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The scenario upon which this paper is based relates to the British Airways Swipe Card Debacle instance survey from the text edition. Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach ( Akin. Dunford. & A ; Palmer. 2009 ) . The intent of this paper is to analyse and discourse the organisational alteration associated to the execution of a new swipe card system that led to strike of over 250 British Airways check-in staff. losing 40 million lbs and negatively set uping the company’s repute. Additionally. this paper will associate the instance survey to several alteration attacks ( organisational development. sense-making. alteration direction. eventuality. and processual ) and place cardinal issues. Additionally. this paper will analyze the instance survey from my position. as if I were a hired alteration adviser for British Airways responsible for supplying advise and recommendations on how to avoid this type of state of affairs. Additionally. as a alteration adviser. I provide my recommendation as to what possible alteration attack or combinations of a alteration attack would hold been best to utilize for the swipe card alteration enterprise.
British Airways Change Management Case Study
Change Perspective and Key Issues
Prior to traveling into being able to efficaciously supply advise and recommendations on this instance survey. it is first of import to discourse facets of different alteration attacks. Additionally. associate cardinal issues of the swipe card fiasco to these alteration attacks. With that. this subdivision paper will concentrate on identify specific facets of the undermentioned alteration attacks and how these facets relate to the instance survey: organisational development. sense-making. alteration direction. eventuality. and processual.
Organizational Development Approach
The organisational development alteration attack is a good thought through and exhaustively planned alteration attack that focuses on staff development. Additionally. one of the cardinal facets to the organisational development attack is the importance placed on the demand to organize groups and squads. which work together to organize the cardinal focal point for alteration ( Akin. Dunford. & A ; Palmer. 2009 ) . Unfortunately. this really of import feature of organisational development attack was genuinely non used as portion of the alteration attack for the swipe card execution. For case. if groups and squads were created to organize the cardinal focal point for the alteration. none of the 250 check-in staff were invited to take part.
The sense-making attack is really similar to Kurt Lewin’s organisational alteration theoretical account. At a high-level. this theoretical account has three primary phases known as Unfreeze ( placing where the company is at. in relation to environmental alteration and organisational construction ) . Change ( period of clip where the alteration is being made ) . and Refreeze ( alteration is complete and the organisation has embedded the alteration within its civilization ) ( Levasseur. 2001 ) . However. there is one rebuff difference with the sense-making attack. in that the 2nd phase is more the about rebalance where the organisation balances the external environment with its internal environment. An illustration of a cardinal issue associated to this from the instance survey is the fact that it appears those responsible for the Future Size and Shape recovery plan. did non take the first phase into consideration. More specifically. the group did non factor in how the company was still retrieving from environmental alterations such as. 9/11. Iraqi war. and SARS. Additionally. did non see if this was the right clip for this type of alteration.
Change Management Approach
There are several different alteration direction attacks but the one focused on within this paper is the alteration direction attack Ten Commandments attack. developed by Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Barry A. Stein. and Todd D. Jick. In the book. The Challenges of Organizational Change. Kanter. Stein. and Jick elaborate on what they believe to be the necessary stairss to efficaciously implement alteration within an organisation. One of these stairss. which is something that was non executed in the swipe card fiasco. is the measure to make a shared vision. While the Future Size and Shape project squad may hold had a shared vision of the swipe card alteration. this same vision was decidedly non shared by the 250 check-in staff.
Similar to the alteration direction attack. the eventuality attack has many different fluctuations. For case. one of these attacks is categorized into the undermentioned four ideal types: commanding ( alteration intercession. directed by leading and is typically driven by the demand to implement rapidly and suddenly ) . technology ( change agent. who besides acts as an analyst implements the alteration along with those who planing the alteration to procedure and systems ) . learning ( 3rd party advisers work with internal staff to help with identify new ways of operation and is change intercession that is a long-run program ) . and socialising ( democratic attack that is a gradual alteration procedure attack ) ( Huy. 2001 ) . Each of these attacks are acceptable but may non all work in every type of state of affairs. For case. within the British Airways instance survey. it seems as though the undertaking squad chose to use the dominating attack for the execution of the swipe cards. The check-in staff were wholly immune to non merely the swipe card alteration but were besides immune to the existent attack taken to implement that alteration.
Similar to the sense-making attack. the processual attack besides looks at the relationship of external and internal environments. However. with the processual attack. it focuses on the restraints and chances of both environments. Within the instance survey. the undertaking squad did non take into consideration how the external environment impacts the internal environment and how the internal environment besides effects the staff. For case. the staff being on border and untrusting of alteration was a consequence state of affairss and alterations both internally ( one Forth decrease in staff ) and externally ( environmental jars like inroads on its markets from budget rivals ) . The combination of these state of affairss. led to the staff being fearful and overreacting to the possibility that the new swipe card procedure could take to another decrease in staff.
As a alteration adviser for British Airways. I would supply the undermentioned list of lessons learned from the swipe card fiasco: deficiency in including those straight affected by alteration can take to staff being uncomfortable and unsure about a alteration ; deficiency of taking internal and external environments into consideration is non to the full understanding the cumulative consequence that these have on the staff ; taking a dominating attack to implement alteration can take to staff differing with the manner a alteration is being managed ; and deficiency of communicating and deriving buy-in on alteration can take staff to believe that the alteration could hold negative downstream impact.
In order to forestall this in the hereafter. I would rede them to take a different attack by holding staff be more involved with undertakings and include them as portion of the undertaking squads. Additionally. leting the staff clip to absorb the fact that there will be alterations in the hereafter and giving them a platform to be able to inquire inquiries. In add-on to supplying the staff a platform. leading besides needs to promote the staff to inquire inquiries and guarantee them that there will non be any recoil for those who do hold inquiries about the alteration. Last. as a alteration adviser. I would emphasis the importance sing the organisation from a birds-eye position ( intending that leading the context of the state of affairs from an internal and external position ) . If they would hold stepped back and looked all the external and internal factors prior to implementing the swipe card alteration. they may hold seen that implementing alteration over a holiday weekend might non be the best clip. they might hold identify staff moral being low due to internal decrease in force. and the fact that the company was fighting to retrieve from other external environmental jars.
While there are many alteration attacks that may be suited for this type of alteration enterprise. it is my sentiment that the best attack for this alteration would hold been to utilize the Ten Commandments alter direction procedure. The ground for this is that it would hold resolved and perchance prevented the reaction that staff had towards the execution of swipe card because this alteration attack includes making a shared vision. affecting staff. holding the support of leading and political sponsorship. and developing an execution program ( Barry. Kanter. & A ; Jick. 1992 ) .
Based on the information provided in the instance survey about the swipe card fiasco at British Airways and comparing cardinal issues to assorted alteration attacks. it can be seen that there are many countries where direction taken a different attack to the alteration. If a different attack was taken. it could hold easy lead to a successful swipe card execution versus the result that lead to the 250-check in staff. losing 40 million lbs and negatively set uping the company’s repute.
Akin. G. . Dunford. R. . & A ; Palmer. I. ( 2009 ) . Pull offing organisational alteration: a multiple position attack ( 2nd. Ed ) . New York. New york: McGraw-Hill Huy. Q. N. 2001. Time. temporal capableness. and planned alteration. Academy of Management Review 26 ( 4 ) :601–23
Kanter. R. M. . Stein. B. A. . & A ; Jick. T. D. ( 1992 ) . The challenge of organisational alteration. New York. New york: Free Press. Levasseur. R. E. ( 2001 ) . People Skills: Change Management Tools–Lewin’s Change Model. Interfaces. 31 ( 4 ) . 71.