the scientists who study Earth’s waters,
A little less than two-thirds of the rain that falls on land evaporates back to the atmosphere from land surfaces and plant leaves
The water balance coefficient
is a general index of the availability of water in a particular region. It is calculated by subtracting potential evaporation from rainfall. In arid regions, water balance coefficients
are negative. In the world’s deserts, for example, they vary between –200 and –300 cm (–79 and –118 in.).
In the humid rain forests of the world, water balance coefficients are positive and can exceed 400 cm (158 in.

). In general, forests grow where water balance coefficients are positive; savannas, grasslands, and deserts are found in regions where coefficients are negative.

A watershed
is the area of land from which rainfall drains into a river or lake. Watersheds are also called drainage basins.
Open watersheds
are drained by rivers that eventually make their way to the sea.

Closed watersheds
are inland basins that do not drain to the sea.
nonconsumptive uses
Activities that use water and then return it to streams or aquifers are said to be this. Such as, hydroelectric power and wastewater in septic systems
consumptive uses
In other activities, such as irrigation and industrial cooling, a considerable amount of water evaporates into the atmosphere. These activities are said to be this because much of the water is not returned to streams or aquifers.
water table
the underground depth where rock and sediment are completely saturated with water.
recharge zone
is an area where water flows directly between the soil surface and the water table.

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Aquifers located beneath recharge zones are said to be this
In other aquifers, groundwater is trapped between layers of comparatively impermeable rock or sediment; such aquifers are said to be this
discharge zones
Groundwater flows to the surface in these. In places where a confined aquifer meets the soil surface, water may flow out freely in a seep or spring.
an artesian well
Sometimes a well is drilled into a confined aquifer where the groundwater is under great pressure from the weight of the water above it. The pressure causes the water to rise above the confining layer, without the need for pumping. Such a well is called this.
Some species of plants have adaptations that allow them to grow in these anaerobic soils; these plants are called these.
are periodically or continuously flooded wetlands that are dominated by herbaceous plants, including grasses, rushes, reeds, and cattails.
are dominated by shrubs or trees and fed by flowing water. Forested swamps are found in the broad floodplains of many of the world’s major rivers.
The primary source of water in bogs is rainfall. Bogs are wetlands with peat deposits that support a variety of evergreen trees and shrubs.
are wetlands that are fed primarily by groundwater. They have peaty soils that typically support a variety of grasses and grasslike rushes, as well as occasional patches of woody vegetation. Florida Everglades
Irrigation efficiency
is the percentage of the water applied to fields that is actually used by crop plants.
Agricultural scientists estimate that average irrigation efficiency of cropland is less than 40%.
The process of removing salts and other chemicals from seawater is called this.
boiling water and condensing the steam,
reverse osmosis
filtering water through a selective membrane

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Chapter 12. (2017, Dec 25). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-chapter-12/

Chapter 12
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