The methodological analysis I used for my undertaking was some old books and that analyse the three notation systems of Byzantine music. Through those books it was able for me to understand better how the two old notation systems worked and why the New Chrysantine method was the 1 that Christian church still uses. In order to happen the right books I visitedA theA ArchdioceseA ofA my countryA andA I found the right people who address whatA booksA areA suited forA my undertaking and besides if those resources are dependable.
For my research I used besides questionnaires because they provide a convenient manner of garnering information from people who deals with Byzantine Music as instructors, Chanters, and pupils. I design a short and simple questionnaire so it holds the respondent ‘s involvement. The end was to do the respondent want to finish the questionnaire. In my questionnaires I had some inquiries about the old Notation systems but besides the new system but besides I had inquiries about their sentiment about Byzantine music and why the Christian Orthodox church is still uses it. Questionnaires were a method that helped me a batch for conclude my consequences and results because the sentiments and besides the cognition of those people was really of import.
Internet research was besides a method that I used. Internet, in our yearss is a topographic point that person can happen a broad scope of information. I used specific articles and web pages which I knew that are first of all dependable beginnings. For illustration I used web sites that I knew the certificates of the writer or websites that are merely for Educational proposes as www.grovemusic.com. In the cyberspace I besides found old undertakings from academic people and people who are experts in Byzantine music.
Finally I used Byzantine tonss, tabular arraies, entering and Videos in order to understand how Byzantine notations systems plants, but besides to used them as illustrations in my undertaking.
The Roman Empire was divided in Eastern and Western in the late of fifth Century. Byzantium was the capital metropolis of Easter Roman Empire since King Constantine rebuilds the Constantinople, in 330 A.D until 1453 when Ottomans Turks took the City from the Romans.
The Eastern Roman Empire survived until 1453 as the Grecian speaking-Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine music, took its name from the modern bookmans depicting the Christian Orthodox church music of the Eastern countries of the Roman Empire and besides the tunes from verse forms in honor of the King. The height of Byzantine music starts from the early old ages of Christianity and includes chants and anthem which entreaty to God.
Byzantine music plays a important function in Christian church and that is the ground that I want to analyze and compose about it. In my undertaking I am traveling to give a short description of Music and Christianity but besides a description about the first two notation systems of Byzantine music ; and how they work through the analysis of specific tonss. Besides through of tabular arraies I will explicate the tonic system of Byzantine music and the anthem, and chiefly I will concentrate on the new Byzantine notation system or else the Chrysanthos’notation system. I will besides advert the advantages and disadvantages of the three systems of the Byzantine music, and eventually I will compose some consequences and Outcomes through, my survey of Byzantine music.
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND CHRISTIANITY
The metropolis of Byzantium is the country which is in the present called Constantinople. It was rebuilt by Constantine in 330 A.D and was made the capital metropolis of the Eastern Roman Empire. Christianity was besides accepted by the imperial household in the twelvemonth of 312 A.D. However this caused a major rake between the Orthodox people. During the twelvemonth of 395 A.D, they were divided into two imperiums, the Eastern and Western. Each imperium though maintained a different capital metropolis, the Eastern with the Byzantium and the Western with Rome. Consequently the Christian church so adapted features from the Greek speech production universe and other Greek communities which were around the Eastern Mediterranean.
As I mentioned earlier, Byzantine music has to make with church music merely. In an cyberspace article for ‘Byzantine music ‘ , the writer Dimitri Conomos references that “ Byzantine music is the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Orthodox rite. ” By stating Byzantine Music that includes the anthem, chants and all of their derived functions which have to make with Christianity and chiefly to God, the Son of God, the Virgin Mary and the Saints of Christian churches. Most hymns and psalms describe the life, miracles and the passions of Jesus Christ every bit good as the Saints ‘ .
