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. Chapter 13: Endocrine System Paper

Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 12th ed. Chapter 13: Endocrine System Chapter 13: Endocrine System I. Introduction and II. General Characteristics of the Endocrine System (Outcome 13. 1, 13. 2, 13. 3) A. The endocrine glands secrete. (Outcome 13. 1, 13. 2, 13. 3) B. Hormones diffuse from ________________________ into ___________________ and eventually act on. (Outcome 13. 2, 13. 4) C. Paracrine secretions are. (Outcome 13. 2, 13. 4) D. Autocrine secretions are. (Outcome 13. 2, 13. 4) E. Exocrine glands secrete substances into. (Outcome 13. 2, 13. 4) F.

Endocrine glands and their hormones control . (Outcome 13. 1, 13. 2, 13. 3, 13. 4) G. Endocrine hormones also play vital roles in . (Outcome 13. 2) H. The larger endocrine glands are . III. Hormone Action A. Introduction (Outcome 13. 3, 13. 5) 1. Hormones are released into . (Outcome 13. 3, 13. 5) 2. They diffuse into __________ and are carried . B. Chemistry of Hormones 1. Introduction (Outcome 13. 1, 13. 5) a. Most hormones are. (Outcome 13. 1, 13. 5) b. Nonsteroid hormones include . 2. Steroid Hormones (Outcome 13. 5) a. Steroids are. (Outcome 13. 5) b.

Examples of steroid hormones are. 3. Nonsteroid Hormones (Outcome 13. 5) a. Examples of hormones called amines are . (Outcome 13. 5) b. Protein hormones are composed of. (Outcome 13. 5) c. Examples of protein hormones are . (Outcome 13. 5) d. Hormones called glycoproteins are produced by . (Outcome 13. 5) e. Peptide hormones are. (Outcome 13. 5) f. Peptide hormones come from . (Outcome 13. 5) g. Prostaglandins areand are produced. C. Actions of Hormones 1. Introduction (Outcome 13. 6) a. Hormones exert their effects by . Outcome 13. 6) b. The more receptors the hormone binds on its target cell, the greater . (Outcome 13. 6) c. Up-regulation is . 2. Steroid Hormones and Thyroid Hormones (Outcome 13. 6) a. Steroid and thyroid hormones are insoluble in _______ but are soluble in. (Outcome 13. 6) b. Steroid and thyroid hormones can diffuse. (Outcome 13. 6) c. Once steroid and thyroid hormones are inside a cell, they combine with ___________________ located. (Outcome 13. 6) d. The binding of a these hormones to the receptor usually ora gene. (Outcome 13. 6) e. Activated genes code for. Outcome 13. 6) f. The new proteins may be and they bring about cellular changes. 3. Nonsteroid Hormones (Outcome 13. 6) a. A nonsteroid hormone usually binds with receptors located . (Outcome 13. 6) b. When a nonsteroid hormone binds to a membrane receptor, this causes the receptor’s activity site to. (Outcome 13. 6) c. Receptor binding may alter . (Outcome 13. 6) d. A first messenger is. (Outcome 13. 6) e. Second messengers are. (Outcome 13. 6) f. Many hormones useas a second messenger. (Outcome 13. 6) g. G proteins are activated by. (Outcome 13. 6) h.

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Adenylate cyclase is activated by. (Outcome 13. 6) i. Adenylate cyclase functions to. (Outcome 13. 6) j. Cyclic AMP activates. (Outcome 13. 6) k. Protein kinases function to. (Outcome 13. 6) l. Phosphorylated substrates may be converted from to active forms. (Outcome 13. 6) m. Activated proteins then alter . (Outcome 13. 6) n. Cellular responses to second messenger activation include . (Outcome 13. 6) o. Hormones whose actions require cyclic AMP include . (Outcome 13. 6) p. An example of another second messenger is . Outcome 13. 6) q. In another mechanism, a hormone binding its receptor increases . (Outcome 13. 6) r. Calcium ions bind to the proteinto activate it. (Outcome 13. 6) s. Activated calmodulin functions to. (Outcome 13. 6) t. Cells are highly sensitive to changes in concentration of nonsteroid hormones because . D. Prostaglandins (Outcome 13. 6) 1. Prostaglandins are. (Outcome 13. 6) 2. Some prostaglandins regulate . (Outcome 13. 6) 3. The variety of effects prostaglandins can produce include . IV. Control of Hormone Secretion A. Introduction (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 1.

