CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
Case Study Analysis
1. The section on the principles of screening and testing deals with the issue of ethics in the testing and identification of disease as this may have a social and economic effect on the process itself. Screening programs introduced without the reflection upon its opportunity cost can result in false results from these tests (Chadwick, 2001). Testing is defined as correct when it follows principles of impartiality, consistency and validity. Ethics should also be applied in screening as screening can help identify patients at risk for disease and illness at a stage where prompt intervention could increase chances of survival for a patient.
2. By far, the most fundamental aspect of a test is that it is precise. This is achieved by first determining the most specific and responsive test in relation to the malady being sought. There needs to be a balance between these two criteria. A highly specific test can only state that a person has a high probability of having the disease, which leads to the possibility of a false negative while a highly specific test will only detect one who has symptoms for that particular disease and this could lead to a false positive. Both outcomes are highly unfavorable, as false negative results would then cause delays in patients’ diagnosis while false positive results could end up creating diagnosis where there is none (Chadwick, 2001).
After a test is conducted there needs to be an precise interpretation of the results, and since this is done in connection with other issues specific to the patient such as their medical history, the goal is to interpret the results with as small a margin for error as possible. Further, given the method of testing for a given disease, some risk is bound to attach with some procedures and thus the goal is to first start with the safest and noninvasive procedures before moving on to radical alternatives. The patient’s safety and comfort must be weighed against the necessity of the test.
The case study deals with the ethical issues that come with insensitive tests that may lead to false positive results. False positive results create diagnosis, and this is shown when the test shows positive results for marijuana in one who has taken ibuprofen. Tina comes across test results she believes should show the opposite and ends up faking results, this negates the point to the test as the testing should be done impartially meaning that the tester should not favor the test no matter what the outcome (Chadwick, 2001). Tina was obligated to go with the test results she had without bending to emotion based on her personal relationship with the tested party.
Tina also should push her boyfriend for a more accurate test as she is aware of the unreliable nature of the testing method. Thus, when in doubt, she should recommend further testing of a more specific nature to cases that would require further examination. As to whether Tina is justified in working for a company that lets people lose their jobs for no sufficient reason, the blame should be accorded to the testing methods and not to the tester. It is well clear that a more specific test would also be more expensive than a standard the standard one conducted by Tina and it would be impractical in terms of cost to subject everyone to this mode of testing.
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