David J. Melling, in the internet article of ‘Reading Psalmodia ‘ , references that:
When Christianity was established as the official faith of the Roman Empire the Church acquired new and glorious edifices for worship. The rites and ceremonials of Imperial Christianity took on the sedateness and the magnificence of tribunal ritual. A rich traditions of hymnography developed, poets, composers and vocalists conveying their accomplishments to the service of the Church.
During the first old ages of Christianity the church male parents did non accept the usage of musical instruments holding anything to make with the Church. As Constantinos G. Eliades references in I?IµI»IµI„I®I?I±I„I± I’I…I¶I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I•I?I?I»I·I?I?I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®I‚ ( Studies of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music ) , they believed that the instrumental music was improper and inappropriate for the Orthodoxy. Even though music has the ability to do you experience rather strong feelings, it is felt even more in Christianity because it is the manner in which we can talk to God.
However St. Ignatius wrote to the Church in Ephesus in order to do a alteration. His precise words are in an article in an internet web site:
“ You must every adult male of you to fall in in a choir so that being harmonious and in Concord and taking the keynote of God in unison, you may sing with one voice through Jesus Christ to the Father, so the He may hear you and through your good workss recognize that you are parts of His Son ” . Grigorios Th. Stathis besides mentions in ‘I- I’I…I¶I±I?I„I?I?I® I?I?I…I?I?I?I® I?I„I· I»I±I„I?IµI?I± I?I±I? I?I„I·I? I•IˆI?I?I„I®I?I· ‘ , ( Byzantine music in faith and scientific discipline ) , that the usage of music in the church can assist in the approval of people ‘s psyches and a vocal of the church can be associated with coming and praying. Church music is rather a important and serious affair with a true significance for the Christian population.
In a Byzantine music cyberspace article, written by Mavraganis Diamantis, he mentions that Byzantine music is considered to be in a manner the continuity of the ancient Grecian music. He states that many characteristics which can be found in ancient Grecian music, such as the graduated tables, the sounds, and the systems are quite common with those found in Byzantine music.
Furthermore in I?IµI»IµI„I®I?I±I„I± I’I…I¶I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I•I?I?I»I·I?I?I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®I‚ ( Studies of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music ) , the writer, Constantinos G. Eliades, references that the ancient Grecian music every bit good as the antediluvian Grecian linguistic communication were the first which were used by the Orthodox Church.
With the birth of Jesus Christ followed with the spread of Christianity, Greek music easy became known beyond the parturiency of the Grecian universe and moved to the Holy Places and countries of the Byzantine Empire. There, Grecian music was able to spread out, better, develop, since it was affected by different beginnings. Finally it turned into being a wholly s ecclesiastical type music which serves in a manner the spiritual Orthodox people.
The grounds why the music of Christianity was Greek are many. Harmonizing to Constantinos G. Eliades, in I?IµI»IµI„I®I?I±I„I± I’I…I¶I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I•I?I?I»I·I?I?I±I?I„I?I?I®I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®I‚ ( Studies of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music ) , some of these grounds are the undermentioned: to get down with all the music has characteristics which originated in Greece, for illustration the half steps every bit good as the systems which were found by Pythagoras the celebrated Grecian Mathematician. Another ground is that the music of the church was written based on the beat of the anthem which was the characteristic beat used in ancient Grecian music. The writer states that this happened because the instrumentalists were either Greeks or they had known ancient Grecian music really good.
The Byzantine anthem and the different sorts of them
The anthem to God were considered to be the oldest musical act towards Him. The Eastern Churches easy developed assorted church acts names “ Holy Eucharists ” from topographic points such as Antioch, Alexandria, and Epheus. As Dimitri Comonos references in the cyberspace article for ‘Byzantine music ‘ , these topographic points used the single-channel vocal music at the clip. It is besides rather important to advert that Byzantine music had a immense consequence on the Western chant.