Hormones with short half-lives _______________________________________. (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 2. Hormones are continually ________in urine and broken down _____________________________ in the. (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 3. Increasing or decreasing blood levels of hormones requires . B. Control Sources (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 1. Control of hormone secretion is ______________________________________ . (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 2. The hypothalamus controls. (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 3. Tropic hormones stimulate. (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 4. An example of an endocrine organ directly stimulated by the nervous system is . Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 5. Some endocrine glands respond to changes in . (Outcome 13. 7, 13. 8) 6. As a result of, hormone levels remain relatively stable. V. – X. Pituitary Gland —Other Endocrine Glands A. Introduction (Outcome 13. 9) 1. The pituitary gland is located. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. The infundibulum is. (Outcome 13. 9) 3. The two portions of the pituitary are. (Outcome 13. 10) 4. The anterior lobe secretes the following hormones: . (Outcome 13. 10) 5. The posterior pituitary secretes the following hormones: . (Outcome 13. 11) 6. Thecontrols most of the pituitary gland’s activities. Outcome 13. 11) 7. The posterior pituitary receives impulses from. (Outcome 13. 11) 8. ___from the hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary. (Outcome 13. 11) 9. The hypophyseal portal veins are . B. Anterior Pituitary Hormones (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 1. Somatotropes secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 2. Mammotropes secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 3. Thyrotropes secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 4. Corticotropes secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 5. Gonadotropes secrete. (Outcome 13. 10) 6. Actions of growth hormone are . (Outcome 13. 11) 7.

The secretion of GH is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 8. Actions of prolactin are . (Outcome 13. 11) 9. The secretion of PRL is under inhibitory control by . (Outcome 13. 10) 10. Actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone are . (Outcome 13. 11) 11. The secretion of TSH is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 12. The actions of adrenocorticotropic hormone are . (Outcome 13. 11) 13. The secretion of ACTH is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 14. Gonadotropins are. (Outcome 13. 10) 15. The actions of follicle-stimulating hormone are . (Outcome 13. 0) 16. The actions of luteinizing hormone are . (Outcome 13. 11) 17. The secretion of FSH and LH is controlled by . C. Posterior Pituitary Hormones (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 1. The posterior pituitary consists of. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. Specialized neurons in the hypothalamus produce two hormones called . (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10, 13. 11) 3. The hormones produced in the hypothalamus travel down . (Outcome 13. 10) 4. The actions of antidiuretic hormone are . (Outcome 13. 11) 5. The secretion of ADH is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 6. The actions of oxytocin are (Outcome 13. 11) 7. The secretion of oxytocin is controlled by . D. Introduction – Thyroid Gland (Outcome 13. 9) 1. The thyroid gland consists of. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. The thyroid gland is located. E. Structure of the Gland (Outcome 13. 9) 1. Follicles are. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. Colloid is. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 3. Thyroglobulin is. (Outcome 13. 9) 4. Extrafollicular cells are located. (Outcome 13. 10) 5. The follicular cells produce. F. Thyroid Hormones (Outcome 13. 10) 1. The three hormones produced by the thyroid gland are . (Outcome 13. 10) 2. The actions of thyroxine and triiodothyronine are . Outcome 13. 11) 3. The secretion of T3 and T4 are controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 4. Follicular cells requireto produce T3 and T4. (Outcome 13. 10) 5. The actions of calcitonin are . (Outcome 13. 11) 6. The secretion of calcitonin is controlled by . G. Introduction – Parathyroid Glands (Outcome 13. 9) 1. Parathyroid glands are located. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. Usually a person hasparathyroid glands. H. Structure of the Glands (Outcome 13. 9) 1. Each parathyroid gland is covered by. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. The body of a parathyroid gland consists of . I. Parathyroid Hormone Outcome 13. 10) 1. The actions of PTH are . (Outcome 13. 11) 2. The secretion of PTH is controlled by . J. Structure of the Glands – Adrenal Glands (Outcome 13. 9) 1. The adrenal glands are shaped like. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. The two parts of an adrenal gland are. (Outcome 13. 9) 3. The adrenal medulla consists of . (Outcome 13. 9) 4. The adrenal cortex is composed of. (Outcome 13. 9) 5. The three layers of the adrenal cortex are . K. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla (Outcome 13. 10) 1. The two hormones released by the adrenal medulla are . (Outcome 13. 10) 2.

The actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine are . (Outcome 13. 11) 3. The secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine are controlled by . L. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex 1. Introduction (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) a. The adrenal cortex produces more than different steroids. (Outcome 13. 10) b. The most important adrenal cortical hormones are . 2. Aldosterone (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) a. Aldosterone is secreted byand is called a mineralocorticoid because . (Outcome 13. 10) b. The actions of aldosterone are . (Outcome 13. 11) c.

The secretion of aldosterone is controlled by . 3. Cortisol (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) a. Cortisol is secreted byand is called a glucocorticoid because . (Outcome 13. 10) b. The actions of cortisol are . (Outcome 13. 11) c. The secretion of cortisol is controlled by . 4. Sex Hormones (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) a. The sex hormones are secreted by . (Outcome 13. 10) b. The actions of the sex hormones are . (Outcome 13. 10) c. Examples of sex hormones are . M. Structure of the Gland – Pancreas (Outcome 13. 9) 1.

The pancreas is located. (Outcome 13. 9) 2. The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of . (Outcome 13. 9) 3. Three cell types of the pancreatic islets are. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 4. Alpha cells secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 5. Beta cells secrete. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 6. Delta cells secrete. N. Hormones of the Pancreatic Islets (Outcome 13. 10) 1. The actions of glucagon are . (Outcome 13. 11) 2. The secretion of glucagon is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 3. The actions of insulin are . (Outcome 13. 11) 4. The secretion of insulin is controlled by . (Outcome 13. 10) 5.

The function of somatostatin is. O. Hormones of Other Endocrine Glands (Outcome 13. 9) 1. The pineal gland is located. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 2. The pineal gland produces the hormone. (Outcome 13. 10) 3. The functions of melatonin are. (Outcome 13. 9) 4. The thymus gland is located. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 5. The thymus gland secretes a group of hormones called ____________________________________________________________ _____. (Outcome 13. 10) 6. The function of thymosin is. (Outcome 13. 10) 7. Reproductive organs that secrete hormones are ____________________________________________________________ _____. (Outcome 13. 10) 8. Examples of hormones produced by reproductive organs are ____________________________________________________________ ______. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 9. The hormone produced by the heart is. (Outcome 13. 9, 13. 10) 10. The hormone produced by the kidneys is. XI. Stress and Its Effects A. Introduction (Outcome 13. 12) 1. A stressor is. (Outcome 13. 12) 2. Stress is. B. Types of Stress (Outcome 13. 12) 1. Examples of physical stress include . (Outcome 13. 12) 2. Examples of psychological stress are . C. Responses to Stress Outcome 13. 13) 1. The general stress syndrome is . (Outcome 13. 13) 2. Major events of the general stress syndrome are . XII. Life-Span Changes (Outcome 13. 14) A. General changes in the glands of the endocrine system are . (Outcome 13. 14) B. Treatments for endocrine disorders include . (Outcome 13. 14) C. Levels ofincrease with age and as a result, the kidneys . (Outcome 13. 14) D. The decrease of calcitonin levels with age increases the risk of . (Outcome 13. 14) E. The most obvious changes in endocrine function involve .

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