Ch.7 Practice Test Questions

Roseanne claims that she can remember instances of childhood sexual abuse that started at 6 months of age. Why are most psychologists likely to be skeptical of this and other such claims?
Because infantile amnesia makes it unlikely that these are true memories from that age

Although you have never taken a class with Dr. Hua, you walk into class, sit down, open your notebook, and wait for the professor to begin his lecture. What concept is being illustrated?

Exposing people to stereotype-consistent information before meeting with an individual from the stereotyped group is often sufficient to produce stereotypic interpretations of that person’s actions and thoughts.

This is an example of


Paolo is positive he told his roommate to feed the cats while he was at work. His roommate is positive he did not. If Paolo begins to doubt whether or not he told his roommate to feed the cats or just thought about telling his roommate, he is experiencing
Source monitoring confusion

Steve just joined a fraternity.

He was introduced to 55 new “brothers.” If asked to recall all of their names, which ones would he be most likely to struggle with?

Name of his brothers in the middle of the group

Which of these age groups has the strongest memory abilities?
Young adults

According to the research on the primacy effect, if your father read you a list of 10 items to pick up at the hardware store you would most easily recall those items
from early in the list

When one attempts to recreate a retrieval environment that is as similar as possible to the initial encoding, or learning, environment as possible, he or she is making use of the principle of
encoding specificity

While driving her children, Adriana’s car broke down.

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She called her husband on the cell phone for the number of a towing company. If the children’s behavior prevents her from repeating the number to herself, most likely Adriana will need to dial the phone number within the next __________ or she will forget the number.

15 seconds

The Magic Number of short-term memory is
seven plus or minus two

You watch LeShon wave his 4th of July sparkler as he runs. As you watch the light, you notice a circle of light rather than just a single point of light. This effect demonstrates the functioning of your
ionic memory

Which of the following situations best illustrates relearning?
Brooklyn hasn’t ridden her bike in years, but she climbs on her boyfriend’s bike and takes off.

A recognition memory task is often easier than a recall memory task because
we are able to eliminate the incorrect options to get the correct answer.

Billy has just returned home from visiting his grandparents. His grandfather always had a jar of jelly beans on the table, and his mother asked Billy about the jar. “Sure,” says Billy, “it was right there where it always was.” Billy’s mother knew that the jar was gone. The grandfather had recently been diagnosed with diabetes and had cut down on his sugar intake. Why did Billy remember seeing the jar of jelly beans?
He reconstructed his memory using new and old information.

After presenting groups of research participants words like thread, eye, pin, syringe, sewing, sharp, and thimble, a memory researcher asks the participants whether they remember seeing the word needle. The fact that many participants do is an example of
memory illusion

Which of the following situations best illustrates the use of retrieval cues?
Bringing an eyewitness back to the scene of the crime

As Dominique reviews the vocabulary terms for her French class, she is most likely to experience the greatest degree of forgetting
immediately after learning new words.

Charlie is completing a “word search” puzzle. He first finds the word SOLDIER after looking for some time, but then is able to find the word MILITARY much more rapidly. This ability to find a stimulus more easily after encountering a similar stimulus demonstrates the process of

Your best friend is an airline pilot. You often ask him about his flying experiences, but the stories he tells are rather bland. One day he invites you to accompany him on a flight. Surprisingly, once you are up in the air, he begins to share with you all kinds of interesting stories. What is the best explanation for this change?
Context-dependent learning

As we age, our ability to recognize the strengths and limitations of our own memories improves. This is known as

Unlike explicit memory, implicit memory
involves no deliberate attention or effort.

In his research on long-term memory, psychologist Harry Bahrick found that memory declined
markedly for about two years, but only gradually thereafter.

The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage system is
long-term memory

An important source of false memories comes from
source monitoring confusion

Memory recovery from amnesia is
gradual, if at all.

When listening to the radio, Ramona hears a song; she cannot immediately recall the band’s name, but she is sure she knows the name. This is one example of
Correct the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

Evidence suggests that when the real criminal is NOT included in a “live” line-up, most witnesses
will be inaccurate and select the person who most closely resembles the real criminal.

Chase was in a bad motorcycle accident. He suffered severe damage to his hippocampus. What is the likely effect on his memory?
Partial loss of explicit memories

Which of the following situations is most likely to lead to the misinformation effect?
Professor Weiss asked his chemistry students how terrifying the explosion was.