Byzantine music was the predominate music for a really long clip which besides lasted for more than 13 centuries. Byzantine hymnography was so split into two periods which gave a new rhythmical form to hymnography. During the first period, dated from the fifth century, the “ kontakion ” was developed. In the 2nd period, dated from the terminal of the seventh century the chief anthem developed during the period was the “ kanon ” .
Egon Wellesz, in his book ‘A history of Byzantine Music and hymnography ‘ , references that:
‘Byzantine hymnography is the poetical look of Orthodox divinity, translated, through music, to the domain of spiritual emotion. It mirrors the development of the dogmatic thoughts and philosophies of the Orthodox Church from the early yearss of the Eastern Empire to the full luster of the service at the tallness of its development. ‘
The anthem is one of the most of import genres which was developed in Byzantine music. There are assorted sorts of anthems such as the “ troparia ” , “ kontakia ” and “ kanones ” . In an inernet article of ‘Byzantine music ‘ Dimitri E. Conomos references that:
‘During the first nine centuries of Christianity, the Byzantine musical tradition of plainsong managed to maintain alive a certain improvisatory excitement that was besides manifest in the spontaneousness of supplications and rites in the early Christian Holy Eucharist. Now, with some shots of a 9th-century pen, the plainchant tunes were caught in a stiff stylization. They became as if embalmed and their stylistic profiles conformed to 9th-century and finally, subsequently, gustatory sensations. The old chants that originated as “ sung supplications ” were henceforth crystallised “ art-objects. ‘
Troparia are short responses between the Psalms. The first “ troparia ” were written in the fourth century. The tune type of “ troparia ” bit by bit became quite important and easy some of troparia developed into more independent anthem. Harmonizing to the cyberspace article, “ Orama World ” there is a possibility, that the earliest sets of “ troparia ” were those of the known writing of monastic Auxentios which dated from the 5th century. Two of the most of import illustrations of “ troparia ” are the “ Phos Hilarion ” , which means “ Gladsome Light ” , and is dated from the fourth century and “ O Monogenis Yios ” , which means the “ merely Begotten Son ” . These two illustrations can be found in the introductory portion of the “ Thia Litourgia ” which is the “ Divine Liturgy ” .
The Troparia terminal with two words mentioning to God and are repeated many clip. The features of these anthems are the stichera and the kanones. The stichera are sung in between the poetries of the Psalms. Sticheron is one of the most important parts of Byzantine anthem and the complete music of the stichera is the Sticherarion.
The development of the kontakion began during the fifth century A.D. It is a long and complicated metrical discourse. Kontakia evolved from 13 into 18, and in some instances into more than that, with stanzas which are all structurally similar. Accoridng to an cyberspace article in the Britannica Online Encyclopedia, kontakion was introduced into the Byzantine spiritual pattern by St. Romanos Melodos during the first half of the sixth century. St. Romanos became one of the greatest early Christian poets. Harmonizing to the writer of an article in the “ Goarch ” it is stated that the first notated versions of kontakia were melismatic which means that there were many notes per syllable and they appeared during the ninth century.
Kanones, and their tunes contain texts which were hodgepodges of stereotypic phrases. The tunes were developed harmonizing to the rule of centonization which was qiote common in Eastern music at the clip. Alexander Lingas in his article ‘Hesychasm and Psalmody ‘ which is found in the book Mount Athos and Byzantine Monasticism ‘ , references that the Sticherarion, which is a book incorporating theoretical account tunes for canons and stichera, contains some syllabic tunes which are easy and each 1 has a alone melodious expression. Sticheron is a type of anthem which is used in the Divine Liturgy. In an article which is found in ‘Grove Music Online ‘ , Kenneth Levy and Christian Troelsgard reference that kanones are hymnodic composites which are comprised of nine odes. Each ode includes the heirmos which is followed by troparia with the same music and metrical reproductions as the heirmos. The nine odes are normally independent. A kanon consists of nine different and independent tunes.
