Checkpoint Questions 1. Define histology: Histology is the study of tissues 2. List the four basic types of tissues in the body: a. Epithelial tissue b. Connective tissue c. Muscle tissue d. Neural tissue 3. List five important characteristics of epithelial tissue: a. The cells are bound closely together b. A free surface exposed to the environment or internal chamber/passageway c. Attachment to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane d. The absence of blood vessels e. Continual regeneration of epithelial cells that are damaged or lost at the exposed surface 4.
Identify four essential functions of epithelial tissue: a. Provide physical protection b. Control permeability c. Provide sensation d. Produce specialized secretions 5. Identify the three main types of epithelial intercellular connections: a. Tight junctions b. Gap junctions c. Desmosomes 6. What physiological functions are enhanced by the presence of microvilli or cilia on epithelial cells? The presence of microvilli on the free surface of epithelial cells greatly increases the surface area for absorption. Cilia function to move materials over the surface of epithelial cells.
7. Identify the three cell shapes characteristic of epithelial cells: a. Squamous: thin and flat b. Cuboidal: cube like c. Columnar: tall and slender 8. Using a light microscope, you examine a tissue and see a simple squamous epithelium on the outer surface. Can this be a sample of the skin surface? No. a simple squamous epithelium does not provide enough protection against infection, abrasion, and dehydration. The surface has a stratified squamous epithelium. 9. Name the two primary types of glandular epithelia: a.
Endocrine glands b. Exocrine glands10. The secretory cells of sebaceous glands fill with secretions and then rupture, releasing their contents. Which mechanism of secretion occurs in sebaceous glands? Sebaceous glands exhibit holocrine secretions 11. A gland has no ducts to carry the glandular secretions, and the gland’s secretions are released directly into the extracellular fluid. Which type of gland is this? The endocrine gland 12. Identify several functions of connective tissues: a. Support and protection b. Transportation of materials c. Storage of energy reserves d. Defense of the body 13. List the three types of connective tissues: a. Connective tissue proper b. Fluid connective tissues c. Supporting connective tissues 14. Which type of connective tissue contains primarily triglycerides? Adipose tissue 15. Lack of vitamin C in the diet interferes with the ability of fibrocytes to produce collagen. What effect might this interference have on connective tissue? The reduced collagen production resulting from lack of vitamin C in the diet would cause connective tissue to be weak and prone to damage. 16. Which two types of connective tissue have a fluid matrix? a. Blood b. Lymph 17. Identify the two types of supporting connective tissue: a. Cartilage b. Bone 18. Why does cartilage heal so slowly? Cartilage heals so slowly because it has a lack of blood supply 19. Identify the four types of membranes found in the body: a. Mucous membrane b. Serous membrane c. Cutaneous membrane d. Synovial membrane 20. How does plasma (cell) membrane differ from a tissue level membrane? Plasma (cell) membranes are composed of lipid bilayers. Tissue membranes consist of a layer of epithelial tissue and a layer of connective tissue 21. What is the function of fluids produced by serous membranes? The fluids reduce friction between the serous membranes that cover the surfaces of organs and the surrounding body cavity.
22. The lining of the nasal cavity is normally moist, contains numerous goblet cells, and rests on a layer of loose connective tissue. Which type of membrane is this? A mucous membrane 23. Identify the three types of muscle tissue in the body: a. Skeletal muscle b. Cardiac muscle c. Smooth muscle tissues 24. Voluntary control is restricted to which type of muscle tissue? Skeletal muscle tissue 25. Which type of muscle tissue has small, tapering cells with single nuclei and no obvious striations? Smooth muscle tissue 26. A tissue contains irregularly shaped cells with many fibrous projections, some several centimeters long. These are probably which type of cell? A neuron 27. Why are both skeletal muscle cells and axons also called fibers? They are both relatively long and slender. 28. Identify the two phases in the response to tissue injury: a. Inflammation b. Regeneration 29. What signs and symptoms are associated with inflammation? Swelling, warmth, redness, and pain. 30. What is fibrosis? Fibrosis is the permanent replacement of normal tissues by fibrous tissues. 31. Identify some age-related factors that affect tissue repair and structure: With advancing age, the speed and effectiveness of tissue repair decrease, the rate of energy consumption in general declines, hormonal activity is altered, and other factors contribute to changes in structure and chemical composition.