It is believed that the __________ memory system may handle automatic remembering, while the __________ memory system requires conscious effort.
implicit; explicit

Knowing how to navigate the route from one’s residence hall room to the location of one’s college algebra class is an example of a

__________ is the process of reactivating or reconstructing information from your memory store.

Textbooks often give quizzes at the end of chapters to help students identify what material they know and what material they need to spend more time reviewing. This understanding demonstrates

During lecture each day, a psychology professor may explain four main points he or she wishes the class to retain. However, most students do not think about the material again until the following class period two days later. The forgetting that occurs between classes is most likely the result of

All night, Pedro has been staring at Samantha from across the dance floor. At the end of the night, he finally gets the courage to ask her for her telephone number. His mental repetition of the number on the drive home is one example of

Darryl decides to start reviewing for his exam by studying 20 minutes a day for 10 days rather than just studying 3-4 hours the night before his exam. He is making use of
distributed practice

Who is most likely suffering from retrograde amnesia?
Margie, who can’t remember much of anything prior to being attacked on the street after a late-night party

Which of the following is likely to be stored in long-term memory?
The phone number from your last home address.

An important criticism of the levels-of-processing model is that it is

In high school, Deanna took three years of Spanish. Upon enrolling in college ten years later, she registered for a remedial French course. When required to speak in French during class discussion with her teacher and classmates, Deanna frequently responds with Spanish words instead of French words. This is one example of
proactive interference

Misty and her family just got back from a vacation at Disney World, where they had a great time. Under which of the following circumstances is Misty likely to struggle remembering what they did?
Right after viewing a documentary about serial killers

As an adult and a parent of a 4-year-old child, Camille has seen many children begin to cry when placed on the lap of the mall Santa or Easter Bunny. When discussing this with her brother, Luis, he reminds her of the time when she was 5 that she began crying hysterically, ran from Santa’s lap, and was lost for nearly two hours. Luis has made all of this up, but Camille has a clear and distinct memory of the event he described. This demonstrates the role of ________ in producing false memories.
plausible events

Research on flashbulb memories indicates that
they are largely susceptible to the same errors as other types of memory.

According to the authors, our memory is most like
melting wax

Children are especially susceptible to which of the following discussed “Sins of Memory”?

Remembering that your father used to read The Cat in the Hat to you every night best illustrates which type of memory?

With regard to the idea of patients’ memories being shaped by suggestive psychotherapy techniques, psychologists
are divided about whether such memories are real or false memories.

Long-term potentiation, which enhances learning, depends upon the neurotransmitter

Elaborative rehearsal involves
linking the information to be remembered to other information.

To aid students in their retention of information, which subsequently enables them to earn higher exam scores, memory researchers would be most likely to highlight the use of
Elaborative rehearsal

Which of the following best illustrates the paradox of memory?
Jillian can remember all of her favorite baseball player’s statistics for the last 7 years, but forgets where she left her car keys.

Mimi is recovering from serious back surgery and has been taking pain medication for the last several days. She has received multiple phone calls from friends and family. Later that week, off her medication, she can’t seem to remember the names of anyone who called her. Which of the following provides the best explanation for her memory failure?
state-dependent learning

__________ is the first process of getting information into memory.

Which two types of memories are both considered to be part of explicit memory?
semantic and episodic

The area of the brain heavily involved in the formation of lasting, long-term memories is

Although many students attend every class and take notes, they struggle to remember everything they need to know for an exam. Where does this breakdown in memory most likely occur?

Albert realizes that he has to study differently for essay tests in history than the multiple-choice test in his psychology class. In which aspect of memory is he demonstrating growth?

Lizzie is staring at the diagram of an eye that will appear on the exam she will take in the next few minutes. She thinks that by staring at the diagram for a very long time she can “burn” the image into her brain. Although this strategy won’t work, she is hoping to take advantage of her __________ memory.

While attempting to visit a friend in Boston, Enrique is struggling with his friend’s directions. They go something like this, “Turn left at the ball park, right at the movie theater, go around the mall, and make a left turn.” The directions are almost meaningless, because Enrique has never been to Boston before. Which of the following provides the best explanation for the breakdown in communication?
Enrique does not have a schema to attach the new information to.

What concept best explains why students often do worse on standardized tests like the ACT that are often taken in cafeterias and gymnasiums, as opposed to their regular classroom?
Retrieval cues

An eyewitness to a crime says in court, while pointing to the defendant, “I was there; I saw that man pull the trigger!” How likely is it that the defendant will be found guilty?
Quite likely, because eyewitness testimony is very persuasive.