As Grigorios Stathis references in ‘I- I’I…I¶I±I?I„I?I?I® I?I?I…I?I?I?I® I?I„I· I»I±I„I?IµI?I± I?I±I? I?I„I·I? I•IˆI?I?I„I®I?I· ‘ , ( Byzantine music in faith and scientific discipline ) , psalmodia is another basic feature of the Christian Orthodox people. The Byzantine music is music which is wholly written for the church and it is used in the Christian Orthodox Churches in to pray to God, the Son and the Virgin Mary.
Alexander Lingas in ‘Hesycasm and Psalmody ‘ , says that during the 14th century the hymnody used in the Byzantium had a scope of signifiers and was thought to be a really important cloistered plus which held the chance of being infused with the idea and this shows that the hymnody was accomplished with the head and bosom on God.
Psalmodia is sung by the psaltes who are trained in order to sing church music. Psalmodia is the lone chant of the Greek Orthodox Church. Christians who were Grecian speech production used the term psalmodia in order to picture the signifiers of the liturgical vocalizing. Psalmodia which was used in Constantinople had a important map in the agreement of the different Rite of the Church of Hagia Sofia.
Alexander Lingas in ‘Music and Liturgy of the Orthodox Traditions ‘ references that:
‘All public services of the Byzantine rite are sung, there being no equivalent in the churches of the Orthodox East to the ‘Low Mass ‘ of the Latin West. While the proper ecclesiastical term for liturgical vocalizing remains psalmodia, the repertories of plainsong that developed in tandem with the services of the Byzantine rite are today frequently referred to as ‘Byzantine chant ‘ or ‘Byzantine music ‘ .
The New Method or Chrysanthine Method
Chrysanthos had a good instruction, really good cognition of Latin and Gallic and every bit good as European and Arabic music. He started off as a monastic and so became a hierarch. Peter Byzantios so taught Chrysanthos to intone until Chrysanthos could be considered as a great instrumentalist and composer.
Harmonizing to Dimitri E. Comonos article, he mentions that before the foundation of the School, Chrysanthos had used traditional methods of learning which caused his expatriate from the Constantinopolitan Patriarchal to Madytos. However, Chrysanthos did non halt learning the ecclesiastical music because his system for learning was really effectual due to his pupils being able to larn the music notation system of Byzantine music merely in 10 months and non 10 old ages. Subsequently on Holy Synod decides to accept his learning methods and in 1815 he stated learning at the 3rd Patriarchal School along with Protopsaltis Grigorios and the archivist Chourmouzios.
In the prologue of ‘I?IµI‰I?I·I„I?I?I?I? I?II?I± I„I·I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®s I§I?I…I?I¬I?I?I?I… I„I?I… IµI? I?I±I?I?I„I‰I? ‘ ( Theoritikon Mega Ti MI?usikis Chrysanthou tou ek Maditon ) , Georgios N. Constantinou quotes the words of Dionysius Vatopedinos which were said during the Holy Eucharist in the Patriarchical Music School:
IsI±I„’I±I…I„I¬I‚ [ I„I±I‚ I·I?II?I±I‚ ] I·I?I?I?I‡I?I· IµI? I?I?I?I?I?I? I?I‡I?I»IµI?I?I? IµI?I‚ I„I? I?I?I?I±ISI„I?I?I?I? I?IµI„I?I‡I?I?I? I?I±I? IˆI±I?I±I?I?I?IµI? I?II±I? I?II?I?I?I?I? IµIˆI?I?I„I·I?I?I?I?I?I®I‚ I?I?I…I?I?I?I®I‚ I?Iµ I?I±I?I?I?IµI‚ I?I±I? I?I?I±I?I?I±I„I?I?I®I? . I?I‡I?I»I±I?I‡I?I?I?I„IµI‚ IµI?I‚ I±I…I„I®I? IµI?I?I±I? II?I±I‚ I?I±I»I?I?I·I?I?I‚ I§I?I?I?I±I?I?I?I‚ I?I±I? I? I›I±I?IˆI±I?I¬I?I?I?I‚ I„I·I‚ I?IµI?I¬I»I·I‚ I•I?I?I»I·I?I?I±I‚ , I?I±I? I?I…I?I„I?II‡I?I…I?I?I? IµI?I‚ I±I…I„I®I? I?I±I?’IµI?I¬I?I„I·I? I…IˆII? I„I?I…I‚ I?I?I±I?I?I?I?I?I…I‚ I?I±I?I·I„I¬I‚ , IµI? I±I…I„IZI? IµI?I?I±I? I?I±I? I±I?I‡I?IµI?IµI?I‚ I?I±I? IˆI?I‰I„I?I?I?I?I?IµI»I?I? ( … ) , ( 1815 ) .
