Assorted identifiable schools of idea such as: existential philosophy. phenomenology. hermeneutics. deconstruction. and critical theory can be found within Continental doctrine. Existentialism and phenomenology can be traced back to the nineteenth century and to the pre-Socratics. A few of the chief subjects from existential philosophy are: ·Traditional and academic doctrine is unfertile and remote from the concerns of existent life. ·Philosophy must concentrate on the person in her or hi confrontation with the universe. ·The universe is absurd. in the sense that no ultimate account can be given for why it is the manner it is.
·Senselessness. emptiness. pettiness. separation. and inability to pass on pervade human being. giving birth to anxiousness. apprehension. diffidence. and desperation. ·The single confronts. as the most of import fact of human being. the necessity to take how he or she is to populate within this absurd and irrational universe. Many of these subjects were introduced by Arthur Schopenhauer. Soren Kierkegaard. and Friedrich Nietzsche. Kierkegaard emphasized the person and particularly the individual’s will and necessitate to do of import picks.
Georg Hegel rejected the construct of the “thing-in-itself” and held that all world is the look of idea or ground. World. for Hegel. is non a group of independent specifics or provinces of personal businesss. but instead like a coherent idea system such as mathematics it is an incorporate whole in which each proposition is logically connected with all the remainder. Where Hegel was abstract to a grade seldom found outside mathematics. Kierkgaard was concerned with how and what the single really chooses in the face of uncertainty and uncertainness.
One subscriber to Continental doctrine was Friedrich Nietzche. Nietzche disagreed with all of Hegel’s theories of idealism. He believed the universe is driven and determined by the will-to-power. He besides believed we have no entree to absolute truth and that there are non facts. lone readings. There were several existential philosophers in the 19th and twentieth centuries. Albert Camus. Jean-Paul Sartre. Gabriel Marcel and Simone de Beauvoir in France. Karl Jaspers in Switzerland. Martin Heidegger in Germany. Miguel de Unamuno and Jose Ortega Y Gasset in Spain. and Nicola Abbagnano in Italy.
Two philosophers I want to discourse are Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre. Camus did non understand why the human race spent their lives in desperation and heartache but were ever optimistic about life. He believed there is no ultimate ground that things are the manner they are and that we must do picks and make up one’s mind how to move in a valueless universe and absurd universe. This is called “existential quandary. ” Even though Camus asked himself. “Is there any ground non perpetrate self-destruction? ” he regarded suicide as unacceptable.
Rebeling against the absurdness and calamity of life would perchance give life significance and value. Sartre was a adult male that thought God did non be and that adult male was “abandoned. ” Harmonizing to Sartre. the non-existence of God has four philosophical deductions. First. there is no shaper of adult male. so there is such thing as human nature. The individual must bring forth his or her ain kernel. because no God created human existences in conformity with a Godhead construct. Second. since there is no God. there is no ground why things are the manner they are non some other manner.
A human being has “being-for-itself” . which means that a human being is a witting topic that creates its ain hereafter. Third. adult male is “condemned to be free. ” Nothing forces us to make what we do. so hence. we can non pardon our actions by stating there were fortunes for what we did. Forth. there is no nonsubjective criterion for values. Since it is a Godless universe. we must come up with our ain values. To Sartre. making our ain values is a great duty for world.
To happen significance in our lives. we must make our values by doing reliable picks. Edmund Husserl was the first great phenomenologist. Phenomenology comes from constructions found within witting experience. Phenomena are the constructions that manifest themselves on the premises and presuppositions of scientific discipline. They are thought of as the manner a thing is instantly experient and the manner it “is. ” Phenomenology is a manner to research the witting experience with out doing any metaphysical premises.
Husserl investigated phenomena without doing premises about the universe. This is called nonnatural phenomenology. Martin Heidegger besides wanted to see things without givens. but he was non convinced by Husserl’s theory of phenomena ; he believed the beginning of seeing things this manner was Bing itself. Heidegger’s theory was that worlds are caught up in their ain thoughts and Being has been reduced to a universe of “objects” dominated by worlds through their ain logics. Worlds are fundamentally nescient to the true nature of Being.
Emmanuel Levinas is chiefly responsible for presenting phenomenology into France. He had an influence on many other philosophers. His theories centered on the sense of being cognizant of what and how we worlds exist in the universe. He believed. unlike Heidegger. that doctrine began with the experiences of our distinctness. and God exists as an Absolute Otherness that can ne’er be breached. He did non hold with the theory of Being because that would do the Other a mere object for consciousness.