Skip has a big test tomorrow and has studied late into the night. If Skip falls asleep and takes the test first thing in the morning, which of the following would best explain any information he forgets?

Who is most likely to obtain the top score on his or her vocabulary test?
Ryan, who has drawn a picture to illustrate each word

The most common drugs that are used to treat Alzheimer’s disease work by boosting the amount of ________ in the brain by inhibiting its breakdown.

Exposing people to stereotype-consistent information before meeting with an individual from the stereotyped group is often sufficient to produce stereotypic interpretations of that person’s actions and thoughts. This is an example of

What system of memory has the largest span and longest duration?
Long-term memory

During new worker orientation, you wish to make a good impression by being able to recall everyone’s name. Research on encoding would suggest that you are most likely to forget the name of
the person immediately before you.

Danny has been collecting comic books since he was a child. If you ask him, he can tell you the name of every comic in his collection. However, he routinely struggles to remember the names of his new employees at work. Which concept is being illustrated?
The paradox of memory

If a researcher showed that people remember pleasant memories better when they are happy than sad, this would be one method for demonstrating the importance of
mood-dependent learning.

For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in
distributed practice.

The brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory is called ________ memory.

Liv has just seen a commercial advertising a fancy kind of make-up that she would like to buy. She does not have a pen or a piece of paper to write down the telephone number, so she repeats to herself over and over again while she runs into the kitchen to find the telephone. Liv is currently using the process of ________ rehearsal to keep the telephone number active in her short-term memory.

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be most accurate when
the witness has ample time to observe the person under good viewing conditions.

When asked to recall single-digit numbers presented in various digit span sizes, the typical adult starts to find the task a bit tricky once they get to approximately ________ digits.

The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters the memory system and is later used is
encoding, storage, and retrieval.

The most important factor in the majority of the cases where DNA evidence led to the overturning of a unjust conviction of an innocent person was
faulty eyewitness identification

An important source of false memories comes from?
source monitoring confusion

The part of the brain where the emotional component of memories are stored is called the ________.

Sabrina has a psychology midterm tomorrow afternoon. Before taking her test, she has to go to her sociology class in the morning. Which of the following provides the best explanation as to why Sabrina might struggle on her psychology exam?

State-dependent learning is superior retrieval of information when the organism
is in the same state as it was during encoding.

Shanna has a quiz covering research methods for both her biology and psychology classes. As she studies, she is continually getting information confused between the classes. The resulting memory loss is explained by

According to the levels-of-processing model, which pair of words should be the easiest to remember?
Clinton – Nixon

Oscar is writing a fictional autobiography. He is combining real events with those that could have happened, as well as a few creative additions. In terms of the memory system, this approach is most similar to
reconstructive memory

Jasmine needs to remember an 8-line poem for her 5th-grade English class next week. Her mother suggests that she link the first few words from each line with a different part of their home, starting with the front door. This suggestion is most similar to the memory strategy known as
the method of loci

The logical conclusion from years of searching for the engram is that
human memories are diffused throughout the brain in many different structures

False memories are easier to implant when the events that are said to have occurred are perceived as

Although many students attend every class and take notes, they struggle to remember everything they need to know for an exam. Where does this breakdown in memory most likely occur?

Jeff is studying with a fellow classmate and is frustrated that he is missing several important concepts from his notes. Jeff claims that the professor “never said that in class,” and yet his friend has the information recorded in his notes. What kind of failure of memory might Jeff have experienced?

What does the result of research on primacy and recency effects suggest about human memory?
The forgetting of information occurs in predictable ways.

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most well-known forms of dementia. Because of neurofibrillary tangles, a person with this illness will
suffer loss of synapses and death of cells in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

The tendency to remember the items that came at the end of a presented list is called the ________ effect.

“You should have seen it! First the car flipped over and then it exploded! I will never forget it!” What type of memory may have just formed in this eyewitness?

An adult is able to remember that CIA stands for “Central Intelligence Agency,” and yet a child is not. Why is this, according to your text?
Because as we age, our conceptual understanding increases

Emilio is seeing a sports psychologist to help improve his mental preparation and performance. The psychologist asks Emilio to see himself making his free throws. As Emilio visualizes his dribbling, shooting motion, and release, he sees himself as an outside observer would. Memory researchers argue this demonstrates
the reconstructive nature of memory.