The account of Dionysius Vatopedinos ‘s missive is the followers:
In those yearss a new school opened and teaches a new scientific method of music with regulations and grammar. Teachers are the monastic Chrysanthos and the torchbearer of the Great Church, and more than two 100 pupils are go toing it. Among them are priest and bishops ( aˆ¦ ) , ( 1815 ) .
Dionysius Vatopedinos fundamentally states that a school was opened in order to learn the new method of Byzantine music notation which included grammar and regulations of music. The chief instructors were Chrysanthos, a monastic, and the torchbearer of the Great Church. Many pupils including monastics, priests and society people had visited the school in order to larn the New Method of Byzantine music notation.
David J. Melling references in an article that:
Confronting the complex and hard notation they inherited from their mediaeval predecessors, and an emerging spread between the musical texts used by adept psaltai and the traditional liturgical tunes handed down by ear, several instrumentalists attempted to reform the notation to bring forth something simpler and more intuitive. Indeed, there is grounds that there had already emerged ways of composing a rapid “ short-hand ” version of the marks which could even be used to observe down a tune as it was being Sung. A peculiarly successful simplification was designed by Peter Lampadarios [ +1777 ] , but this was eclipsed by the great Reform of the Three Teachers, Houmouzios, Grigorios and Chrysanthos, who designed a new, more analytic notation and transcribed into it a prodigious figure of texts from the psaltic repertory.
The New Method of Byzantine Music notation was created during the eighteenth century and began to be taught in the nineteenth century. This included rather simple marks against the two old methods of Byzantine music notation. The New Method is besides called the Chrysanthine Method which took its name from the monastic Chrysanthos who subsequently moved on to became one of the reformists of the church ‘s music notation in 1815. The other reformists of the Byzantine New notation system were Chourmouzios the archivist and Gregorios the Protopsaltis, who was lampadarios ( torchbearer ) . The New Method is still used even today. In ‘The manners and Tuning in Neo-Byzantine Chant ‘ Frank Harry Desby references that: “ Before the New system, ten old ages were required to larn music. The new method made it possible to larn in 10 months. ”
Kate Romanou besides mentions in her article ‘A New Approach to the work of Chrysanthos of Madytos ‘ that: “ The New Method preserved the earlier differentiation between the quantitative and the qualitative neumes. The former indicated the existent notes, while the latter, the rhythmic and expressive niceties or decorations which applied to the notes. ”
Apart from the old marks The New Method, includes new marks of which some were phrasing marks, marks for chromatic intervals, remainders and continuance marks. Chrysanthos besides abrogated a few of the old marks and established new ways of notating. Furthermore in an article Dimitri E. Conomos references that:
Chrysanthos besides introduced new procedures of transition and chromatic change and abolished some of the notational symbols. As a consequence of these attempts, a big repertory of psalmody was made available to melody pipes who were ignorant of the melodic and dynamic content of the old marks.
With those alterations the choirmasters had the chance to sing a batch of anthem which were hard to make with the old notation systems.
