. DebbieWiLS. Deborah-jl. Denverjeffrey. Diglibs. Disavian. Djstasiewski. Dlkwiki. Dthomsen8. Dylan furnas. Eanc. Eilthireach. Enduser. Epbr123. Erianna. Evil saltine. Fatalityonline. Feedmecereal. Femto. Filterking.
Floating ruddy. Fmccown. Gaius Cornelius. Galka. Gareth Owen. Gego. Gouwepv. Greenrd. Greenteablues. Grika. Harris7. Hhanke. Hiogui. Hollymorganelli. Hu12. Ilsessay. Ipigott. Irbisgreif. Irishguy. Ithinkhelikesit. Ixfd64. JLaTondre. JakobVoss. Jaqian. Jchang12. Jeremykemp. Jewers. Jo 316. John. John Hubbard. Jpbowen. Jpom. Jsweetin. Jua Cha. Jweise. Kanags. Kansoku. Karen Johnson. Kattmamma. Katywatson. Kbel32. Kggy. Killian441. Kinu. Klemen Kocjancic. Ktr101. LadislavNK. Lawandtech. Lawsonstu. LeeNapier. Leonardo. candle. Loonymonkey. Lquilter. Ltfhenry. Lyc.
Cooperi. Lysy. MBisanz. MK8. Maristella. agosti. Marselan. Martinlc. Masgatotkaca. Materialscientist. Mboverload. Mcanabalb. Mean as custard. Mets501. Mica Gomes. Michael Hardy. Mike. lifesaver. Missenc. Mmj. Mogh. Morbusgravis. Mordsan. MrOllie. Mseem. Mwisotzky. Mxn. Mairtin. Ncschistory. Nealmcb. NeilN. Neilc. Neo3DGfx.
Nigholith. Night eule. Noisy. NorwalkJames. Notinasnaid. Nurg. OSU1980. Oicumayberight. OlEnglish. Olexandr Kravchuk. Olgerd. Omegatron. Pamplemousse. Patrick. PeepP. Phauly. Pinethicket. Pinkadelica. Poindexter Propellerhead. Poor Yorick. Prajapati Reena. Ps07swt. Ptgraham. Puckly. Padraic MacUidhir. Quadell. RJBurkhart3. Racheltaketa. Raghith. Rajankila. Rich Farmbrough. Richard Arthur Norton ( 1958- ) .
Rickprelinger. Rlitwin. Robert Thibadeau. Rozek19. Russell Square. SRHMGSLP. Sander Sade. Sandox. Sayeedmd. Senu. Sfiga. Shanes. Shyamal. SimonP. Skomorokh. Skysmith. Smmurphy. Spdegabrielle. Stbalbach. Stephen Burnett. Stephen Gilbert. Stevertigo. Strabon. StradivariusTV. Stuartyeates. Supersion. Svchameli. TWWhiting. TakuyaMurata. Targi. Tentinator. The Anome. The Evil Spartan. TheNewPhobia. Thebt. Thingg. Timeshifter.
Tl246. Tlearn. Trapow. Travczyk. Treemonster19. Tregoweth. Trek011. Ttm1974. User A1. Utcursch. Vamshi 12345. Vanprooi. Vector Potential. Vicky877. Victorlamp. Viriditas. Volphy. WJetChao. Wavelength. Wayland. Wikiborg. Wmahan. Wya. YVSREDDY. Yerpo. Yosri. Zack wadghiri. Zundark. Zzuuzz. 302 anon. edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. 0 //creativecommons. org/licenses/by-sa/3. 0/ 8.