Schemas and scripts are valuable memory tools because they
assist us in interpreting new situations.

Which of the following best illustrates retroactive interference?
Coach Todd calls one of her old softball players the name of one of her new players.

The first day of class, Sheila asked her professor what was the best way to learn and remember the material for the course. The professor responded, “Focus on identifying and understanding the meaning of the important terms and concepts.” The instructor is advocating a ________ level of processing.

In the text, the authors discussed the astounding memory capabilities of Rajan. He could recall the digits for the number pi starting from nearly any place in the sequence. His amazing ability is due, in part, to his use of

Which of the following is the best example of chunking?
Andrea creates a sentence using all of her vocabulary words.

Aleixo just started his job as an advertising intern. When he arrived at the office, he was surprised that everyone was wearing jeans or other types of informal attire. The situation most likely violates Aleixo’s __________ of office workers.

A key theme that has emerged from the memory research literature is that
we actively reconstruct our memories using the cues and information available to us.

The ability to identify the origins of a memory is known as
source monitoring

A high school student’s organized set of expectations about the order of events that will take place in a new class is Fcaan example of a

Kira is jogging down the street listening to her portable music player. Abruptly, her batteries die and the music stops. Which of the following accounts for her ability to still “hear” the last part of the song that was playing?
echoic memory

An essay exam question or a fill-in-the-blank question with no word bank is similar to the ________ method of assessing one’s memory.

According to the authors, most of the events we experience every day
are never encoded and thus never stored in long-term memory.

Researchers have attempted to implant false memories in the memories of individuals. To be certain that the event never occurred, they asked students if they recall getting to meet Bugs Bunny (a Warner Brothers character) at Disneyland. When approximately 16% of the students reported this memory, the researchers knew it was indeed evidence of a false memory because
the memory was of an impossible event.

Which of the following comparisons between long-term and short-term memory is TRUE?
The mistakes made in long-term memory are different from those made in short-term memory.

Hideki and Thao are reviewing for an exam. Thao asks the following question: “What term refers to how people retain information over time?” Hideki would be most correct if he answered

Researchers asked students about their initial recollections a few days after the Challenger explosion and then 2 1/2 to 3 years later. The results showed that
most students showed changes in their memories with the passage of time and about one-third showed dramatic changes in memory.

In long-term memory, the __________ memory division does not require much effort or attention to recall information.

The hormones adrenaline and ________ are released in the face of stress and stimulate protein receptors on nerve cells, which help explain why emotional memories may persist over time.

Which of the following forms of memory requires conscious attention for encoding, storage, and retrieval?
Episodic memory

Lamont is walking through his local health and nutrition store. An employee comes up and asks if he needs any assistance. Lamont asks what is the most effective and cheapest memory-enhancing herbal remedy they have. If the employee answers this question based on the evidence from controlled, scientific research, he or she would recommend
any sugary liquid

Cahill and colleagues (1994) found that administering a drug called ________ to participants who were told an emotionally impactful caused them to recall the story without the emotional component.

The memory system that contains memories for factual information about the world around us is ________ memory.

Jermaine sees a car accident and he initially estimates the offending driver to be traveling at 39 miles per hour. However, after hearing another witness’s report of the cars “bumping” and answering a police officer’s questions about the rate of speed when the cars “contacted,” he subsequently revises his estimate to 30 miles per hour and his memory of the accident changes. This is an example of
the misinformation effect.

What point did the authors make regarding claims of recovered memories of childhood abuse?
Childhood abuse claims need to be supported by supporting evidence in order to be believed as real.

Estimates suggest that as many as 13 million Americans will suffer from Alzheimer’s disease by the year ________ if a cure cannot be found before that time.

Oscar is writing a fictional autobiography. He is combining real events with those that could have happened, as well as a few creative additions. In terms of the memory system, this approach is most similar to
reconstructive memory.

A group of 3- to 6-year-old children was told about a man named “Sam Stone.” For several weeks “Sam” was described to them as being clumsy. Upon his visit, he did nothing to confirm this stereotype. How did this impact the children’s memory?
Over half the children, regardless of age, responded to these suggestions while lower percentages also reported that Sam soiled a bear and tore a book

In his research on long-term memory, psychologist Harry Bahrick found that memory declined
markedly for about two years, but only gradually thereafter.

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Ch.7 Practice Test Questions
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