In an cyberspace article found in “ The music portal ” , the author references that there are three basic tones which are used in order to tune the sound. These tones, which are characteristic of the New Method, are the meizon ( major ) , elasson ( minor ) and the elachistos ( minimun ) . It is besides mentioned that each tone is made up from two tetra chords and one major tone. Byzantine music can acknowledge the octave but the sounds are based in tetra chords and pentachords which are groups of four and five notes consequently.
Byzantine Psalmodia uses assorted manners and the choirmaster must cognize all the types every bit good as the features of the manners, in order to understand and be able to intone the music. In another cyberspace article found in “ The music portal ” , it is stated that this system is made up of eight manners or “ echoi ” ( sounds ) which are split into in the chief four sounds and the five manners. Each reverberation ( sound ) has a different intervals every bit good as gradual development.
Morover, Chrysanthos besides structured the eight manners into three different types which are the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic. These types are besides called three Genera. The diatonic genera, is split into three basic types: the meizon ( major ) , elasson ( minor ) and elaxistos ( lower limit ) . The octave of dad, vou, tabun, di, ke, zw, Ni is divided into 72 stairss or tones. The major tone had 12 grades, which means one tone or measure. The minor tone had 10 grades which means one measure and the minimal tone had 8 grades which means half measure.
The diatonic graduated table has besides been a ground of an statement which took topographic point between Chourmouzios and Chrysanthos. Harmonizing to an article written by Ioannis Plemenos, Chrysantho ‘s sentiment was that the diatonic scale consist of major and minor tones, one by one, which began with a minimal tone and hence the diatonic graduated table consisted of 64 units. However the the right graduated table for Chrysanthos had to dwell of 68 units. Therefore, Chourmouzios suggest a new version which could finish the graduated table of Chrysanthos and which consisted of 69 units. Finally, Chrysanthos borrowed the 72 unit division from Aristoxenos, who was a good know mathematician and great music theoretician at the clip. Antioxenos had expressed his ain sentiment in concern to the music intervals of the diatonic graduated table which was the 1 that had the highest proportion.
In the image below we can see the diatonic graduated table, as they are in the internet article of David J. Melling:
F G A Bb C D E F
| 12 | 10 | 8 | 12 | 12 | 10 | 8 |
Ga Di Ke Zo Ni Pa Vu Ga ‘
The diatonic graduated table is divided in three different types which are the diapason, troxos and triphonia. Diapason is non tranferable and Troxos can besides be called as tetraphonia. In ‘The manners and Tuning in Neo-Byzantine Chant ‘ Frank Harry Desby states that: “ The tetachords are all disjunct. In triphonia the tetra chords are conjuct. ”
The diapason assortment was normally found on kanona or pandoura. Pandoura is a twine instrument which includes three brace of strings. In an article found on the “ Remoundos ” web page, the writer references that “ During the Byzantine period, it [ the pandoura ] is appeared to derive some credence among the civilized persons, since the Archbishop Chrysanthos considered that it was necessary for learning Byzantine music. ” On pandoura there are some rings which are used in order to slpit the musical instrument into assorted parts where the notes are fixed. Harmonizing to Frank Harry Desby in ‘The manners and Tuning in Neo-Byzantine Chant ‘ , he states that the tuning of pandoura has intervals for illustration, perfect fourths and fifths, which are ordinary intervals. However it besides includes some assorted sound effects, for illustration the diapason system is the one which is used in most instances.
By stating troxos we mean tetraphonia or a rhythm of five notes. The octave between troxos and diapason is rather similar. Finally, the triphonia or tetrachordon as the tetra chords are joint. In his book, ‘The manners and Tuning in Neo-Byzantine Chant ‘ , Frank Harry Desby states that it consists of four confused tetrachords or joint fifths. In this graduated table nevertheless there is no meizon ( major ) tone.
In another article, David J. Melling besides mentions that: “ Here we have big tones of 12 steplets, indistinguishable in size with the Enharmonic tones, but accompanied by lesser tones of 10 steplets and big half steps of 8 steplets. ”
The chromatic graduated table is divided in two types. These are the difficult chromatic graduated table and the soft chromatic graduated table. Below we can see the two types of chromatic graduated tables:
Hard chromatic graduated table:
D Eb F # G A Bb C # D
| 6 | 20 | 4 | 12 | 6 | 20 | 4 |
Pa Vu Ga Di Ke Zo Ni ‘ Pa ‘
Soft chromatic graduated table:
C Db E F G Ab B C
| 8 | 14 | 8 | 12 | 8 | 14 | 8 |
Ni Pa Vu Ga Di Ke Zo Ni ‘
The enharmonic graduated table consists merely of 12 and 6 grades:
F G A Bb C D E F
| 12 | 12 | 6 | 12 | 12 | 12 | 6 |
Ga Di Ke Zo Ni Pa Vu Ga ‘
Chrysanthos made usage of the first seven letters derived from the Greek alphabet which is based on the European system. The graduated table includes the undermentioned syllables: dad, vou, tabun, di, ke, zo, ni. The notes of these syllables are shown in the tabular array below.
The chief marks of the Chrysanthine method are ten and their names are: ison, oligon, petasti, kentimata, kentima, hypsele, apostrophos, hyporroi, elafron and chamele. These marks show whether the voice goes down or up or remain the same. These marks are the intermission marks and are besides called neumes. Below the marks and their accounts can be seen, as taken from an on article of St. Anthony ‘s Monastery written by monk Ephraim:
Advantages and disadvantages, of the new method.
The Byzantine music first notation was non really good structured, as there were adequate jobs. The most of the anthem were hard to intone from the choirmasters, as they could non transcribed them. The Paleo-Byzantine Music was excessively complicated, but besides non effectual, as a consequence to be difficult for people to understand it and intone the anthem. Kate Romanou, in ‘A New Approach to the work of Chrysanthos of Madytos ‘ references that:
If, in malice of the great demand of a simpler musical system, all old efforts to accomplish a reform had failed, it was because they adhered to one of two extremely contradictory attacks: the first which wholly broke with tradition, and the 2nd which displayed the familiar complexness and deficiency of lucidity.
The 600 old ages of Middle-Byzantine Music notation usage, show that this notation was better than the first 1. Middle-Byzantine notation system was a complete system but included excessively many complex marks.
As I mentioned earlier the New Method of the Byzantine Music notation or else the Chrysanthine notation was and still is the simplest notation system for the Byzantine music. Against the Paleo-Byzantine music notation system, the new system and its marks helped the melody pipes to understand the manner that the anthem must be chanted. Despite the jobs that the Middle Byzantine Music notation faced, it existed for many centuries.
The Chrysanthine method was that one which exists since the decennary of 1800 until presents. The marks that Chrysanthos adds to his method describe really clearly how the notes and by and large the tune must be chant. In an cyberspace article, the writer references that: “ Byzantine notation can be used as a rapid stenographic transcriptional method to compose down a tune faster than one could make so utilizing Western notation. This is peculiarly helpful when seeking to enter unrecorded music on paper. ”
Although there are at least a 100 marks in the Byzantine notation, it is preferred for most of the people. It is non difficult for people to larn the Byzantine music notation, it takes merely a small clip. The marks that Chrysanthos added to the new notation system were really helpful.
Traveling to the dissadvantages of the New method of Byzantine music notation, I would wish to advert that despite the disagvantages, no 1 believed that the new method should be changed for a new one. Of class there were some suggestions for altering the system but they declined.
The first trouble to the Byzantine notation of Chrysanthos was that the Byzantine music of Constantinople did non accept the tetrafonia. During 1878, as I found in an cyberspace article, some people tried to convert the Grecian society of Constantinople to compose the Byzantine anthem utilizing the European system notation. Finally, this was ne’er happened.
During the clip that Chrysanthos introduced the New Method, there were some reactions against the new system. In an cyberspace article and harmonizing to proffesor Ioannis Plemenos, there were many expostulations from the people and espacially for Vasileios Stephanides, a musician and physician during 1819. Vasileios Stephanides believed that Chrysanthos ‘s determination non to utilize some of the marks of the old notation systmes was incorrect.
In 1820, as Ioannis Plemenos references in his article, Apostolos Konsta was besides did non accept the New Method of Chrysanthos. Ioannis Plemenos places the words of Apostolos Konsta, which are the undermentioned: “ ( … ) II?I±I?Iµ I?I±I? I±I…I„I? I?I‡I?I»IµI?I?I? I?I?I?I?I? I„I‰I? I†I?I?I?I?I‰I? , I?I„I¬I?IµI‰I? I?I±I? I‡IµI?I?I?I?I?I?I?I±I‚ I?I?I± I?II?I?I… I„I·I‚ I?I…I?I?I·I„I?I?I®I‚ , II‡I±I?Iµ I?I?I‰I‚ , I±I»I»I?I?I?I?I?I?I? , I„I·I? I±I?I?IµI»I?I?I®I? I?IµI»I‰I?I?I±I? , I„I± I?I?I„IZ I?II?I· I„I·I‚ I?I»I…I?I…I„I¬I„I·I‚ IµIˆI?I?I„I®I?I·I‚ . ” This means: “ The three instructors opened a school, merely for notes, remainders and Heironomia, but they lost the beatific tune and the eight parts of the sweet scientific discipline ” . Apostolos Konsta means that the new school which opened to learn the New Method of Chrysanthos, was learning merely some notes and marks and lost the chief topic which was the beautiful tune.
Another job as Ioannis Plemenos references in his article, it was that Georgios the Lesbios, believed that the New system was non good structured because the three instructors did non seek to happen new marks to increase the notes in a specific pitch. Those who were supported the old notation systems did non desire Chrysanthos to learn the New Method, but eventually allow him to learn, although they were opposite. Chrysanthos was learning in the Third Patriarchical Music School.
Consequences and results
The Greeks owe the musical notation used today in their churches to Chrysanthos of Madytos, Gregory the Protopsaltes and Chourmouzios the Chartophylax. This notational system, known today as the New Method.
With the scrutiny of the old notations we conclude that the extant information about the development of Byzantine notation from the autumn of Constantinople to the 19thA century vividly illustrates the fact that Grecian church instrumentalists had become progressively more baffled and puzzled by the old system. At the same clip Byzantine anthem were being sung more and more from unwritten tradition despite the fact that a series of efforts had been made to simplify the bing notation.
Byzantine music is the most of import facet of the Orthodox Christian Church. In our yearss the Orthodox Christian Church is still utilizing the New notation system for their chants and anthem. What is the ground of making that? The ground is that Byzantine notation system is the lone manner to notate the anthem and chants, as the melodious lines includes tonss of melismas but besides hard and unusual types of harmoniousness. Another ground is that, Church wants to forestall its tradition and a manner of making that is maintain that notation system.
With analyzing the Byzantine music we can see that Christians use the voice entirely in executing of anthem, intoning as did our Godhead Himself and His adherents. St. John Chrysostom says: “ Our Savior chanted anthem merely as we do. ” The Apostolic Constitutions forbid the usage of musical instruments in the church. From the clip of the Apostles, hymnody was single-channel, or homophonic, as it is to this twenty-four hours in our churches [ in Greece ] .
The Western Church, in order to satisfy people and blandish their gustatory sensations, put instruments inside the churches, disobeying what was ordained by the Fathers. They did this because they had no thought what liturgical music was and what secular music was, merely as they did non cognize the difference between liturgical picture and secular picture. But the Byzantines distinguished the one from the other, and this shows how much more religious they were in comparing with the Westerners and how much more genuinely they experienced the spirit of Christianity. Byzantine music is, in comparing with the music of the West, precisely as Orthodox iconography is in comparing with the spiritual picture of the West.